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S.A.V.YlSrNAH : 



Entered accordiug to Act of Congress, in the year 1873, by the Georgia Histokical Sociex?, 
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington City. 



I. Prefatory Note by the Publishing Committee v 

II. Letters from General Oglethorpe to the Trustees of the 

Colony and others, from October 1735 to August 1744.... 1 

III. Report of Governor Sir James Wright to Lord Dartmouth on 

the Condition of the Colony, September 30, 1773 158 

IV. Letters from Governor Sir James Wright to the Earl of 

Dartmouth and Lord George Germain, Secretaries of 
State for America, from August 34, 1774, to February 
16, 1783 180 


I. Anniversary Address of Col. Charles C. Jones, Jr. Subject : 

Casimir Pulaski 385 

II. Address of Richard D. Arnold, M. D., on the Organization of 
the Georgia Historical Society and of the Savannah 
Library Association 41G 


Through the researches of Mr. G. W. J. DeKenne, of this 
city, a gentleman who has devoted much time to historical 
inquiry, the Georgia Historical Society became aware of the 
fact that copies could be obtained from the British Colonial 
Office, of valuable manuscripts connected with the early 
history of the Colony of Georgia. 

On a subsequent visit to England, Mr. DeKenne was 
empowered by the Society to procure copies of such valuable 
documents appertaining to the history of Georgia, not 
hitherto printed, as could be found in the Colonial Office. 
The Society thus obtained copies of 

1st. The Letters of General Oglethorpe to the Trustees of 
the Colony, commencing October 29th, 1735, which was the 
period of his return fi-om his first visit to England after the 
settlement of the Colony, and ending August 24th, 1744. 

2d. Letters from Sir James Wright, Governor of the 
Province of Georgia, to the Earl of Dartmouth, and Lord 
George Germain, Secretaries of State, and others, in which 
he narrates the local events of the War of Rebellion by which 
the Thirteen Colonies became separated fi-om the mother 

It is beheved that few, if any, of the letters contained in 
this Collection, have ever before been printed, though extracts 


from some of them may be found in biogi-aphical sketches of 
General Oglethorpe, Sh- James Wright, and others. 

In addition to these letters, Mr, DeRenne, who has been 
recently elected its President, has kmdly presented to the 
Society a copy which he had obtained for his own use, of a 
Report on the Condition of the Province, made by Governor 
Wright, in the year 1772, in reply to certain specific inqumes 
fi'om the Earl of Dartmouth. This Report is considered very 
valuable, as containing a reliable account of the state of the 
Colony, immediately prior to the Revolution. 

In the publication of these papers, the Committee have 
carefully abstained fi'om any alteration of the copies in their 
possession, the copies themselves conforming as closely as 
j)ossible to the originals. In a very few instances, they have 
inserted a mark of pmictuation where it was absolutely 
necessary to a ready understanding of the writer's meaning. 

The Publishing Committee. 
Savannah, August 1, 1873. 


Letters from General Oglethorpe. 


29 Oct. 1735. 

The Downs Oct. 29tli, 1735. 


I find that foi' want of a Husband to put tlie tilings regu- 
larly on board the 200 Deals are absolutely lost. Perhaps 
they were never put on board. This will be a very great dis- 
appointment and I must either expose the people to Fluxes 
by l.ying m the open air upon their first landing or else delay 
the Settlem* till I can get Boards sawed in Georgia the con- 
sequence of which delay I cannot yet teU. The charge will 
be very great of keeping the ships upon Demurrage besides 
the danger of a general satisfaction amongst the people. 

If you do not send the Seeds by us you had better send 
them to the Seeds-man & get the Money back, for sending 
them by Harbin or Thompson they wiU arrive so late that 
they wiU be useless this Year & be spoiled before next. In 
my last I desired they might be sent by Nicholson if you 
could not send them by the Stage Coach. But if you cannot 
send them to Portsmouth time enough for us to take them in 
you had better return them to the Gardiner for I find that 
any ship that is not alreMy in the Downs will be too late. 

With respect to Capt. Thompson I think you had better 
left it as it was, that he should go fi-om Bristol & Harbin 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19, p. 22. 


fioDi London. To send Passengers and Goods from Bristol 
to London in order to go to America is d()ul)ling the expence 
and length of the voyage foi- the being ont of the Channel 
which the Bristol ])eoi)]e are, is one half (;f the voyage to 
Georgia. For Harbui to go to Bristol would be still worse 
for all the passengers he has on board Avill be eating and 
losing time S: the Servants perhaps provoked to dissert. 

I wish you could send to Portsmouth a Quart of Daffy's 
Elixir. We can iind l)ut one little Chest of Medicines (that 
on board Thomas) so I have divided it. 

The Winds hang westerly & I fear we have lost our Oppor- 
tunity by staying for Thomas's Ship. If we had sailed the 
Day I Avent on Board Ave should probal^h' by this time have 
been at the Maderas. My humble serv''' to all the Gen: 
I am, 

Your Friend 


Mr. Verelst, at the Georgia Office 
in Old Palace Yard 

•p , j James 

( Oglethorpe. 


3 Nov. 1785. 

Cows Novr. 2nd, 1735. 

Capt. Thomas S: Capt. Corinsli gave me notice on Saturday 
last that they could continue their Voyage the Wind being 
fair therefore they must be allowed Demurrage till we leave 
this Harbour. The People are all well & Captain Gascoigne 

* 1'. U. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19, p. 24. 


will be ready to sail with us on Tuesday Night or Wednesday 

I am, 

Your humble Serv*' 

James Oglethorpe. 

P. S. I send you by the Portsmouth Coach a Box with the 
Thernomiter which was broke. Pray let it be carried to Mr. 
Scarlets to be mended & send it me over by the first ship. 


Mr. Yerelst at the Georgia Office 
in Old Palace Yard 


^ree ^ Oglethorpe. 


19 Nov. 1735. 

Cows Road Novr. 19th, 1735. 

I have received the Letters with an Ace* that Thompson is 
to follow me soon and am very much obliged to the Trustees 
for their great Diligence to support me by the speedy send- 
ing what in the hurry was forgot. The delay of the Man of 
War has occasioned a vast deal of Charge & will occasion 
much more & also give me an infinite deal of trouble to re- 
trieve the loss of the Season but I hope by the Blessing of 
God we shall be able to go thro' the Undertakmg tho' not in 
so full a manner as I should have been enabled to do had I 
arrived there by this time as I probably might have done 

* p. B. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19, p. 32. 


had I met with no Delays fi'om Thomas's Ship nor from the 
IMaii of War. 

I have ordered the Captains to draw out the Accoiints of 
Demnrrafj;e & Port Charges S: have advanced them some 
Money on the Aceo'*' of the Ships of wliich Mr. Moore Avill 
before we sail send yon the particulars. I have also laid in 
Refreshments of several kinds the Fowls Greens <fec. being 
most dead consumed or spoiled. Onr People are very healthy 
& very orderly ; excepting two Women Servants Ann Harris 
Serv* to the Trust & Ehz^ Wheeler Servant to Mr. Horton 
whom I have set on shore for drinking and indecent behavi- 
our I have also set on shore the Surgeon's Serv* (he having 
the Itch) <k Robinson's Servant Avho has stole for which his 
Master had him whipped & I have turned him ashore & shall 
in their places take four others whose Names Moore will send 

Pray send Bradley's Goods by Thompson, Bradley has 
taken another Servant for the Trust on board the Thomas, a 
Brick maker & a very useful Man. 

I wish you would put the Trustees in mind of the Saw Mill 
& let me know by what Shij) I may expect it. Pray let me 
know what is become of the Seeds : if they had been sent 
down to Portsmouth by Land I should by this time have had 
them. Give my humble Service to all the Gentlemen of the 
Board & believe me to be 


Your very humble Serv'- 

P. S. The Wind continues Southwardly but seems as if it 
would come to the Eastward howsomever write to me and 
direct it to be left with the Post Master at Cows & give him 
orders to send it back to you if I am gone. 

NovR. Y"^ 20th, 1735. 
j,Qy J*"^. The Wind is come a little to the Eastward of the 
uTe shTps South & the Weather being very moderate we have 
ttieo'c'elsiug veuturcd out tho' if it should blow hard it may be 
dangerous. But something must be hazarded when the ex- 
pences & the ill consequences of Delay are so considerable. 

Letters fkom general oglethorpe. 5 

I send you tins by the f'ilot we being now past the Needles. 
The Man of War and Thomas are in company with us. 
Pray send me the Gen^ Acco' of how the Trustees Cash 
stands for you forgot to give it me when I came away. 

Yarmouth Egad Novr, 21st. 
The Wind changing and Weather growing l)ad we were 
obliged to put in here. The Man of War, Thomas & We are 
all well ct at anchor in a safe place. 


Mr. Yerelst at the Georgia Office 
in Old Palace Yard 

Free James 



3 Dec. 1735. 


I am very glad that you have mentioned to me that yon 
intend to send over the Mill by Capt. Pearcy, because I have 
now time to acquaint you that if you should send it by him 
it will be entirely useless to us, for you may depend upon it, 
that tho' Mr. Wragg enters into the strictest agi-eem* it is 
impossible for Pearcy to touch at Tybee. If he should fall 
in first to the Southward, as the Beacon is not yet up, he can- 
not tell by that Coast whether it is Tybee or Augustine, and 
he will not venture m unless there be a Pilot Boat to fetch 
him in and all the Pilot Boats will be with me, therefore he 
will naturally go into Chas. Town and have a very good 
excuse for so doing. If he falls to the Northward, he cannot 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19, p. 34. 


beat lip from Charles Town to Tybee against the Gulph 
Stream without great difficulty, therefore he will certainly go 
into Charles Town, and the necessity of the Seas will be an 
excuse against every Covenant and if he does go into Charles 
Town, besides the great Expence of bringing up the Mill it 
will be almost sure y* Cooper and Smither will be debauched 
from us and then our Mill will be of no use for there are peo- 
ple in Charles To"\vn who would willingly promise a Mill- 
wright two or three hundred pounds a year, for promises 
which they never design to keep are ready to them and they 
would perhaps advance them 15 or 20 Guineas, and they will 
employ People to make them drunk and then get them to run 
away & hide themselves for some time & then go up & work. 
They have already served us so upon several occasions, there- 
fore if you desire that the Mill should be of any use it is 
necessary you should remonstrate in the strongest terms to 
the Trustees not to send it by any Ship but one bound direct- 
ly for Georgia and which hath no cargo at all for Charles 
Town. You may venture to send y® Stonehorse (which I 
have given to the Trustees if they care to be at the charge of 
sending it) and the Mares of which I shall speak more here- 
after, by Pearcy to Charles Town, for they cannot give them 
Rum nor Debauch them away fi-om us. Mr. Wragg told me 
at Gravesend he thought he could take them at £10: p''-head 
which would not be dear, was he obliged to deliver them alive 
& we not to pay freight until they were delivered at Charles 
Town to the Trustees Order, for if you pay freight before and 
they die there may be a suit for it. 

I want to know what news of poor Frank Harbin, he is a 
man who I think would be very usefull and who I have a 
value for. Pray let me knoAv what is become of the Seeds 
which Bradley bespoke. 

Send me 4 Spirit Levels. I have sights for to fix them in. 
You may ask for them at Mr. Scarlets in Thrift Street Solio. 

The Wind still continues Westerly and Southerly. On the 
20th of the last month the Wmd coming Easterly we sailed 
for the Needles as I mentioned but the Wind coming about to 
South West and blowing very hard we were obhged to run in 
again and (God be praised) got to a safe Iload. That night 


several ships wliicli could not get in were lost, two being 
wreckt on the 22nd on the Sonth part of the Isle of Wight, 
and one upon Portland. One got in here having lost her 
head and masts in the storm, bnt the Hawk Sloop, Thomas 
and We got in here without any damage. Ever since have 
been strong storms at South and West. I must oavii if I had 
not been overborn by the sea Captains I should have kept to 
sea from the 20th and not have come in again but have beat 
up against the S. W. Wind and would rather have nin the 
risque of the seas than of staymg here. But the sea officers 
were my humble servants for that they valued their flesh 
more than I did my bones. It is very possible we might have 
weathered the Start, and if so we might have got into Ply- 
mouth Harbour but if not, we must have been lost, and I 
had rather have run the danger of my life at sea than have 
risqued the losing the season of the year in Georgia and the 
sickness which may probably happen to the people by lying 
here. Several are already ill. I had a fever which forced 
me to keep my bed three days but am now perfectly recov- 
ered. Mr. Johnson was so ill of a Feaver too that he was 
forced to be sent to Portsmouth and if he recovers will go to 
London. Several of our people are sick of Feavers and 
other distempers for nothing is so unwholesome as staying 
on board ships when they lye still, all this is the conse- 
quence of waiting for the Man of War till the Easterly 
Winds were past. I desire you would show the Trustees 
this letter. 

I have nothing more to say but to again repeat the not 
sending any Passengers or Servants b}- Ships bound for 
Charles Town or who have any Cargo for that place. 
I am, 


Your very humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
the 3rd Dee. 1735. 


[Addresse(J \ 

Mr. Harman Verelst at the Georgia 
Office in Old Palace Yard 

Tji . James 


Indorsed Rec'^ the 8th Dec. 


10 Deo. 1735. 

From the Needles Dec. 10th 1735. 

God be praised we at last have got an Easterly wind in the 
morning & weighed anchor at Nine of the Clock. I have 
settled the account of Demurrage for the Ship Simond with 
Mr. Purry &, have paid the Capt. some Money on the account 
which is inclosed to Mr. Simond. I thought it necessary and 
just to pay for all the passengers as well for those on their 
own ace* as those on the Trust: for as they were detained to 
then- loss by our orders I thought it unjust for to make them 
pay Demurrage. The 3rd article is for the Pork, 3 Barrels 
of which I send back & the 101 Pieces of the Barrel which 
was opened were so bad that I gave it away to the Boat men 
that attended the Ship who dried it ashore and made some 
use of it and this made them more diligent in attending us. 
The 15^ was for bringmg on board fresh water over & above 
the Ships allowance which I gave to enable the Passengers 
to wash up the Linnen they had dirtied during our stay in 
Harbour I furnished Flour & Plumbs to make Puddens by 
the Peoples desire instead of the Pork & which I believe wiU 
be more wholesome and it would be right to order that uj^on 

■ p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19,.p, 35. 


the Pork Days each Mess should have but one piece of Pork 
of 2Ib & instead of the other Piece of Pork to have 2R) of 
flour & I a p"' of Phimbs allowed besides their Pease. 

I have laid out a great deal of Money for Extraordinarys 
for the People & laying in new Stocks of Befreshm^^ & also 
for Medecines &c. The gi-eat Chest being stowed so low in 
Thomas that we could not get at it for our People have been 
very sickly. The acco*® Moore will send you at large and I 
beheve it will be best to make them up all together, for sev- 
eral Servants have been put away & Expences have accrued 
in getting others. I have advanced Thomas Money on ace* 
of the Demurrage of his Ship. 

We have had some uneasiness amongst the Ships Crew 
who did not treat the Passengers in the manner they ought 
to have done & Cornish was much afraid of disobliging his 
men who came at last to that height of insolence that whilst 
he was ashore getting of Provisions the second mate en- 
couraged some to throw water upon the poor Boys that be- 
longed to the Passengers. I hearing a noise went out to 
desire him to quiet the disorder which he refusing to do & 
answering with great Insolence <fe the Seamen saying that 
they would stand by him one & all I sent him on board the 
Hawk Man of War & took a well quahfied young man from 
thence for our second Mate. The Men since this Example 
have been very quiet & obedient. 

Robinson's Coats shrink intollerably. Some of them that 
touched the mens heels do not now touch the bottoms of 
their Coats. 

I am, Sir, 

Your very humble Serv* 
[Addressed] J. Oglethorpe. 

Mr. Yerelst at the Georgia Office 

in the Old Palace Yard Westmr. 
•p, , James 




13 Febeuary 1735-6. 

Feb. .13. 1735-6 On Board the Simonds 
IN Tybee Eoad. 
j Dunbar, y** Peter & James, Cp° Dianioiid y'" Two 
( Brothers Cp" Thomson & y® James Cp"^ Yokeley. 

I am arrived here where I found y^' Prince of Wales Cap" 
on demurrage I begun by hastning the discharge of them. The 
first was Capt. Dunbar's ; that being at the largest expence 
I mustered the People and find they amount to one hundred 
sixty tiiree whole Heads which is three less than the muster 
on the 20th of October before Provost Hassock at Inverness ; 
one of them having run aw^ay and two having been set ashore 
because they would neither pay their jmssage nor indent as 
servants of the Trust. 

I found that 17 Heads had jjaid their passage. I agreed 
with Mr. Pury That the three Heads which run away or were 
set on shore as above, before they sailed sli*^ be deducted, 
which reduces the Heads to be paid for by the Trust to 146 
whole Heads and he did not persist in insisting on Passage 
for these three Heads as you will see by the Account : I pro- 
ducing a Uke instance of y*^ Proceeding with Mr. Eag. As 
he gave up that he said that he beHeved Mr. Mackay's 
Daughter was above the age of a year and a half & upon 
enquiry it appeared to me to be so (fe y* y^ setting her down 
at a year and a half was a mistake of the Writer, since her- 
name was carried out into the column of ages whereas none 
under the age of two years was carried out. 

AVith respect to the list of the persons who paid their own 
passage, of the servants of the trust and the servants of pri- 
vate persons it stands thus, The trust ordered Mr. Hugh 
Mackay & Mr. Dunbar to raise 100 Men free or servants and 
for that i^urpose allowed to them the fi'ee passage of ten serv- 
ants over & above the 100. They farther allowed them to 
take 50 Head of Women & Children and agreed with Mr. 


* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 20, p. 121. 


Simmoncls to send a ship about, wliicli lie w'^ not do unless 
they agreed for 130 Men Heads certain. This may have 
led the trust into the mistake That they were to raise 
only 130. The method they took in the raising these men 
was according to the Custom of that Country. They were to 
bring the Enterprise into vogue with the chief gentlemen, but 
as they were unused to labour, they not only permitted but 
obliged them to bring each a laborious servant capable of 
supporting him. Some of them paid their oAvn passage and 
that of one out of two servants. Others paid passage for 
their servant & took the benefit of the Trust j^assage for 
themselves. Besides this there were some who having numer- 
ous families, wanted a farther assistance of servants & there- 
fore Mr. Dunbar gave to them the passage of four servants 
which was his right for having raised forty of the hundred 
men. He therefore thought he ought to set them down as 
paid because they were paid for in account, by his not apply- 
ing the passage of those 4 servants to his own use. By this 
means they have not only raised their 100 Men 10 Servants 
& 50 other Head, but they have landed in Georgia, one hun- 
dred seventy seven Persons amounting to 163 Heads who 
were mustered at Inverness, beside Mr. Baily & four Servants 
who came on board some Hours before the ship sailed. Out 
of these the Trustees paid for only 146 Heads, whereas 
they allowed them to give passage to 160 Heads. And out of 
these 146 several are servants to the Trustees, their Inden- 
ures with blank Endorsements, for j^ use of y*' Trust, being 
in my Hands. 

As to the Demurrage of the Prince of Wales, it runs very 
high ; as they had a fortunate passage <fe I was delayed. This 
I mentioned before I left England. Mr. Dunbar sent the 
people away in open boats, as fast as possible to Alatamaha 
& the day they went the charge of victuals on board the Ship 
ceased, as you will find on the account. But as there were 
not Boats sufficient to carry them all at once 61 Heads were 
sent away 7 days after their arrival which makes 6 days De- 
murrage. Forty six Head and a Half more were sent away 
Feby. 4, more boats being then procured. Mr. Dunbar also 
made another saving by permitting those who were able to go 


up to Savannah and Joseph's Town where they maintained 
themselves at their own expense, some till the Boats went to 
the Southward & some till my arrival. The charge prevent- 
ed hereby amounted to £1, 13s. 8d. per Day. 

I am obhged to allow Demurrage for the ship till she is out 
of sight of Land. And if I was to leave that to Hazard for 
the time of sailing, her Ballast, her Water & other Prepara- 
tions the Easterly winds might set in & occasion another 
month's Demurrage as there was at Cows. I have therefore 
settled that Demurrage at 12 Days & Avhatever Delays may 
happen the Trust can be charged with no more. I take Mr. 
Dunbar with me to the Southward to introduce me to the 
Highlandmen & instruct me a httle in their manners. There- 
fore I allow a Pilot for the ship to the Bar of Charles Town. 
The Highlandmen have these three weeks had quiet j)osses- 
sion of the Alatamaha and agree very well with the Indians. 

The Servants that are on account of Patrick Mackay & 
John Cuthbert are to be paid for to the Trust by them in 
Provision & labour & will help to supply the wants of those 
Hands we mist of in Germany. With respect to Hugh Mac- 
kay it is He that contracted with us and commands the Party 
at Alatamaha. As he has been very serviceable & as the Im- 
barkation which he heads are the only men that have com- 
plied with their Agreement, I think there could be no Objec- 
tion to his being allowed Ten Servants. But I do not find he 
is allowed one except those allowed by his Capitulation, being 
his proportion of the Ten, for raising the 100 Men. 

As to G. Dunbar he has none that I can see charged to the 
Trust, except he be understood to be concerned in those of 
Cuthbert which are to be paid for. And the giving Credit for 
Servants to these Gentlemen is no more than wliat the Trust 
daily does to the English which is very advantageous since 
they gain a man to the Country <fe are repaid for his Passage. 
Mr. Baily parts with one of his servants & by the money so 
raised pays the passage of himself & the rest. 

I have sent you Lists of the People pursuant to y*" desire 
& having made up the account with Mr. Pury find that the 
remainder due to Mr. Simonds for the freight of Passengers 
on board the Prince of Wales is eighty pounds as per account 
which I have signed. 


With respect to the Bill £33, 9s. 6d. drawn by Mr. Dunbar 
on the Trustees for Wine it was pursuant to the Trustees 
Order dated August 23 signed by you. In the same order 
were the Plads &c. However as the Trustees do not think 
the Claret proper for their keeping, I take it. But as I know 
by fatal experience that the want of Claret or Florence (be- 
ing styptick wines) was of very ill consequence in the flux, I 
have bought of Mr. Mountagiie four Hogsheads on the stores 
account, which I have disposed of as follows, viz : — To the 
Governour of Augustine, One Cask. To Ebenezer, Two ; 
The Rest to the Store at Savannah for the sick of the whole 

GOD be praised all the people are in Health, nor has one 
Passenger died at Sea either on board us or Capt. Dunbar. 
The Town of Savannah is in good Order & much increased 
in Buildings. The People who come at their own charge hve 
in a manner too expensive which will make sumptuary laws 
necessary for the Pro\dnce. I will write a particular Letter 
about the Indian Affairs which the CaroHna people have in 
vain strove to put into confusion Tomo-Chawchi has maintain- 
ed the Trustees Interest among the Creeks till my arrival. 
And the French having insulted the Chocktaws have made 
them zealous. 

The People at Ebenezer are very discontented & Mr. Von 
Reck & they that come with him refuse to settle to the South- 
ward I was forced to go to Ebenezer to quiet things there and 
have taken all the Proceedings m writing. Finding the people 
were only ignorant & obstinate but without any ill Intention, 
I consented to the changing of theu' Town. They leave a 
sweet place where they had made gi-eat Improvements, to go 
into a Wood. I have raised 100 Workmen at different Pays, 
but one with another they come within the sum limited. I 
have also ordered 50 Rangers & have taken up a Sloop & 
bought her Cargo & shall di'aw for it, being all Provisions. 
I am, 


Youi' very Humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 



The Hon^^'« the Trustees 

for estahKshiiig the Colony of 

on His Majesty's Service. 


27 February 1785-6. 

On board THE Symond in Tybee Creek 
the 27th February 1735-6. 

Coll. Bull is come down to me with Letters fi-om the Lieu- 
tenant Governor & assembly of CaroHna of which I send 
you copies inclosed. We were seperated fi'om the Man of 
War at Sea, and she is not yet aii-ived. I thought the best 
way both for the health of the people and for the saving of 
Charges would be to carry down these two Ships to the Ala- 
tamaha & land the Passengers at once fi'om on board but the 
Capts. having no Man of War nor Pilot that knew the entry 
did not dare go with such large ships till a small vessel had 
tried the Entry. I agreed with Capt. Yoaldey & put on 
board him great part of Thompson's Cargoe, he was so long 
in getting ready that I was at Ebenezer & had returned again 
& seeing no end of the Delays a New York Sloop coming into 
the Road loaded with a well sorted Cargoe of Provisions I 
bought the Cargo on condition yt she should go up & dehver 
them on St. Simon and the Capt. of these two ships went up 
in her to sound the Barr, I went within Land & having passed 
by Skidaway & Thunderbolt both which are in a very good 
scituation I arrived at St. Simon the 18tli & found the Sloop 
and a Detachment of men whom I had sent with her there. 
The Capt. gave me an account that they had met with seven 

* p. E. O. Georgia. B, T. vol. 19, p. 49. 


fathom water all the way in excepting one place, where they 
had bore too near the shore and so fonnd shoaly water. We 
immediately got up a house and thatched it with Palmettoes, 
dug a Cellar, traced out a Fort with 4 Bastions by cutting up 
the Turf from the ground, dug enough of the Ditch & raised 
enough of the Rampart for a Sample for the Men to work 

On the 22d a boat arrived with a Detachment of the Work- 
men (t the same day I left St. Simon rowmg up the Alatama- 
ha 3 hours I arrived at y'' Scotch Settlement which they 
desire may be called Darien. They were all under Ai'ms 
upon seeing a Boat, and made a most manly appearance with 
their Plads, broad Swords, Targets & Fire Arms, the latter 
of which were very bad, of which the j^erson who furnished 
them should be informed. Some of the Carolina People on 
their first landing near Savannah strove to discourage them 
by saying that the Spaniards would shoot them as they stood 
upon the ground where we placed them from the houses in 
their Fort. Why then said the Highland men we will beat 
them out of then- Fort & shall have Houses ready built to 
live in. They have mounted a Battery of 4 pieces of Can- 
non, built a Guard house a Store house a Chappel & several 
Hutts for particular people & one of their men dying, the 
whole people joyned & they built a house for his ^ddow. Mr. 
Hugh Mackay who commands there has shown himself an 
excellent Officer, in all the Dispositions which he has made, 
and deserves the thanks of the Trustees & also that they 
should speak for the continuance of his leave of absence & 
obtain Commission for him to sell. 

Mr. M'pherson with the Rangers having marched over land 
from Savannah arrived at the Darien before I left that place 
so that there is a Communication opened for Horsemen be- 
tween the two Towns. 

On Monday I set out from the Darien and on Tuesday 
night came on board. The Captains returned last night mth 
an acco* that for want of time c% conveniency they could not 
find a passage over the Barr sufficient to carry in these ships, 
but that there is no doubt a good Channel may be found by 
a Man of War who has hands sufficient. 


Yoakley is sailed and the Weather very blustring God 
knows what is become of him. 

They have discovered a Channel big enough to carry in 
Captain Dymond so shall put as much on board him as I can 
and shall carry the rest in Perrivauguas and small Craft down 
the Inland Passage. This will be vastly expensive, but can- 
not now be avoided. 

I have issued out £431 in Notes. The Merchants are very 
gi'eedy of them and I believe some will be soon in England. 

I have drawn upon you for £500. Sterling in Payment of 
the Sloop's Cargo, and paid the remainder of the value of it 
amounting to 200 and odd Pounds Currency here. 
I am. Gentlemen, 

Your most obedient hum^^'' serv* 


Mr. Wesleys are gone up to Toma-chi-chi Mico and live 
with Mrs. Musgrove in his Neighbourhood six miles from 
Savannah where he has built a new Town. 

I have sent Major Richards an Officer belonging to Caro- 
lina with an armed Boat to conduct Mr. D Empsy who was 
sent by Sir Thos. Fitzgerald with letters from himself and 
from the Spanish Secretary of State to the Governour of St. 
Augustine he set out from here a week ago so that in a few 
days I shall have an account how thmgs go there. 


3 March 1736-5. 

Tybee, March 2d, 1736-5. 

I have drawn a set of Bills at 30 days sight for c£200 sterl- 
ing payable to Colonel Bull or Order which is upoii acco* for 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19, p. 67. 


2 Houses, Frames & boards of sawed Cj^press which he had 
ready against my arrival Sr, which are now going up to 8t. 
Simons & for sending them up & other charges. I have writ 
to the Trustees at full how things go. 


The above is Copy of a letter of advice sent you fi*om 
Tybee road I desire you would facilitate j^ paym* of the said 
Bills & beheve me to be Genf^' 

Your most obed*^ hum^'^ serv* 

James Oglethorpe. 

To the Hono'^'<' the Trustees for Establishing 
the Colony of Georgia m America at their 
office in Old Palace Yard 




2 Maeoh 1736. 

March 2, 1736. 
Tybee Creek. 

I have drawn a set of Bills at Thii-ty days dated March 2, 
1736 for two hundred pound sterling payable to Col. Bull or 
order, which is upon acco* for two houses fi*ames & boards of 
saw'd Cypress which he had ready for me ag* my arrival & 
which are now going up to St. Simons & for sending them up 
& other charges. I have writ to the Trustees at full how 
thmgs go. Moore is so busy in loading <t unloading the 
Stores of the two Ships into other Vessels y* he has not yet 
been able to w^rite. A gi-eat many of the stores are damaged 
particularly on board Thompson, some few lost of w''^ Moore 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19, p. 67. 


will give you an acco*- I have also drawn for £500 Sterling 
from St, Simons in four sets of Bills of Exchange being in 
part of pajm* for y* part of y'' sloop Midnight's Cargo 
w*^^ belonged to y^ Owners, y* w^'^ belonged to y'' Master I 
bought and paid for in Currency beside. I am, S*"' 
Your very humble serv*' 

James Oglethorpe. 
[Addressed] To 
Mr. Verelst 

At the Georgia Office 

near y^ House of Lords 


3 March 1735-6. 


I have drawn upon you for £200 Sterling pay''^*^ to Mr. 
Chas. Purry at one usance It is for Cash to buy Horses for 
the Rangers and sho'^ have been paid hi Georgia Bills but 
that throwmg too many of them out at once would ran them 
down I am just settmg out for Frederica & am 

Your most humble 
& obed* Serv*' 

James Oglethorpe. 
Tybee 3 March 1735-6 

{Addressed^^ To 
The hon'^^° the Trustees for estabhshing the Colony of 
Georgia in America at their Office in Old Palace Yard 


* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19, p, 71, 



16 Makcii 1736. 

Frederika — On the Island of 
St. Simon's in Georgia Mar. 16, 1736. 

I have at last gott all j^ People to St. Simons, but y® 
charges of Demurrage & y*" shipping have been intolerable, 
nor are our goods half come down, having been obhged to 
freight two ships for bringing them. One of them The James 
Capt" Yokley is arrived & boldly came up to y*" place where 
our Town is to be settled & rides in three fathom water with- 
in ten yards of y'' Fort walls. Diamond who commands 
y® other ship is not yet arrived. We have built Bowers 
thatched with Palmetto for about half y" Lihabitants & by 
y'' end of this week I hope every Family where women are, 
will have a Bower wind c^' water tight upon their Lot. A 
party of people are sowing for y'^ next Years Crop. I have 
aheady shown every man his Town Lot. About forty of 
y® Workmen are aheady come up & some are joining us every 
Day. The Man of War & y^ King's Lide])endent Company 
are not yet arrived. But the Lidian King Tomo Chachi & 
his Nephew Tooanoghoni &■ the Beloved Man Umpechee who 
were in England with me have joined us with a Party of 
Indians & declared y* they will Hve & die by us. They 
agi-eed that we shall possess the Island of St. Simons, but 
reserve that of St. Catharine to themselves. The War Capt. 
Hillispilh was sent before my arrival by Tomo Chachi up to 
y'' lower Creek Nations to keep up our Interest with them & 
would have brought down a large Body of men, but I have 
desired Tomo-Chachi y* He may bring no more than 200, 
that being sufficient for any service we can have for them. 

The Highlanders are very ready upon aU Occasions. We 
have rec'^ no ansAver yet from Augustine. Yesterday Mr. 
Hugh Mackey arrived here and gave an account y* he with a 
Detachment of twelve of the new raised Rangers under his 

* P, R. O. Georgia, B. T. vol. 19, p. 65. 


Coiiniiaiid had conducted Mr. Walter Aiigiistin as far as 
y'' Darieii, who had run a traverse line from the town of Sa- 
vannah to the ToAvn of Darieii upon the Alatainaha in tn-der 
to know where to lay out y'' Road lietween y*-" two Rivers 
vrliich we now lind will be ninety miles. I sh;dl send you a 
Co})}' of their Journal as soon as I can get it transcribed. 

Tomo-Chachi <t I at his Desire go out tomorrow to hunt 
y** Buffaloe as far as the utmost extent of his D(miinions 
towards Augustine. We shall then huow how far y'' Lands 
possest by y'' English Confederate Indians extend. Tomo- 
Chachi is willing that we should settle upon any place within 
his Lands provided the Lower Creek Nations agree to it. 
God l)e })raised there is not so nnich as one of the Persons 
dead that came from Europe a\ ith us. 

The Saltzburghers are mightily discontented tV I cannot 
find the real rt^ason of it. I send you Mr. Vats A: Mr. Von 
Reek's letters. The last Transport under Mr. Von Reck was 
destined to strengthen me here, yet at their Desire I suffered 
them to settle on y*' River Savannah tho' by that Means we 
lost y*" Assistance of 50 men al)le to bear Arms & shall be 
at a monstrous Expense for carrying u}) y Stores to them. 
I also allowed the first established Saltzburgers to change 
their Lots at Ebenezer for y" Red Bluff over against the 

Lands by Purisljurg y'' place themselves had chosen, 

tho' contrary to y'" General Opinion cV: y''- National Policy of 
not letting Foreigners settle too near each other. After all 
these Concessions ye'll see they desire to go beyond y'^' River 
Ebenezer to Lands reserved by y'' Lidians for their own use, 
which if agreed to, will certainly draw on an Indian War. 
Mr. Von Reck has took two men into Pay whom he calls 
Soldiers and intended to raise more witliout any Orders from 
me & takes it very ill y* Mr. Causton should refuse to pay for 
them. I must desire to know whether y*^ Saltzburgers shall 
be on y*" footing of y** old Inhabitants of y'' outward Settle- 
ments which amounts to each man at full allowance for 

Provisions i:7.15.11d 

To each head of Women & Children 5.11.11d 

or whether they shall ,be upon the same allowance as y® 
Highlanders Men 


Women 8. 3.8d 

or those y* joiu ns in America 3. 3.6d 

or on y'' charity of 80 men English & Forreigners <fe 120 head 
of Women tt Children making together 200 heads. For the 
Men 23.15.11. For y*^ Women &c. £12.3.31. What part of 
which is paid as y'' Passage Mr. Verelst knows. 

We have here of men 44 head & of Women & Children 72 
head which are part of the 200; therefore if y*" New-come 
Saltzburghers shonld exceed what makes up the 200 there 
will be a deficiency in the Estimate equal to what they exceed 
& the Town of Frederica will be lessened by as many Head 
of People as is allowed to the Saltzburgers, for if the Saltz- 
burgers Provision was not allowed to them, there would be 
just as many settle here for the provision as they who quitted 
us amounted to. I have allowed them a credit for one half 
year's provision upon y'' footing of those y* join us in Ameri- 
ca & also 10s. p*' head in Extraordinaries & 20s. for Tools till 
j^ pleasure is known. 

Mr. John Wesley is at Savannah & I have desired him to 
state y*' Case of j" Saltzburgers. Mr. Charles Wesley and 
Mr. Ingham are working with me. I am 


Your must obedient lium''^^ Ser* 

James Oglethorpe. 
[ Addressed] 

The Hon'^^*' the Trustees 

for establishing the Colony of Georgia. 



16 March 1736. 

Copy Frederika March IC, 173G. 

To Mr. Vat. 


I have rec^ the Favour of yours and am very sorry to find 
there are any Discontents among the Saltzburgers. Mr. Van 
Reck complains much of you, as well as you of him. I have 
wrote to him uj^on the Occasion & sent him the Heads of 
what you have objected to him, that he may make his De- 
fence. I have also desired him to make good what he objects 
to you, & recommended to the Rev'^ Mr. John Wesley to 
state the matter, how things have past at Ebenezer, that 
when I have seen things in a clear Light, I may be able to 
determine them, which I would not do in a matter where such 
worthy People are concern'd, till the Truth appeard fully, 
least I should by rash Judgment injure any man's Reputa- 
tion or Character. 

Cop: J. O. 


16 March 1736. 

Copy to the Rev*^ Mr. Wesley, 

Frederika Mar. 16, 1736. 
Rev° S«' 

I must desire the Favour of you to examine the Com- 
plaints made by Mr. Von Reck & Mr. Bolzius against Mr. 
Vat & by Mr. Vat against Mr. Von Reck & to make a true 
state of the Case, that I may judge concerning them. If 
you shew this to Mr. Causton, he will examine any Person 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19, ]). 80. t P. R. O. Geoi-Kia. 13. T. vol. 1!), p. XO. 


upon Oath that shall be necessary for the coming at the 

Mr. Causton will shew you 
the Letters I have wi'ote to 
Mr. Von Keck, Mr. Bolzius & 
Mr. Vat. 


16 March 1736. 

Rev'' Sir, 

I received yours & as I know your zeal for the service of 
God, your Charity to the Poor, your faithfuU attachm* to 
your Flock & to y'' Trustees their Benefactors, I am very 
much concerned at hearing you should have had an}' uneasi- 
ness. Mr. Vat has retired from the care of the Stores at 
Ebenezer haveing first protested against y*" Disobedience of 
the people to the rules prescribed S: complained of Mr. Von 
Reek's having broke open the Storehouse A' dissipated the 
Stores. I am really under the utmost apprehension what 
the consequence ( )f these things may be ; I a})prehend much 
from the youth of Mr. Von Reck A" the age of Mr. Vat the 
dispersing the provisions prevents our Storekeeper fi'om 
daring to send down any more provisions but God be praised 
who has raised you up who can moderate between them. 
Mr. Vat is Secretary put in by the Trustees & was recom- 
mended by Mr. ^i^R^ul. I can determine nothuig in his or 
Mr. Von Recks case without hearing both <t in the mean 
time the poor people must suffer unless some person of 
weight be accountable to Mr. Causton that the Stores should 
be regularly delivered, otherwise he can send up none to 
Ebenezer, because he can gett no discharge for them. I 
must therefore desire you to take charge of such stores as 

* p. R. O. Oeorgia. B. T. vol. IS), p. 81. 


shall be sent up 'till the matter is decided & to give receipts 
to Mr. Caustou for all that is dehvered to you. 

1. The Orders I sent to you concerning the General work 
are the same at Ebenezer as the English all conform to the 
1st yeare & are necessary upon the first Settlem^ of a Towne, 
but since you desire that the Saltzburgers should work by six 
in Common Labour instead of all together they may do it <fe 
y* may be altered in the orders. 2*^ with respect to building 
the Storehouse I am content with a Hutt for the jxiblick 
Stores 'till after planting time (tho' the English allways build 
a strong house at first) provided that you will take charge of 
them, that they be not stoln out of the Hut nor the Hut 
broke open to the damage of the people. 3 as to the boat 
you may buy such a one as is most convenient for you & Mr. 
Caustou shall pay for it not exceeding c£20-Sterling, provided 
the whole Congregation repay the same in coin within two 
yeares. 4 in regard to the Gardens they shou'd be marked 
out according to the plan given by me to Jones which was 
the same I showed to you & he had orders from me to put 
you into immediate possession of them, to give to your self 
& your fellow Labourer those neerest the Towne & to pro- 
ceed on to the Constable, the officers and others according to 
their ages &. the time of their arrival but neither the Saltz- 
burghers the English or any other Persons are to take up & 
cultivate Lands beyond the River Ebenezer. 
I am, Eev*^ Sir, 

Your most obedient humble Ser* 
Frederika J. O. 

March 16, 1735-6.) 

Copy to Mr. Bolzius. 



16 March 1736. 


I have received the favour of yours & was allways appre- 
hensive that the Saltzbur^iiers removeing fi'om Ebenezer & 
leaving a ready built Towue would plunge them into gi'eat 
Difficultys such as it would not be in my power to prevent I 
find by yours the}^ begin to feel those Inconveniences which 
are inevitable Consequences of that unfortunate step ; I am 
sorry to hear you should have had any difference with the 
Officers of the Trustees, was I upon the spot I am sure you 
should have no just cause to complain but y° Kings orders & 
my own Reputation require me to be where most danger is ; 
The Stores, the shipping the expences of the Province are 
now removed to the Southerd Frontiers therefore had your 
Saltzburgers came down directly to me with the ships, It 
would have been a gi'eat pleasure to me to have had them 
under my Eye that I might have supplyd them with the same 
care as usual But 'tis their misfortune to be at a distance 
fi'om me, where tis Impossible Orders should be so well exe- 
cuted as if I were present. Mr. Vat has complained that 
you have broke open the Storehouse at Ebenezer & taken all 
the Provisions you found therein & further that he found the 
door of the small Storehouse broken open <fe one Barrel of 
Rue (tho another Barrel lay in the large Storehouse) some 
beef & several Tools & nails belonging to the 2'^ Transports 
under his charge taken away. As you very kmdly say that you 
know I will hear both sides before I determine I send you 
the matters laid to your charge that you may justifie your- 
seK for I am very unA\dUing to believe you can do anything 
that is wrong. Mr. Vat is an Ofiicer appointed Secretary of 
the Saltzburghers by the Trustees & to him were the Stores 
at Ebenezer entrusted. He is answerable for them and 'till 
such time as by his misbehaviour I am intitled to dismiss 
him, it is improper for me to take them from his care nor can 
I determine any more in his than in your case without a 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19, p. 82. 


liearing. Mr. Bol/ius & you luive hotli accusod liim, there- 
fore as I cannot come myself yet to Savannah I refer exam- 
ining into the matter to Mr. John Wesley who is there 
intirely unprt^judiced I miist again repeat the uneasiness 
I am under in not being able to assist them personally & 
am S'' 

Your very humble Ser* 

J. O. 


Mar. 16, 1736. 

Mr. Van Eecke. 


17 Makcti 1786. 

Mr. Causton, 

You are to take care to let the Saltzburgers have the Pro- 
visions that the Trustees have destined to those who joined 
us in America. Pray take care that they do not suffer for 
want of them. If you can hire or buy a trading Boat not 
exceeding 20 Pound Sterling it will be properest for carrying 
them up : You may also hire English men by j" Month to 
row y*^ Boat. You may likewise give Credit to such of y^ last 
Transports as are recommended by Mr. Bolzius as far as 
10s. f Head & 20s. for Tools, till such time as y'' Will of 
y® Trustees is known u])on what Establishment they are to 
be. All Stores sent up to Ebenezer are to be consigned to 
Mr. Bolzius & he is to give Receipts for them. Mr. Jones 
should have put them into possession of their Garden Lots 
as you will see in my letter to Mr. Bolzius. You are to take 
care that the Trustees Orders for preventing Peoples settling 
beyond the River Ebenezer be executed by the Proper 
officer : The Indians having complained that some Persons 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 10, p. 78. 


have settled over against Palacliocolas Sl some near tlie 
mouth of Ebenezer. Be they of what nation they will they 
must be dislodged for we will never break faith with the 
Indians & not at this time disoblige them. If you want any 
thing that comes fi-om Europe let me know it ct I will send it 
up to you. I am, S'" Y'' hum'' Ser*^ 

Frederika, March 17, 1735-6. 


28 March 1736. 

Frederica on St. Simons. 
28 March 1736. 

Things go well here considering the few men I have with 
me from the disappointments which I before acquainted you 
with. I am so hurried that I cannot write long therefore have 
sent you a Copy of a letter to the Lieut. Gov'" of Carolina of 
the state of affairs. 

The Beer at first was excellent good and a great deal of it 
is so still but there is a good deal which I am afi-aid of, it 
having lain exposed to the Rain & Sun in open Boats and if 
the Casks had not been very good and Iron bound we had 
lost it, the wooden hoops being all flown. To proA'ide for the 
worst I have bought some beer & other things from Mr. Ellis 
a Merchant and Alderman of Philadelphia & fi'iend to Mr. 
Penn who came m here for the assistance of the Colony. I 
have got him to furnish £40 to Mr. Spangenberg who is gone 
for Philadelphia to bring down a number of Germans who 
designed for Georgia but were deluded thither by Mr. Hopp. 
I send you his receipt and Bill of Parcells & draw upon you 
for the Amount. My humble service to Mr. Vernon, teU him 
that his Son is well. I should have wrote to him but could not 

* p. K. O. (Icdrgia. B. T. vol. 19, p. 7G. 


till three days since spare time to undress myself, and have 
not lain in sheets from leaving the ships till then. The 
Indians and the Highlanders have behaved with gTeat cour- 
age, fidehty and affection and the English that came 'vvith me 
are not far behind with them, particularly Mr. Horton who 
has not undressed himself since he came here, though he has 
a tent and bed standing which he has given to the sick and 
has been with me in an open ])oat in all the Southward Expe- 

I am, 


Your most obedient 

huml)le Serv^ 

James Oglethorpe. 

A bill for £97. dated 27 Mar. pay"^ at 30 days sight. 
A bill for £100. dated 27 Mar. pay'' at 30 days sight, 
both payable to Mr. Eobt. Ellis's Order. 


28 March 1736. 

Frederica the 28th March 1736. 

Pursuant to His Majestey's Commands I have settled & 
fortified on the Island of St. Simons & have took the best 
measures that my small Judgment suggested to me for put- 
ting the place into a condition of Defence and of being 
supported by keeping an open connnunic^ation l)oth l)y Land 
& Water. For this purpose the Rangers & the Scout boat 
will be necessary, the first have marched over Land from 
Savannah to the Darien, and a Surveyor sent by me with a 

* p. R. O. Georgia, li. T. vol. 19, p. 76. 


Detachment of the Trustees men has run the Traverse Line 
from Savannah ))y Fort Argyle to the Darien fi-om whence to 
this place is only 16 miles by water. 

After this was clone I went down to the Frontiers to see 
where his Majesty's Dominions and the Spaniards joyn, a 
Detachment of Creek Indians invited me to go down with 
them to show me how far their Claim and possession extend- 
ed. I foiind that they have been in quiet possession ever 
since the last War of all Lands on the North side as far as 
the Mouth of St. John's River and that the Spaniards have 
two Guards called Lookouts on the South side of that River 
the one 7 or 8 miles frcwn the sea the other at the Sea Point. 
Tomachichi brought us to a rock covered Avith woods from 
whence we could see the up})ermost Look Out and they not 
discover us. He then said he would go out with his Indians 
and bring me in a Prisoner to inform me of their scituation and 
cutt off their Guard and drive them down to Augustme for 
that the Number with him Avas sulhcient so to do and that 
the Lands as far as Augustine belonged to the Creeks but 
that the Spaniards had taken forcible and luijust possession 
of it. It was with much difficulty I could prevent them from 
attacking the Spaniards. I therefore having two boats with 
one bigger than any one of theirs ol)liged the Indians to stay 
and myself set forward with one boat and liaAdng viewed 
both the Spanish out Guards I went round the Southward- 
most point of his Majesty's Dominions in North America 
which I called St. George's Point and is over against the 
Spanish Lower Look out from which it is seperated by the 
mouth of St. John's River which is there about a mile wide. 
From thence I returned and found that the Highland men 
whom I had left upon an Island at the Southermost Entrance 
of this Port had fortified themselves there. I called .the New 
Fort St. x4.ndrews and the Island it stands uj)on the High- 

I shall be obliged to keep a Boat on the River St. John's 
to prevent the Creek Indians from passing to hurt the 
Spaniards. The Governor of Augustine having mformed me 
that he is very apprehensive of those Indians and as I camiot 
answer for the Indians and that an liostiHty committed by 


them might be constiiied to be my doing I shall acquaint him 
that I cannot ))e answeral)le for keeinng up the tranquihty 
but by maintaining a Boat and Guard to prevent them from 
passing the River. 

The Gentleman that brought letters from the King of 
Spain's Secretary of State and his Ambassadour at London 
to tlie Governour of Augnistine and who came over in the 
ship with me is still at i\.ugustine. Major Richards who con- 
ducted him thither is returned M^th letters both fi'om him 
and the Goveiiiour full of civility and professions of fiiend- 
shi}) mixt with some complaints of the Creek Indians not 
permitting th'em to settle the Apellachee Towns. 

My private Advices from thence say that they have sent to 
Havannah tt suspect that it is for succours in order to diive 
us off. The Governour has acquainted me that he will send 
an Officer as his Plenipotentiary to treat with me for settling 
the Boundaries and tlie matter of the Apellachee Towns. I 
have acquainted him that I am ready to receive his Plenipo- 
tentiary or to meet him personally on the Frontiers which is 
at St. John's River. 

I have sent Perriauguas for the Detachment of the Inde- 
pendant Company. The Man of War is ah'eady arrived at 
Tybee & I expect him here in a few days. Mr. Jonathan 
Bryan and Mr. Barnwell have been with me to the Frontiers 
and behaved very handsomely. 
I am <fec. 

To the Hon*'!*' tj^^^^^ Broughton Esq. 

Lieut Governor of South Carolina. 



17 April 1736. 

Frederica the 17tli Aprill 1736. 
Dear Sir, 

I send you inclosed a Memorial of the King's Eight to 
these Coimtreys and in the Trustees letter the Correspond- 
ence between me and the Governor of Augustine. It is fit 
that Mr. Vernon or you shou'd carry the Copies of both to 
the Duke of Newcastle, with my letter to his Grace which I 
have sent open to Mr. Vernon and which I desii-e you would 
read. I referr you to the Carolina Gazette and Trustees 
Letter for News here. 
I am 
Dear Sir 

Your most obedient 

humble Serv* 

James Oglethorpe. 
To. Thos. Towers Esq. 


24 April 1736. 

Frederica the 24th April 1736. 

I not having time to stay at Savannah desii'ed Mr. Wesley 
to inquire concerning Mr. Quincy's behaviour there, and 
this is a copy of a Paragraph by him sent to me in his Letter. 

I found Mr, Quincy here last night who hearing you was 
not certain as to the time of your Eeturn hitlier, resolved to 
make use of the first opiiortunity of waiting upon you at 
Frederica. I have not only heard more than I usually do of 
what the People here say concerning his behaviour among 

* p. R. O. Georgiji. B. T. vo}. 19, p. 89. t P- R- O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19, p. 137. 


them, but have purposely asked several Questions about it. 
And if they were (as I suppose) answered sincerely, his Car- 
riage has not been such as I believed it was, but in the 
general more than inoffensive. All I have spoke to, inform 
me, That they judge him to be a good natured, fi-iendly, 
peaceful, sober just man and that they have no complaint 
against him either relating to his private life or to the execu- 
tion of his office as a Clergyman except his absence fi-om 
them (in New England I apprehend) which they believe was 
chiefly owing to his ill state of health. 

With respect to his marrying an Englishman to an Indian 
woman unbaptized he was advised to do so by most of the 
people then in Savannah and by what I found in conversing 
with them the generality of the people thought they had 
done a very pretty thing in getting an Intermarriage. I 
thought it was proper to acquaint you of this matter. Mr. 
Quincy intending to return soon to England and he then will 
deliver you this himself. He thinks of applying to be assist- 
ant to Mr. Garden Minister at Charles Town who is Commis- 
sary to the Bishop of London for Carohna. 
I am. 


Your most obedient 

humble Servant, 
James Oglethorpe. 
Mr, Oglethorpe's letter to Mr. Quincey 
rec'^ 11 August. 


11 May 1736. 


I have been down to the Southward to quell a Mutiny 
among our Frontier Garrison. The Spaniards have, I appre- 

* p. K. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19, p. 139. 


hend, detained the persons I sent down to treat with them, 
contrary to faith, and have sent up some Laimches to \dew 
us. I am forced to set out immediately to throw succour 
into the Frontier Garrisons, who I expect will be attacked 
every hour. I have no time to write particulars I send you 
Copies of the Letters I had fi-om Augustine. I could think 
of no method to hinder the Spaniards fi*om being supplied 
with Presents but that of remonstrating to the Governour and 
Council of Carolina to get an Embargo, and if they do not 
grant that, to buy up all the arms <fec. which may amount 
to about i£1200 sterling now in Charles Town and by that 
means delay the Spaniards being able to make a strong push 
till they receive Succours from Europe. I have drawn upon 
you for £500 Sterhng upon this account payable to Mr. 
Eveleigh. I am, 


Yoiu" most obedient 
Erederica, I humble Servant, 

11th May, 1736. [ James Oglethorpe. 

The'hon'^^'' the Trustees for establishmg 
The Colony of Georgia 

"rec. 21 July 1736." 


18 May 1736. 

Erederica, the 18th May 1736. 

I have received no Letters fi-om you since my arrii^al here 
except by Mr. Bradley who is arrived safely with the horse. 
The Spaniards complain of our Lidians harrassing them and 
as I could not restrain them by an}' other means I sent Boats 
and men to make a Garriscm, fi'om whence to patrole upon 

* p. R, O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19, p. 98, 



the Rivers tliat se]>er;ite tlie ])iitisli tVoiii tlic S});iiiish 
Dominions .-iiid sent to the GoveniouT of Aiij^nstine ])y the 
same (TCJiitleiiiaii who cameil the liist Message of my havmg 
so done. The Sjoaiiiards on his arrival seemed gTeatly 
rejoyced at our takino; such care to ])r(!vent the Indian Rav- 
ages but soon after some letters coming from some Merchants 
in Charles Town to the Governour, the S(5ene was changed, 
they confined my Messengers, ])ut all their men under arms, 
ordered their Horse out and took measures to attack us. 
The best way to prevent which, u])on mature advice I found 
was to strengthen y Frontiers t'c to shew them that though 
we courted their friendship, we did not fear their force. I 
went down myself, found the Garrison at St. Georges Fort 
had mutinied, re-embarked themselves and met them return- 
ing from their Post. I carried theni back tt resettled them, 
in j^ mean time a Bark sent out from Augustine to spy upon 
our settlements without Colours & like a Pyrate came near 
Avhere the Independent Company is quartered upon St. 
Simons Island. Ensign Delegall who commanded there, 
made signals to her to come in and show what nation she 
was of but she refusing & running away he tired at her. The 
alarm being once given the Garrison at Fort St. Andrews 
saw her and called to her as she ran awa_v, but would not fire 
upon her because she answered. She met also some of our 
Boats whom she fancied were in pursuant of her, on which 
she made the best of her way to Augustine with a dismal 
account that the whole Coast was covered Avitli men boats 
& Cannon I also made use of some small stratagems on 
the Frontiers at Fort St. George to make them lielieve we 
were numerous and treating some Spaniards who came vdth. 
messages to us with great kindness. God Avas pleased to 
prosper our endeavours. The Spanish Gov*' was oliliged to 
call a Council upon the Terrors spread abroad, in which the 
Bishop, the Officers & the People declared unanimously that 
they were for preserving a good harmony with the King of 
Great Britain's Subjects, and desired the Governour to release 
the Messengers I had sent down, and send up an Officer with 
them to exi-use them having violated the La\\s of NatioiiS 
& Hospitality. Whilst things were going on in this manner 


id Augustine I came tVoiii St. George's Fort hither and in live 
days time returned to the Frontiers with men Cannon & Pro- 
visions, where I found that Capt. Hermsdorff, who commands 
the Boat which guards the Passages being apprehensive from 
the threats of the Spaniards so as to think it dangerous to 
stay wdthout Defence for the return of the Messengers had 
fortified himself and for that purpose had chose the old Fort 
which was erected by Sir Walter Raleigh's first Colony when 
Sir Francis Drake took Augustine. I met a Spanish boat 
and making up to her to know what she was found she had 
on board Mr. Dempsey and a Capt. of horse and the Gov"" of 
Augustine's Secretary who are sent as Deputies to treat with 
me. I sent a boat to escort them to St. Simon's and found 
Major Richard and all our Gentlemen sent by me on the 
message had been dismissed in a very honorable manner 
though when thought us weak they had threatened Major 
Richard to send him to the Mines at least if he woidd not 
sign some Interrogatories which they presented to him. The 
Spanish Ofiicers are now at the Garrison where the Inde- 
pendent Company lies. I shall fee them tomorrow and shall 
by Dyniond send you an account of their message. 

The Magistrates of Savannah have seized and staved large 
quantities of Rum upon the River under the Hill at Savan- 
nah. This Channel being between Hutchinson's Island and 
Savannah they deem that the water between the Island and 
the Town is Georgia since the Islands are so. The People 
of Charles Town have taken this extremely ill and sent me a 
Representation upon it, which I have sent to Mr. Causton 
of which he is to send you a Copy. They are also very 
angry concerning the Indian Trade and some private men 
have taken great pains to incense the Indians against the 
Spaniards and against the (.'olony of Georgia particularly. 
Capt. Green who I am informed has advised the Uchee 
Indians to fall upon the Saltzlnirgers for settling upon their 
Lands, the occasion of which was an indiscreet action of one 
of the Saltzburgers who cleared and planted four acres of 
Land bejond the Ebenezer contrary to my orders and with- 
out my knowledge. They also turned their cattle over the 
River some of whom straved aAvay and eat the Uchees corn 

o() LETTEKS IT.OM GENEJtAL (KiJ.i; 1 llolil'E. 

20 iiiili's ;il)()ve Ebeiiezer. But wliiit vext the Ucliees more 
was that some of the Carolma people swam a great Herd 
of Cattle over Savainiah and sent up Negroes and began 
a Plantation on the Georgia side not far from the Ucliees 
Town. The Ucliees instead of taking (Tieens advice and 
l)eginning Hostilities with us sent up their King and 20 War- 
ricu's with a Message of thanks to me for having ordered 
back the ('attle cV sent a^xav the Negroes whicli I did as soon 
as ever 1 arrived. Tlie3' told me that my having done them 
justice before they asked it made them love me and not 
believe the stories that Avere told them against me <S: that 
therefore instead of beginning a War with tlie English they 
were ccmie down to help me against the Spaniards and that 
if I wanted them they would bring down four score more of 
their Warriors who should stay with me a whole year. You 
see hoAV God battles the attempts of wicked men. 

Capt. Yoakley is just setting sail I have settled his 
accounts and einpowed Moore to sign them, because I would 
not keep the ship on Demurrage for my Keturu. I therefore 
desire you would look ujjoii my Name signed by him on that 
occasion as my act. As soon as this hurry wdtli the Span- 
iards is a little over I shall be able to send you very clear 
accounts in which I have conformed as near as possible to 
the Estimate. 

I am, 


Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

J. Oglethokpe. 

I Indorsed] 

Eec. 11 Aug. 1736, 



1 Jui.Y 1730. 


I send yon Copies of my last, together with the Transac- 
tions with the People of Carolina & Governour of Angnstine. 
The Day and Night together is not long enough to dispatch 
tlie nnnil)er of trilling things that are here necessary. I have 
bid Moore & Causton keep up the accounts and send them 
continually to you. It has been as yet impossible for me to 
look them over, having been taken up with the necessary 
defence of the Province which the People of Carolina desire 
to have entirely destroyed <fe united to theirs that they may 
have the benefit of the improvements here & the Kbei-ty of 
oppressing both the Indians & the English Poor as they do 
tlieir own. 

I am, 


Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 

July 1, 1736. 

To the Hon^"*^ the Trustees &c. 

Time pressing and there being so many papers to tran- 
scribe it was impossible to send a Copy of my last to vou. 


4 .Tui.Y 1736. 


I send you over a Proposal made to me, of which I desire 
you to consider. It is a method of remitting Money Tvdthout 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19. p. lU. t P. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19. p. no. 

.^8 i.l^TTKRft T'ROM aENniiAi. oritETilonrK. 

losing the Exchange. Goods to tlie vahie of the Money 
adynnced are assigned as secnrity. I liave a good opinion 
of it, since it will save Commission <t Exchanges, which I find 
very difficult now for they will not take the Georgia Bills in 
Carolina imless I give them below the Exchange. Wherefore 
I have rather chose to draw npon yon. 
I am 


Your very linmble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
Jnly 4, 1736. 

\ Addressed] 

The Hon^i*^ the Trnstees for 

Estabhshing the Colony of Georgia 
in America at their Office 
in Old Palace Yard 



24 July 1786. 


I was just going hence to the Spanish Frontiers when Mr. 
Purry l)rought me the enclosed Account. And as it is uncer- 
tain what might happen, I thought it necessary to give him 
Draughts for seven hundred pounds Sterhng on you on 
account thereof, untill it is further exammed. 

The large Ai^ticles of this Account are for Presents to the 
Indians and to fit out two Agents one for the Creek and the 
other for the Cherokee Nation to prevent those Nations fi-om 
falling upon us who have been sohcited thereto not only by 

* p. B. O. Geurgia. B. T. vol. r.>, p. 140. 


French & Spaniards but by some who are nearer to us as you 
will see by Hobochachi's speech. 

Severall other Articles have been issued at the publick 
store for Creditt to Familys who necessarily wanted such 
things, which either have been or will be repaid. 

The greatest part of the Ammunition is in the Store to 
supply the necessary uses of the Colony. And the Cash is 
accounted for in Mr. Causton's Cash Account being paid to 
him by my Order tor the better circulatuig the Georgia Bills 
and supplying the said Agents with Carolina currency in 
tlieii' journeys. I am, 

Your obedient & lium^'*^ Ser* 

J. Oglethorpe. 
July 24, 1736 for £400. 
To Mess^^ Montaigut ) 

& Comp. [ £700. 


2fi .Tttly 17^6. 

My Lord, 

The Act for securing the Peace with the Indians which was 
examined by Your Lordship was not onely wisely calculated 
for the advantage of his Majesty's Subjects but very accept- 
able to the Indians and will be the true means of preventing 
their falling into the French & Spanish Interest. 

A few Private Merchants in Charles Town for their o-v\'n 
Interest opposed the putting this Action in execution and 
gained a party in the Assembly where it was carried by one 
vote to raise £2000 sterling to indenniify the Traders that 
should come up against the King's Orders in the Georgia 
Act. Some of the Indian Traders sent up to the Indians and 
though with much difficulty obtained of one Indian Chief 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19, p. 123. 


named Opayliatchoo to deny the concession of those Lands 
which he himself had before consented with the rest of the 
Nation to grant. 

The French have attacked the Chickesaw Indians and been 
repulsed by them. I sent a large account to the Duke of 
Newcastle & to ycmr Lordship's of this matter, but fear letters 
sent by Charles Town have not always been forwarded. 
These Indians submitted themselves to His Majesty King 
George the First and were declared his Subjects by General 
Nicholson. Since that their Chiefs have received Commis- 
sions fi'om the King's Officers continually. They have been 
here to demand protection as the King's subjects and others 
of them have done so at Charles Town. I should be glad to 
know what to do. If the French be allowed to destroy our 
Indians, Nation by Nation m time of peace, the Settlements 
must follow in the first of a Warr. Mr. Wesley who was 
present at the conferences with the Chickesaws can give you 
a particular account of them. 
I am 

My Lord 

Your Lordsliip's 
most obedient 

humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
July 26th, 1736. 

rec^ by Mr. Wesley y*^ 8 Dec'"-- 


[36 July 1736.] 


The Town on the Alatamaha is already settled; The 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 19, p. 124. 


King's Independent Company is fixt on y^ same Island. 
The Man of War is likewise there <fe there are two Forts 
built and garrison'd beyond it. 

We are in great want of servants. If some 100'' of them 
c^ be sent over by one of the next ships yt come, there are 
persons enough here & to the South who w*^ be glad to pur- 
chase y"* immediately. 

I shall reduce the Expences by all possible Means, especi- 
ally by encouraging the Lazy to leave the Colony, tho' I do 
not doubt but they -svill abuse the Place, as many have already 
done. I had engaged 100 AVorkmen from various Places for 
6 Months & 50 Rangers for a year before I rec'^ y^" letters. 
The Spanish Frontiers have occasioned many large and new 
Expences. The French by attacking the Chickesaws who 
have Commissions both fi'om Gov'' Nicholson & Gov'' John- 
son & the Spaniards by attacking the Creeks shew y* Peace 
in Europe is no security for the English Province in America ; 
since if they conquer all the surrounding Indians during the 
Peace, the settlements much fall in the next war. 

Mr. Wesley who brings you this can give a more particular 
accomit of the present situation of the Indian affairs & of 
what has occurr'd since my last. The Opposition from Caro- 
lina forced me to give the Indians large presents to prociu*e 
their confirmation of the Cession of the Islands : and they 
have refused as yet to give leave to settle the Inland Parts 
up the Alatamaha. If the act for the Peace with the Indians 
be not supported, not only this Province but Carolina too 
must be undone & an Indian War follow. 

Macbain a highland man has a very good interest among 
the common people of that country and if Capt. Dunbar be 
sent to transport them, a large recruit of servants may be 
procured thence. 

Tis a very wise Resolution of you to send over no more 
people upon the Charity : for we have too many mouths and 
not labouring hands in proportion. 

AVliat w*^ be very necessary is, some more Persons to form 
the Morals of our Peojile & instruct them in Rehgion. The 
change smce the arrival of the Mission is very visible with 
respect to the increase of Industry, Love and Christian 


Cliaritv amoii^ them. But on their renun-al to tlie Indians, 
we shall be left entirely destitute, and the People by a 
relapse, if possible worse than l)efore. 
I am. 


Tonr most obedient 

humble Servant 
[Addressed \ To James Oglethoepe. 

The Hon^i" the Trustees 

[Indorsedl Mem'" Mr. Wesley says this Letter was wrote 
2G July 1730. 


30 July 1736. 

Savannah July 30th 1736. 

You having desired me in your letters to give Bills of 
Exchange to Mr. Furey for money at Charles Town. 

I have drawn bills of Exchange on you for £200 sterling 
dated July 23d and also for X200 sterhng dated herewith 
making =£400 sterling in favour of Mr. Peregrine Furey. 

As these Bills are for Currency reced of Messrs. Beal 
& Comp. to defi'ay the necessary expences of the Colony 
the application thereof will appear in Mr. Causton's Cash 
account. The whole sume of wliich is at present paid into 
the hands of Paul Jenj's Esq & Comp. to answer such 
Draughts as there shall be occasion to make on them. 
I am. 


Your most huiAble Serv* 

James Oglethorpe. 
[Addressed] To 

the Hono^^'' the Trustees for Establishing 

* p. U. (). (ieoryia. B. T. veil. l!l, p. ITJ. 


Georgia in Americia 

at their House in Palace Court 
To the care of Paul Jenys Esq. 


7 Attg. 1730. 


You have the Cash accounts by which you vdW see there 

is a Balance due from the Store at Savannah, which makes 

it necessary for me to draw on you for two hundred pounds 

sterling of this date in favour of Paul Jenys Esq""*" and Comp. 

I am. 


Your most humble Ser* 

James Oglethorpe. 
Aug. 7th 1736. 


29 Sept. 1786. 


Mr. Dempsey at Augustine acquainted me that several 
Expences were necessary for him to make there, all things 
being very dear and unless he acted according to the Cus- 
toms of the Countrey he could not hope for any success. 
Mr. Crokatt therefore an English Merchant at Augustine 
very handsomely furnished him with .£200 Sterling for which 
I have drawn Bills upon you to discharge Mr. Crokatt' s 

* p. R. O. Gecirgia. B. T. vol. 19, p. I'JU. t P. R. O. Georf<ia. D. T. vol. I'.l. p. 138. 


account. Tlicv Ix^ar date tliis day and are for £200 at one 
month's sight. 
I am 


Your most ohed* Serv^ 

James Oglethorpe. 
20th Sepf 1736. 


22 Oct. 1786. 


A Philadelphia Sloop loaded with Provisions bespoke by 
me at my arrival to make up the remainder of the People's 
provisions here for the year is now arrived. I have drawn 
upon you for the same in the following BUls, Viz : One for 
XlOO, one for £105, one for £95, one for £51, one for £49 and 
one for £75.13.115 all bearing date the same A\dth this letter, 
amounting in the Mdiole to £475.13.113. 

I shall set out soon for England where I hope I shall have 
the happiness of seeing you before January. 
I am, 

Your most obed* Serv* 

James Oglethorpe. 

22d October 1736. 

rec^ 17 Jan»y 1736-7. 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 20, p. H. 



35 (JcT. 1786. 


I have received yours and the Reguhitioiis are very well 
calculated for the present Circumstances, they will innne- 
diately be put in execution. All matters with the Spaniards 
are regulated and the Governour of Augustine contented. 
Therefore all being safe here I shall set out immediately for 
Europe, Captain Thompson lying in the River Savannah I 
have freighted him directly for England. The People to the 
Southward where the Act against Rum is strictly put m exe- 
cution, but those to the Northward where they run it fi'om 
Carolina in spite of the Officers, are very sickly. Mr. Wesley 
who Avas at Savannah when the Rum was seized will acquamt 
you of the particulars of it. Hoping to see you soon I shall 
say no more but that I am 

Your most obedient Serv' 

James Oglethorpe. 

25th Oct^ 1736. 


19 Nov. 1786. 


Mr. Robert Williams who hath a 500'^ Acre Lot in this 
Province has not only performed his AgTeements, 1)ut has 
brought over more servants than his Contract was for, and in 
all things has shewn a commendable zeal for the Company's 
service and sent down six servants for the defence of the 
Southern Frontiers. He has brought at different times tlu'ee 
ships with Molasses of which we stood in great need, and 

* p. R. 0. Georgia. B, T- vol. 20, p. 5. t ?• R. O, Georgia. B. T. vol. 19, p. IH, 


liatli loaded tliein with luinber at liis om'h Charges. He hath 
made some Im])r()veiueiits and he will m;ike much more c<m- 
sideral)le ones on his Lands. His brother John Williams 
hath also complied with his Articles. I therefore recommend 
him and his brother Williams to you and desire pursuant to 
the stated Resolution of rewarding those who discharge their 
Covenants and deserve well from the Publick that you would 
exempt them from the forfeitures upon the following Articles, 
viz : from the being obliged to plant it maintain the Mulberry 
Trees. 2'^^^ from the Prohibition of niakmg Pot Ash. That 
they shall not be obliged to clear the whole 500 Acres of 
Land in eighteen years, part of it being necessary to be 
reserved for wood. Thirdly that in case of the failure of 
heirs male of the said Robert Wilhams you will assign the 
said 500 Acres to such other person not possessed of Lands 
in Georgia as he under his hand and seal shall request of 

I am, 


Your most obed* humble Servant 

James OtiLETHoiU'E. 

19th Nov-- 1736. 


U» Nov. ITSO. 


Mr. John Williams brother to Mr. Robert Williams having 
deserved as I have mentioned in my letter to you of this date, 
prayeth that you would also favour him with the same per- 
mission as I desired in favour of his Brother. Therefore I 
desire that in case of the failure of heirs male of the said 
John Williams j'ou will assign the said 500 Acres to such 

* p. K. T. (ioorgia. B, T. vol. lit, ij, 145, 


other persons not pcissessed of lands in Georgia as lie 
under his hand and seal shall request of you. 
I am 


Your most obed*^ Serv* 

James OGLETHoiirE. 


19th Nov'^ 1736. 


20 Nov. 173(5. 


Mr. Eo])ert Williams having re})resented to me that he 
hath setled his Lands with men liorn in his own Countrey 
and intends to continue the same. And the_y having a partic- 
ular regard to him and his family will be unwilling to settle 
in this Countrey or more to come over b}' reason of their 
being apprehensive that in times to come the said Estate 
dropping for want of heirs male should be granted to 
Strangers and I knowing that your Intention is always to 
prefer Eelations or Friends to the succession of those near 
unto them and believing therefore that it would not be mcon- 
sistent with the Entails and the Preservation of Famihes in 
this Case so circumstanced to grant his Eequest. Therefore 
I desire that in failure of heirs male of his body you will 
grant the said 500'^ Acres upon the said C^onditions to such 
other person not possessed of Lands in Georgia as such Heir 
male shall under his hand and seal request of you. 
I am, 


Your mt>st huni^''^' Serv*- 

James Oglethorpe. 

20th Nov-^ 1736. 

* P, K. O. Cieor^ia. B. T. vol. 19, p. UG. 



13 Sept. 1738. 


We are now in soundings off the Const of Georgia a good 
deal to the Northward of our Port. Sir Yelverton Peyton, 
in the Hector is going to leave us for Virginia, and sends 
this Letter. The Officers the Men and their Families are 
(God be praised, all well as is 

Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
13th Sept^' 1738. 

[Addressed] To 

The honourable the Trustees for 
establishing the Colony of Georgia 
in America at their Office in Old 
Palace Yard 


re&^ 24th Nov'' 1738. 


IJ) Sei'T. 1738. 


I am now got to an anchor in a Harbour and near an 
Island that bears your Name. God has given us the greatest 
marks of his visil)le Protection to this Colony. The Span- 
iards though they had 1500 men at Augustine & there was 
nothing in Georgia but the Militia of the Countrey delayed 

* p. K. O, Geoj-gift. B, T. vol. 21. p. 76, t P- U. O. Georgia, B. T. vol. 21. p. 7«. 


attacking them till the Regular Troops arrived. We have 
had the finest passage and lost but one man out of the 
Soldiers. The Inhabitants are extreamly cheerfull and now 
hope that they have seen the worst over & that being no 
longer troubled with alarms they may on with their Impi-ove- 
ments. We shall certainly succeed in Silk and Wine m case 
the planters are supported by the Publick in those attempts. 
This Province bridles the Spaniards in America & covers the 
English Frontiers. The poor people that are here have been 
so harrassed by their threats & so constantly under arms 
that they have not been able to make that Provision for their 
subsistence which was necessary though it was far fi'om want 
of Industry in them. They have been sometimes obhged to 
be two days out of five on guard, notwithstanding which they 
have laboured their lands and made some Improvements. 
It is the vigilance & courage of the Militia that prevented 
the Spaniards fi-om being Masters of this Province as well as 
Carolina but they must in the end have been starved through 
want of time to follow their business if they had not been 
relieved by the Regiment. These duties to the Public 
Service have thrown them so backward that unless the 
Trustees have the continuance of the Parliamentary assist- 
ance, all that is already done will be lost and what is already 
given thrown away, besides it will be the gTeatest inhumanity 
to send over People to settle a Gountrey and when they have 
behaved so well as to sacrifice their own affairs to the pub- 
lick ser^-ice, then to abandon them to destruction I am 
persuaded therefore the Parliament will give the necessary 
supplies to the Trustees for the carrying on the Civil Govern- 
ment and the improvement of the Countrey. I hope you 
will be so good as to permit Mr. Towers and Mr. Archer 
to wait upon you on this occasion ; that you will make my 
Compliments acceptable to my Lady Jekyll and believe me 
to be Sir, 

Your most obedient and 

most humble Servant 
Jekyll Sound James Oglethorpe. 

19 Sept'- 1738. 

Pvt. Hon'^i* Sir Joseph Jekyll 



li) Sei'T. 1738. 

Frederica IDth September ITiiS. 

I am aiTived here ami tiud tilings in a better situation than 
I heard in Enghmd. All the Sontliern Division of the 
Province is in very good order. 

I have now told jon the best. I liear that the Northern 
Division of the Province has lost near three fourth parts 
of tlie Peoi)le since I left it, some running a^ay for fear 
of the Spaniards but ten for fear of debt; for the Court of 
Savannah has taken upim them to inqnison for debt, notwith- 
standing the Peojjle surrender tlu^ir effects. I landed here 
and sent up Mr. Jones express to Savannah. I have been 
unfortunately forced to stay by an unfortunate Difference 
between the Lieutenant Oohmel and some of tlie Officers 
of the Regiment and for the landing of men. I can say 
nothing with certainty of what has been done at Savannah'* 
till I see with my own Eyes. I have published the order 
forbidding all Certified accounts c*cc" and shall reduce all 
Expences but I fear if some of the people who have had 
misfortunes are not assisted witli Pr()\isions the Misery will 
be too great for Description. I hope you will obtain another 
suj^ply from Parliament, and there is gTeat hope, nay I may 
say no doubt that both Silk and Wine will in a very short 
time come to perfection I shall give you a further account 
when I have l)een at Savannah which will be in a few days. 
I must again mention that if there is not a supply from 
Parliament this year, those brave fellows who stood the worst 
and who till the- arrival of the Regiment were forced to be 
almost the whole year under arms nmst starve with their 
families since they could not do the duty and work at the 
same time; from hence forward I shall ease them of their 
heavy guards and only keep such a AVatch or Guard as will 
preserve the Peace of the Town which will be always 
necessary. I desire to know what Establishment you will 

* p. U, O. Georgia, B. T, vol, 21, v, 70, 


order if any that I may be able to prevent the storekeepers 
exceeding the allowaiice as I fear they have lately done. 
I am, 


Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
P. S. Capt. Burrish says the 
Entrance & the Harbour is very 
good & that much larger ships 
than his may come with safety. 

\ Indorsed] 
Gen. Oglethorpe to y'' Trustees 

rec-i 29 Jan''^ 1738-9. 
Eead to the Committee 14 March 1738-9. 


19 Sept. 1738. 

Extract of a Letter from General Oglethorpe to Thomas 
Archer Esq'"*' dated 19 Sepf 1738 at St. Simons in Georgia. 

I think you are very well acquainted with some of the 
Lords of the Admiralty, I must desire therefore that you 
would use your interest that Capt. Bumsh who commands 
the Man of War that brought me over may be continued on 
the Georgia Station, he is very zealous for the service and 
has showed by standing directly to the Southward up to the 
very noses of the Spaniards, whilst all the others went into 
Charles Town where they generally stay. If Captain Gas- 
coigne and'Captain Burrish were continued with their Ships 
on this Station and that one hes in Amelia & the other in 
Jekyll Sound, they will cover this Province by sea and keep 
open the C^ommunication between the Garrisons where m^- 

* p. B, 0. Georgia. B. T. vol. 21, p. 80. 


Kegimeiit must be dispeised amongst tlie Islands; If the 
Communieatiou is not ke})t open, it may be of very dangerous 

Perhaps tlie Lords of tlie Admiralty may say the Ships at 
Charles ToAvn may if we are attack(^d come up to (mr assist- 
ance but if they consider that (Iharles Town is near three 
degrees to the Northward and Augustine not above half 
a degree to the Southward the matter may l)e over before 
they come uj); besides that the (lulf of Florida sets with 
a rapid Current to the Nortlnvard so that it is very difficult 
to come from thence S<mthward and the same Wind that 
brings uj) the Spaniard from the Havannali hinders the Ships 
at Charles Town from coming down to us. 

Besides how strange a thing is it that there should l)e no 
Man of War stationed in a Frontier Port exposed to an 
Enemy, but that they should depend for their support upon 
those who lye in a Port in the heart of a peaceable Countrey 
above 100 miles distant. Mr. Winnington & Sir Thos. Ly ttle- 
ton are friends to Capt. Burrish, and if you mention it to 
them they will give their assistance to the Tinxstees in obtain- 
ing a Station ship for them. 


7 Oct. 17;}S. 

FliKDKliJCA 7th October ll'AH. 

1st, I have sent up Mr. Jones, as I informed ycm in my 
last I would, and am now going to Savannah. In the Inclosed 
is an account of the Condition I found the Southern Part of 
the Colony in on my arrival, as also a Petition from the 
people for support, the allegations of it are very true. The 
StorehoTise at Savannah has supported this Division of the 

* P, R, U, Georgia. C. T- voj. 21, p. 87, 


Province so ill tluit the People must have starved or aban- 
doned the Place had not Mr. Ortf^n given them his own 
Cattle and Corn to eat. 

2d. You see the Quantity of Provisions, a great deal of the 
Flower is in danger of spoiling on which I had it made into 
bread and sold to the Soldiers at prime cost, so that they had 
it at five farthuigs a pound ; the Money arising from it I have 
ordered to lie laid out in fresli Flower iov sup])lying the Tras- 
tees People. The Indian Corn, Mr. Causton bought in at 3s. 
6d. i)er Bushell and charged it at that Price to the Store 
here ; It is n(nv fallen, upon the new Harvest, which (God 
be praised is very plentiful in Carolina, so that it is sold at 
Is. per Bushell there. Our pcior people lost their Harvest by 
reason of their being called by the Spanish xVlarms from their 
howing. I have ordered the old Corn to be issued at Is. 2d. 
p bushell which if I luul not done, would have lieen lost, for 
the People would not have taken it at 3s. (kl. when they could 
have bought new Corn cheaper, and it would have spoiled in 
two months. 

3d. We want Beer here extreamly. I brought over Twenty 
Tuns of Beer which I issued to the Soldiers and Inhabitants 
at prime Cost Avhich I believe will be gone before I can 
receive a Sup})ly. There are six Barrells a day draAvn and 
paid for in ready money. It would be very proper therefore 
if the Trustees affairs would allow it, to send over a Cargo of 
at least 50 or 60 Tons of strong Beer, and that, of the same 
as I had from Mr. Hucks in Southwark. It will be a better 
renuttanc,e than even Bills, since Beers being cheap is the 
only means to keep Rum out of the Colony, thank God, 
there is none in tliis part, Mr. Horton having used great 
diligence to prevent it, to which in a great measure is 
viz: 2 lb. the health and Industry of the People. 
peVk^'ud' 4tli. Upon the necessity I have granted the Peti- 
had" 4 lb. tion so far as to continue to furnish the People upon 
have now re- Credit witli 6 pouuds of bread kind and 2 pounds of 

duced y" to i p 1 • i. i? l 

2 lb. meat per week <v 1 pint oi molasses. 

5th. I shall when I come to Savannah strive to reduce all 
the Trustees Expences as nuich as I can, but I can say noth- 
ing of certain relating to the Northern part of the Province, 

54 LP;tTET1S prom general OGLETTtDRM^,. 

Keports l)emg so different. I fear there lias been great 
Koguery iu the certified acco^" there having been several 
Barrells of Provisions bought from Philadelphia and New 
York, which were condemned as unfit for food, and burnt as 
such. The Prices of the Goods were also exorbitant and the 
species very bad. I have great difficulties to struggle with, as 
vou may conceive, a gi-eat number of mouths to feed, empty 
Magazines and no Money ; a gi-eat Debt, I fear, is contracted, 
but as there was no authority for contracting that Debt I 
shall wait your Orders before I will approve or pay any of it. 
I take a List of all the Stores I find in the Colony, and I will 
intermeddle nor approve of nothing that was done before my 
arrival till I hear fi-om you. I will make the few stores that 
are here go as far as possible towards supphdng the People 
but if we have not a supply fi-om Parliam* the Misery will he 
inexpressible, for there are eight months that the Colony is to 
be supported, and no other Fund, as I can find, except the 
.£500 of Sola Bills which you sent over with me ; and what is 
in the Magazines. The best Expedient I can think of is to 
support the Credit by paying such Certified Accounts, the 
Particulars of which have been honestly delivered at moderate 
prices. If any certified accounts shall appear to have been 
fraudulently obtained; your Judgement will be the best 
direction how to proceed therein. I will inquire at Savannah 
into that matter, whether there has been any combination or 
fraud between the Persons who delivered the Goods and those 
imployed by you, and you will take the advice of proper 
persons how far such Informations will justify you in over- 
hawling those Accounts, 

Till I have examined things at Savannah I cannot see clear 
enough to make a fuU report but hope that if the Parliament 
grants us the Supply, I shall be ai)le to settle all things so as 
to put the Colony into a very flourishing condition. It will 
cost me a gi'eat deal of labour but I shall grudge no pains 
for to bring about that good end. 

Among other Disappointments the great Drowtli and the 
Spanish Alarms last year hath rendered the best and most 
zealous part of the people incapable of supporting themselves 
this year, but thank God we are rid of great numbers of idle 

T.ttTTiins From general oGLETHonrlv 55 

inontlis who ran away from the Nortliern Division part for 
debt, part for fear of the Spaniards. 

I hear tliere are several inchistrious })eople of some sub- 
stance who are wilhng to come up at tlieir own expence if you 
will give them the forfeited Lotts. 

The Spaniards have tempted the Creek Indians with gi"eat 
Presents to joyn against us which they have refused and 
yesterday arrived a Messenger from the Towns that the Chief 
Men are coming down to Jiieet me. The Spaniards reported 
that I had been disgraced in England and that I should never 
return and this was confirmed by the Carolina traders. The 
Creeks declared that they wcmld take no determination till 
they could see me and their Chief men come down to confer 
with me and I shall see them in a feAv Days at Savannah. 
This will he a new Expence for tliere must l>e Presents given 
to them. 

Some Soldiers who had been in the Irish Troops in France 

and Spain listed in our Regiment. I had some information 

of this in Portsmouth since which I have found out the whole 

comliination, and have taken the furlow which one of them 

had from the Duke of Berwick's Regiment. A young Recruit 

has discovered the Proposal they made to him to secure some 

advance Post, destroy the Officers and go into Foreign 

service. I have ordered a General Court Martial to be held 

upon them, but have not yet received their Report. The 

fellows are very artful and it was with great difficulties we 

could find out that they had been in Foreign service. 

I am. 


Your most hum'^'*^ Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
The Hon^i^ the Trustees. 

P. S. 

I send you a Plan of the Town of Frederica with the 
Granted Lotts & the names of the Possessors. Some families 
go away and some are newly come. I send you also the 
Petition of the old Freeholders as likewise of those newly 
arrived. Dr. Hawkins is in the regiment and wants no pro- 
visions therefore is not in the liist. I send you a List of the 


new Froeliolders and a List of tlie old Fv(>eholders and of 
their allowances. I send you a E,eturn of the Freeholders 
and of the weekly issues to them before my arrival. A List 
of persons on pay in the Trustees service at Frederica. 

The Establishment of St. Andrews w'^ consists of 19 of 
the Trustees Servants and 10 upon hire. I have ordered the 
10 upon hire to be reduced, but it will be necessary to give 
them one month's pay to enable them to return to their 
homes. I have also reduced the two Caipenters but have 
continued Mr. Hugh Mackay to oversee the Trustees Servants 
and one Storekeeper and I shall send as many of the Tras- 
tees Servants fi'om the other parts of the Province as will 
make up the Compliment and I hope by their labour to 
defray the charge of keeping them. The whole of St. 
Andrews for keeping and employing the servants will be 
X229 per ann. The Surgeon of the Regiment will take care 
of the Servants so that that Expence also will be saved there- 
fore there will be 31 of the Trustees Servants subsisted and 
kept to work for £229 per ann : which upon each will be 

Here are also servants on pay at Frederica Mr. Auspour- 
ger at 3s per day Surveyor. John Calwell Deputy Surveyor 
at 2s per day and the Labourers at the same rate. I have 
ordered the Labourers to be turned off as soon as the Ships 
are unloaded, in which they assist and I shall get the service 
they now do, performed by 3 of the Trustees servants who 
are without wages. Their Food is mentioned in a List but 
it will be necessary to keep a Cooper and the 2 Clerks Small- 
wood & Dobree and the Storekeeper White upon pay. 

I have reduced upon the people of Frederica with their 
own Consent, so that they are now to have but 2ft)S of meat 
per week per head and they consent to pay for even this httle 
which they shall receive. 

If we do not supply these Expences the People cannot 
keep together here, I desire therefore an answer as soon as 
possible what I should do and I shall write you an acco' 
fi-om Savannah of that part of the Province. 


Rec'^ Jany 22, 1738-9. 
Read March 26, 1739. 



19 Oct. 1738. 


I rec*^ a Copy of Mr. Verelst's Letter dated the 4tli Aug* 
and in answer to it, am very glad that the prudent measures 
you took to stop all credit here has had an effect (as you 
mentioned) suitable to your Intentions. 

I have not issued the 500X Sola Bills & do not intend to 
do it, 'till I hear from you ; Upon my arrival I sent Mr. Jones 
from Frederica & have taken possession of the Books 
& Effects in y" Store. Mr. Jones will receive them as soon 
as they can be delivered him regularly. I demanded an 
Inventory of the Stores which Mr. Causton has delivered 
(but Mr. Jones tlimks 'tis imperfect) I send it herewith. 
You will see how small the remains of the vast stores laid 
in are and how insufficient of supporting the Colony to 

These accounts are very imperfect great part of the Steers 
& Hogs charged to y*^ acco* are wild in the Woods, others 
lost ; The jDrice of all overcharged. The acco* of stores sent 
to Frederica is not allowed by the Storekeeper there, he 
alledging that he can prove they were not delivered, the 
Darien the same, and a great part of what they received was 
damaged when sent. 

I am very sorry to send you such trifling papers but they 
are the only accompts I can yet get. The estimate of the 
monthly allowance of provision for Servants would lead 
one into an Error, for most of those whom Mr. Causton 
trusted with Servants, cannot maintain them, & depend on 
the Store for Subsistence. 

I cannot as yet find that Causton has been guilty of getting 
for liimseK, tho' he has unaccountably trifled away the pubhc 
money; one of the FoUies that has brought this ruine on, 
is the trusting People that importuned him with Goods and 
Provisions of all kinds & let them discharge the Debts by 
day labour in trifling works ; Whilst mony was thus squau- 

* p. a. O. Geovaia.. B. T. Vdl. -il, p. SS. 


(IrrcMl tlic rciil iiecessary t'liar<jfes of tlie Colony were not 
(lefrHA'eil ; The Scout Boatmen, Eangeis <V: others who 
defended tlie Pro\dnce are not paid and starvmg whilst the 
Trustees owe tlieni niony and yet they were not only con- 
tented to stay till my arrival, but when I told them the 
Tmstees circumstances, their affection was so j^reat, that they 
offered to serve on until the Trustees affairs mended; 
I thanked them but reduced the Rangers, since I could not 
feed them with ho})es of what I could not make good ; The 
Scout Boats I have for this month paid out of my own mony 
since they are absolutely necessary Miid I will not charge 
the Trustees with new debts. 

There is a worse circumstance than any above, viz : the 
Industrious Poor Poo})le who have saved something by 
frugality have lodged their little all in the store hoping 
to have provisions fi'om thence in their Necessity ; and now 
if the store cannot pay, they nnist y)erish for want; the like 
misery must befall all the Trustees servants as well as many 
of the Inhabitants whom sickness and misfortunes have 
prevented from having a crop this year. 

I have sent your Orders to Mr. Stevens & Parker, a copy 
of which I send you and their answer, which I believe you 
Avill think reasonable and a very good expedient. 

I can see nothing but destruction to the Colony unless 
some assistance be immediately sent us; I support things 
for a while by some mtmy I have in my hands, & is the 
Ballance of my acco* with the Trustees, and the rest I sujiply 
with my own Mony for I will not incurr Debts nor draw Bills 
upon you; and if the Effects here go to pay the Certified 
accompts they will not near pay them, for they will not 
amount to half the sum of the Debts incurred here that are 
not certified. 

If this (I know not Avhat name to give it) had not happened, 
the Colony had (nercome all its difficulties A' had been in 
a flourishing condition. The Italians begin to like the Place 
and the family of Cameus have wound silk as fine as the last 
was which was made in Georgia, there are a great many 
Mulberry Trees in the Garden which begin to recover them- 
selves so that next year they will feed a great quantity 


of worms; There's Earth found here that a Potter has bak'd 
into China Ware, they have also found stone, they make very 
good brick and Ume. There are several yokes of Oxen broke 
and several Cai-ts with horses — Since the idle people have 
run away, there seems to be a spirit of Industry stirring but 
I fear it comes too late, if they are not speedily supported. 
The Trustees Saw Mill has worked and hath saw'd 700 feet 
a day w^'^ if managed right will bring an income. 

You recomend it to me, to keep the industrious people 
from real want out of the surplus of the stores after payment 
of the Debts, but, as I mentioned above, there will be no 
such surplus for they are not sufficient to pay half the Debts 
owmg here, and therefore I fear cannot sujjport the People 
till the News of what the Parliament may gi-ant at then- next 
Session can arrive. 

Had any Bills been sent over to me, or was I sure there 
would no demand be, upon what is now in store, I could 
make shift to support the most valuable part of the People 
which I shall still strive to do, tho' with little hopes of success 
for I must do it out of my own money. I have already 
expended a great deal and as far as the Income of my Estate 
and Employments for this year will go, I shaU sooner lay 
it out in supporting the Colony (till I can hear from you) 
than in any other Diversion. 

You ask me the sum I think necessary to carry on the 
Civil concerns of the Colony. I reckon the lowest sum that 
can be expended here, if you expect any success in the 
Improvements in Silk and Wine, and keep up a form of Civil 
Government, will be X5000 a year expended here, and you 
are exceedingly^ right in sending that sum over in Sola Bills 
(& that in time,) and in not suffering any Debt to be con- 
tracted here to which the Trustees can be liable. It will be 
necessary to have a sufficient sum to pay what you are in 
arrear. I believe that sum may be made out by adding what 
you owe here to what Mr. Verelst knows fi-oni the certified 
acco** but I suspect there is a good deal more, by their loose 
manner of keeping their acco*^ (since Mr. Burnside, whom 
I left here, was dismissed from the Store) that they scarce 
know how iinich they owe : It is said that there is above 


1000 £ owiii^ to Carpenters for buildiii}^' SIkhIs tt Hutts, 
to Boat hire (fee, yet not brought in : — Another thing may 
lead you into a mistake in beheving tliat there is mony due 
to the Store here, from the acco* Mr. Causton sent you 
of Goods issuetl fi-om y" store to sundry perscms (a copy 
whereof you sent me) whereas most of thosti people were 
Creditors who were paid Avliat was due to them from the 
Store by giving them Credit with the Sloo]) Owneis. 

The short state of your afi'airs is, That this unhappy man 
Causton, hath (;<)ntra(tted a ])el)t at home and al)road far 
beyond what the Trust is possessed of, therefore nothing can 
be issued from the store, except in ])ayment of Debt, since 
all belong to the Creditors. 

There are a great number of People to be assisted here, 
Orphans, AVidows tfe the Sick, There is a great surplus, I 
fear due by the Trust. Therefore the only Remedy I can 
think of, is, — If y' Trustees Inive not Mony sufficient to pay 
the certified Accompts and Demands in England, then to })ay 
what they have equally at an average and out of the next 
Supply (if any) given by Parliament to pay the Remainder, 
whilst I will, out of the Stores here, pay the Debts as far as 
they go, and make out an Accompt of the remaining Debt 
which I think should also be paid out of the supply granted 
by Parliament. AYlien all the Debts are paid the Trustees 
set out anew, and setting aside what the Expences of y*" Office 
and other Expences in England Avill amount to for the Year 
they should send hither in Sola Bills what part of the Par- 
hamentary Sui)i)ly they think will be sufficient for the 
Improvement and Support of the Colony. I think that sum 
cannot be less than £5000, But whatever it is I will make it 
go as far as possible, it shall not be exceeded. 

You have given me orders to build the Church and culti- 
vate the Lands for religious uses both here and at Frederica; 
As I will not incurr any Debts, I cannot proceed unless you 
send me Sola Bills, or order me to issue those in my posses- 
sion. And place in the Bank so nnich of the mony appropri- 
ated to religious uses as shall answer the Bills which you 
order me to issue. 

With respect to Causton's behaviour here, I have already 


mentioned. I examined liim to know what could be the 
meaning, that he dare to exceed so excessively your Orders 
<fe thereby plunging the Colony into its present difficulties. 
He answered that he made no expences but what necessity 
forced him to, and that he could prove that necessity. He 
entered into several particulars ; That the Multitude forced 
him to build a Fort for fear of the Spaniards; That the 
charge of Saltzburghers and other charges were not provided 
for in the Establishment sent over by the Trustees ; That he 
received that Establishment too late to comply with it. He 
did not pretend to justify himself in not sending over the 
Ballance of his accompts. His negligence to bring his Acco*'^ 
to a Ballance half yearly, or every year at least has been the 
occasion of the melancholy scituation he has put us in. Some 
tilings he alledged that had weight — That the prices of Pro- 
visions were treble to what they were at my first arrival here 
from whence we calculated the Estimate — That the Spanish 
Alarms obliged him to comply Avith the humour of the people 
here, for which reason he was forced to give any prices to 
Sloops to bring down provisions to the Colony. He said 
farther that he had not been guilty of any fraud nor con- 
verted any of the Trustees mony to his own use. He at first 
seemed pretty stubborn but upon a second examination he 
was more submissive ; When I was about to comit him, he 
pleaded that it was not usual here to comit Freeholders for 
any but Capital Crimes. That Watson, who was accused of 
killing a man, and had been found guilty by a Jury, was 
bail'd upon his own Recognizance. That he submitted to the 
Trustees and that all he had acquired in his six years service 
and all that he had in the world was laid out in improvements 
on his Lot in the Colony, and that he would give all as 
security to abide and justify his acco*"- He has accordingly 
given security. He has delivered the Stores, Books ttc. imto 
Mr. Jones, according to your appointment. I have not been 
able to enter into the rest of the affairs of tlie Colony ; The 
Saltzburghers thrive and so do the peoi)le at Hanipstead & 
Highgate. There are abundance of good Houses built in 
this ToAvn. I desire to know in what manner you would 
have me proceed m Causton's afi'air, And I desire you 


■would fiivour nie witli your answer to this letter as soon as 


I am, 


Your obed' lium^''' Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 

October 11), 173S. 

I /ii(/ni\Sf' I 

Gen^ Ogletli()r})e to the Trustees wrote by Mr. Jones, 
rec'i '22 Jan'y follow-' 


30 Nov. 1788. 

Frederic A, 20 Nov. 1738. 
Dear George, 

I am here in one of the most delightful situations as any 
man could wish to be. A great number of Debts, empty 
magazines, no money to supply them, numbers of jjeople to 
be fed, mutinous Soldiers to command, a Spanish Claim & a 
large body of their Troops not far fi'oni us. But as we are 
of the same kind of spirit these Difhculties have the same 
effect upon me, as those you met with in the C^ity, had upon 
you. They rather animate than daunt me. 

There is no doubt but that the Debts due to the Merchants 
& others for supporting the Colony in the time of the greatest 
Dangers ought to ])e paid for by the Parliament. Shall they 
who ventured their effects to prevent a Colony's being swal- 
lowed up by a Spanish Invasion, be riiined for their PubUck 
Spirit? Shall the poor men who are here in Garrison in the 
Trustees service, on the iitmost frontiers of America starve 
for want of the ]iay which is due to them. T am perswaded 

* p. U. O. Georgia. B. T. voj, 21, p. 97, 


the Coninions of England will never think so. If the Trustees 
will but concert and apply to Parliament for a sufficient sum 
they certainly will succeed. It- is the interest of the Mer- 
chants who have the certified Accounts to assist them. The 
Parliament ought to eiuible tlie^ Trustees to pay these Del)ts 
for the following reasons. They granted £20,000 for the 
whole Expenc^e of the Colony, but when they separated the 
Military from the (Hvil, they granted l)ut £8,000 for the Civil 
Expence, supposing that a Regiment would arrive there Avliich 
would take off' the Military Expence, l)ut it was near a year 
before the Regiment arrived all which time the Trustees 
Officers were obliged to continue the Expences for the 
Defence of the Province by maintainmg the Militia who were 
under arms, by paying Scout l)oats. Rangers and Garrisons 
and supplying the Indians with iVrms, Amunition and Neces- 
saries, in order to keep them in readiness against the Spanish 

These measures occasioned Debt but these measures pre- 
served the Province and frustrated the attempts of the 
Spaniards fi-om Cuba and Augustine, nay even prevented 
their daring t(5 attack so much as one Out Post. 

But supposing on the contrary the Triistees Servants here 
had not ventured to buy Provisions on credit, but had on the 
ceasing of the Military Estal)lisliment and before the araval 
of the Regiment abandoned the Garrisons, the Spaniards 
might then have taken possession of them, without so much 
as an Hostility and the Nation would have had no remedy 
but applying to Commissaries or entering into a War. These 
measures therefore ought to be justified, and the Parliament 
if applied to, will doubtless enable the Trustees to pay those 
who so fraidvly risqued their substance for the Pubhck 

I need not conjure you by your friendship to me, for I 
know your own pubhck spirit will make you animate our 
friends to apply to ParUament, and push for such a supply 
as may pay the Debts and continue to support the Improve- 
ments of the Colony. I shall add nothing more than to 
assure you that in what ever part of the AM)rld I am, neither 
(distance nor time can lessen the sincere aiiectiou I have for 


you and hope von will believe me to be 
Your most obedient & 

most humble Serv* 

James Oglethorpe. 
Alderman Heathcote. 


22 Nov. 1738. 

Frederica in Georgia 
Nov^- 22d, 1738. 
Sir, . 

I cannot yet get Mr. Causton's Balance of Account, nor can 
I be sure of the Debts due in Georgia; every day fresh 
demands come in. By my best guess there is above £8000 
due in Georgia, besides the Certified Accounts. The Expence 
here of the year for the Improvements of the Colony the 
Civil Government and Presents to the Indians cannot be 
brought under £5,000 for the year. The Trustees Stores "w-ill 
be no assistance at all towards it, since they have been 
ordered to be issued in payment of Debts at Savannah. I 
have desired Mr. Jones to draw out a particular of all the 
Expences that are absolutely necessary. I hope therefore 
that the Trustees will apply to Parliament for a sum sufficient 
to pay the certified accounts, the Debts incurred here & to 
provide for the charges of the year. They will be the best 
Judges how much that sum must be. I reckon the Military 
Expence for the year, between the ceasing of the Military 
Establishment and the arrival of the Regiment might amount 
to £12,000. I reckon therefore the Debts certified and 
uncertified that are unpaid must amount to near that sum 
and the Expence of the year from my arrival this November 
to the 1st of next November w^ill be £5,000. If the Trustees 

* V. U. U. Georgia. 15. T, vo}. '21, p. 9y, 


think the sura of £17,000 is more than they can obtain from 
Parhanient, they will do what they think best, but if y" Par- 
liament does not pay the Debts, It will only be impossible to 
support the Colony at all, but the misery of the poor people 
who came upon their own Expences and trusted their little 
Fortunes upon the Publick Faith will be inexpressible. The 
Clamour also of the Merchants who furnished Provisions <kca. 
in the time of the Spanish Alarm upon seeing the necessity 
of supporting y*^ Colony, will be very great. I should there- 
fore move the Trustees to insist upon a sum sufficient to pay 
the Debts and support the Colony, and I am so persuaded 
that the Parliament will grant such a sum that I venture 
upon paying all the necessary Expences here, out of my own 
Pocket, without drawing on y*^ Trastees or charging them 
with any debt, till I hear of y*^ determination of Parliament, 
which I fear will be near six months, in which time I fear I 
shall have expended (though I shall use the utmost Oecono- 
ray) near ^£2,500. 

I have paid £100 pursuant to the Trustees order to Lyon 
to enable him to carry on y*^ Vineyards. I sent you by my 
last letter his Receipt & I have secured the other =£100 to 
him. I have paid at Savannah about £400 part in purchas- 
ing Provisions for the supplying of the most necessitous 
people, part for making up presents to the Indians. Four 
Kings of whom, with gi-eat numbers of Warriours and 
Attendants 80 in all came down there to meet me and to 
assure me of their Fidelity to His Majesty and that they had 
rejected the Spanish offers. 

I have ordered the account of the Issues of y" Indian 
Presents to be made out and sent to you. I have sent you 
also an acknowledgment signed by the Officers who arrived 
Avith the first part of the Troops, of their having Boats 
furnished to them, ct boarded Hutts built for them at the 
Trustees Expence, which is demandable from Parliament. I 
have not been able to get in yet the particular account, but 
the whole must amount to above £1000, for the Regiment 
and aU the persons belonging to them amounted to above 
1000 and the Hutts and Boat hire for them and such a 
tjuantity of stores as came over cannot be reckoned at less 


than 20s. cliuvge ])ei' head one Avitli another. I have dehvered 
the yawl to the Pih)t for to he it Pilot boat, according to y^ 
Trustees order. I have ordered Copies of the Wast book 
kept at the store at Frederica to be made ont tt sent over to 
you every month from the time of my coming over. There 
is not hands to i)ost up after the Italian manner of book 
keeping, but I suppose if yon have a Wast book sent over 
you may do that in Lcmdon. I hope if y'' Parliam* makes a 
Grant that the Trustees will innnediately send 8ola Bills for 
what they intend should be the Expence of the year. 
I am, 

Y(mr very hund)le Servant 

James U(iLETHoKrE. 
Inclosed I send you an Ace* 
of the Mutiny at St. Andrews, 
and a letter to Mr. Holland 
which if he is not in Town 
you may open and read and 
communicate to y^ Trustees. 

I Indorsed \ 
General Oglethorpe to the Accountant, 
reed 15 Feb'-v 1738-(9.) 


21 Dkc. 1738. 

21st December, 1738. 

Mr. Mackuitosh syjoke to me and showed me your letter to 
him of the 11th August. I found that he had disi)osed i)ur- 
suant to the Trustees Orders a part of the Servants to the 
Freeholders of Darien upon Oredit, which encouragement 
had enabled that Settlement to continue under all the difti- 

I'. 1(. O. Hfort^iii, li. T. vol. Jl, 11. U14, 


culties arising from the Spanish Alarms (tea. they being 
the Frontier Settlement on the Continent. The remaining 
Servants he had reserved in the Tnistees hands. The 
Women were * dead charge to the Trust, excepting a few 
who mended the Cloaths, dressed the Victuals and washed 
the Linnen of the Trustees Men Servants. Some of the 
Soldiers who were Highlanders desiring to marry them 
Women I gave them leave upon their discharging the Trus- 
tees fi'om all future Charges arising from them. The Men 
Servants are now taught to saw and they make good work 
and indeed are the only hands in the Province that bring 
any advantage to the Trust. I therefore thought it improper 
to take fi'om the Saw till the Trustees knew the Circum- 
stances and gave their farther orders. They are now sawing 
Timber for the Church or rather Chappel at Frederica which 
I have agi'eed to have . built. The whole Building will be 
sixty foot long by twenty foot wide, three Stories, the two 
Lowermost Cellars and Rooms for Provisions, Books k"^^ and 
the uppermost, a Chappel. The assistance of j^ Timber, the 
work of the Trustees Servants & the Flints I brought over, 
wdll make ^uch a saving that I think I shall get the whole 
finished for less than .-£150 Money, exclusive of y^ Timber 
and Labour of the Trustees Servants and if this Building 
was to be performed without their assistance, It would have 
cost above double that sum. 

It is impossible at this present, for the Freeholders at 
Darien to pay in Money for their Servants, but they are very 
willing and able to pay in sawed stuff both for that and the 
Provisions which they owe. They have wanted Provisions 
for three Quarters of this year ha^dng raised but just enough 
corn to supply themselves three months. I am forced there- 
fore to let them have one bushel of Corn and eight pounds of 
meat per head per month upon Credit. 

Mr. M'^Intosh will write to you more at large the afl'airs of 

I am, 


Your very humble Serv* 

James Oglethorpe, 
Mj. Harman Yerelst. 


rec'"^ 28 August 1789. 
General Oglethorpe's letter to the Trustees Accouutant. 


8 Mahch ir;^s-!i. 

Savannah Sth March 178H 9. 

Mr. Obryaii is a man who hath kept a Storehouse for fur- 
nishing the Indian Traders with Goods, he took up a Lot 
on the first Settlement of Augusta, and hath returned me the 
Inclosed Plot thereof. I should reconnuend to you the 
granting to him and the heirs male of his Body under 
the same Restrictions, Reservations and Limitations as usual, 
the said SOU'^' acres of Land and to send over the said Grant 
under your Seal unto him. The settlement of Augusta 
is of gi-eat service it being 800 miles frcnn the Sea, and the 
Key of all the Indian Countrey therefore I recommend to you 
the forwarding the said Grant, it being a reward of a consid- 
erable inhaliitant, who begun the Settlement of the Town 
at his own Expence with a well furnished Warehouse. There 
are also several other men who have deserved extreandy well 
of the Trustees whom I shall recommend to you for Lotts 
near the said Place. 
I am. 


Your most ol)edient 

humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
The hon'"'' the Trustees. 

p. U. O. Georgia. U, T- vol. 21, p. 127. 



9 March 1T38 9. 

Savannah 9th Maivli 1738 9. 

I acquainted yon upon my first arrival with the terrible 
bad situation of aft'airs, but I find you received those advices 
extreamly late l)y reason of neglect at Charles Town. 

The Store hath received a second advice from you that 
you have sent back an account Certified by Mr. Causton 
of £772.4.7 due to Mr. Symond for Goods deliver'd to the 
Stores here, and that you have ordered it to be paid here. 
The scituation of the Stores you will find by Mr. Jones's 
Letters as Avell as mine and that there was a great deal more 
due amongst the People upon the Spot here, than the Stores 
amounted to. The Store oftered Mr. Purry, who is Mr. 
Symond's Correspondent, to deliver him Provisions ttca. that 
were in store in payment of the Delits, at the prices which 
other Creditors offered to take them in payment of theirs, 
but he said he was nuAvilling to take the Provisions which 
was all that the poor people here had to keep them fi-om 
starring, out of their mouths. And also that his demand was 
for Goods sold for Money, and not for Provisions and Goods 
which he did not know how to raise money u})on if he had 
them. Mr. Purry here, as well as Mr. Symond at London, 
have been of great service to the Colony. All that they have 
delivered into the stores has Ijeen of the best sorts in a good 
condition and at the lowest prices and if other people had 
dealt as well by the Trustees there had been several 
thousands of Pounds saved. I should therefore recommend 
it to you as a point of expediency as well as Justice, to pay 
out of the first monies that come to hand this Demand 
of Mr. Symonds. 

There was £426.0.2 more delivered by Mr. Purry to the 

■- p. R. O. Georfjia. B. T. vol. 21. p. 128. 

70 LETTERS FROxM GENERAL 0('}LTiTliORi'>][!;. 

Store here before iny arrival &: expended otherwise, he would 
have took the same goods back again. 
I am, 


Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 

There is also ano*" acco" 
not yet settled, but w''^ is 
supposed may amo' to ab* 
400 and odd pounds for prov^ 
& goods deF before my arrival 
and Money to the Missionary. 

The hon^^i^ the Trustees. 


ree^ 18 June 1739. 


12 March 1738-9. 

Savannah 12th March 1738-9. 

It is with great difficulty I carried on affairs here. Mr. 
Jones hath acted with steadiness and courage, he desired me 
not to confirm a Certificate signed by Mr. Causton in favour 
of Mr. Williams for the reasons in his Letter. Mr. Williams 
is very angry and hath got the poor people of Savannah, 
many of whom are deeply in debt to him, to sign the Petition 
for Negroes which affirms that white men cannot work in this 
Province. This assertion I can disprove by hundreds of Wit- 
nesses, all the Saltzburghers the people of Darien, many 
at Erederica and Savannah and all the Industrious in the 

■ p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 21, p. 129. 


Province. The idle ones are indeed for Negi'oes. If the 
Petition is c-ountenanced, the Province is ruined. Mr. AVil- 
lianis and Doctor Talfeur will buy most of the Lands at 
Savannah with Debts due to them and the Inhabitants must 
go off and be succeeded by Negi'oes. Yet the very debtors 
hiive been weak enough to sign their Desire of Leave to sell. 

A worse alt'air hath hap])eued, upon the civil letter wrote 
by the Trustees to Mr. Causton to furnish Colonel Cochran 
with what he wanted for the Regiment and paying for the 
same, a C^redit hath been given to his order to y'' amount 
of £935.13.3 and Mr. (^auston hath taken from C-ol. Cochran 
£198 in Wines. The Debt cannot be demanded of the 
Eegiment for Regiments have nothing but the })ay of each 
individual Officer and Man. When six Soldiers Avere sub- 
sisted out of the Trustees Store, no more should have been 
issued than what their Pay would have discharged but they 
have received and s})ent their Pay, and the Debt for their 
subsistence is still due to the Trustees nor can I tell from 
whence the money can come for to discharge it. 

I have advanced for the service of the Colony about £2000 
and have drawn Bills upon Mr. Yerelst upon my own account 
and have ordered all my Cash, Pay and Salary (t appoint- 
ments in his hands to answer those Bills, wutli that Sum 
I have paid the five months Expences since my arrival and 
if the Parliament have granted any Money I hope you will 
reserve that sum, that when you are satisfied that it hath 
been applied in such manner as you shall approve of, you 
will pay that money into the hands of Mr. Verelst for 
replacing my money that paid the Bills. 

There are 10 ounces of silk w^orms Eggs hatched and Lyon 
hath planted | of an acre of Vineyard which thrives well 
and hath 20 acres cleared ah-eady which he intends to plant 
ill the fall. The Trustees have ^ an acre and the Plants have 
begTin to shoot A" promise Avell. 
I am, 


Your most obedient humble Servant 
. James Ogt.ethorpe. 

[Li(h)rsf'<l\ rec'^ by ('apt. Yeoman 11 May 1739. 



4 .July 1739. 

Frederica in Georgia 4th July 1739. 

Give me leave to thank you for the gi'eat care you took 
to send immediate assistance to me, by ordering the issuing 
of the Five Hundred Pounds in Bills and by sending me £710 
in Bills, and by the vigorous push you made in Parliament, 
the Resolutions of which hath preserved this Colony, and by 
it covered all the Trade of North America fi-om the Spanish 
Guarda Costas. 

I am very glad to find by the last of yours that you have 
come to a Resolution of keeping no stores here after what 
is at present in the Magazines is expended but for the future 
paying for the Servants Subsistance and other Expences in 
ready Money. In this there is but two difficulties which 
I hope to be able to regulate in the execution, the first is the 
Merchants seeing that there is no publick Stores may run up 
the Prices of all provisions to treble the value so that the 
People may not with their Money be able to buy Food, the 
second is that the People themselves when they receive their 
pay may spend it in Drink instead of buying victuals and so 
suft'er in their healths as the Independent Company did in 
General Nicholson's time of whom two thirds died in a year. 
However I believe both these Inconveniences may be pre- 
vented by the Regulations which I shall make for the Mer- 
chants & Suttlers. I do not doubt but the sum gi-anted 
by Parliament will enable us not only to pay the debts of the 
Colony and subsist it for this year, but also have a Fund 
beforehand, which will prevent any accidents for the future, 
but to bring this about there must be a steady and regular 
manner of acting here. There are several Expences abso- 
lutely necessary and the factious humour of many people, 
the difficulties of finding amongst such as are sent hither, 
any persons of proper confidence to execute a Trust where 
a Gain attends, is very great. The Temptations of large 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 21, p. 146. 


sums to poor people who have given no secnrity are difficult 
to be withstood, and I have met with so much Roguery that 
I have been obliged to change hands frequently. The powers 
given to the Magistrates have generally been made use 
of either to get by winking at men who disobey the Laws 
or expecting large allowances from the Trustees for doing 
their duty and they have banded at Savannah so strongly 
together that they refused Mr. Jones as he informs me to 
take any measures for preA^enting Peop^le who were running 
away with effects when in the Trustees debt. The People 
have fi'equently been striving to deny any authority in me 
<Sr would fain bring the Tryal of the Trustees Properties 
before Juries almost every one of whom is interested by 
being Debtors to the Trustees and many Declared that they 
would bring in their verdicts according to their interest. 
They very ignorantly and unjustly at Savannah tried the 
People who broke through the Rum Law by Juries who 
acquitted the Sellers in spite of evidence. Here at Frederica 
the Magistrates acted wisely, they tried and convicted them 
at Pett}- Sessions as Justices of Peace and amongst others 
levied upon a Master of a Sloop who had so man}' Friends 
amongst the Freeholders that they publickly declared in 
Town that no Jury would convict him though he tapped 
a Cask at noon day. This steady proceeding and the 
appointing a very brisk man, Patrick Grant (a relation of Sir 
James Grant's) Naval Officer and Searcher has got the better 
of Rum here. 

I am insensibly got off fi'om the most important matter 
that of keeping the Expences of the Province within bound 
and at the same time pushing on the Improvements of Silk 
and Wine and other Agriculture making the Province capable 
of subsisting itself, and encouraging industry in such manner 
as the Inhabitants may be able to raise and sell Food suffi- 
cient for the Regiment's consumption and for the Trustees 
Servants so that they may not be obhged to buy fi-om the 
neighbouring Colonies, which if it can be compassed the 
Planters by that money will be enabled not only to purchase 
Clothing but also to pay for the passage of Servants and 
other labouring hands and thereby increase the people of the 

?4 LETTERS tium GENEHAt; OrtLllTrtOltl'f.. 

(\)lony without any new ex}ieiice to the Publick and these 
methods haAe ah-eady had theii' effect in Pensilvania which 
is grown wonderful populouw by the Gernum Hervantfs. 

I have been labouring to reduce the Expences within 
bounds and to fix then) with some certainty but have met 
witli so many other affairs arising from C)})positions, nuiny 
of which were surely set on foot on pur})ose to prevent 
my having time to regulate the Expences and look into 
accounts. I think I huxe got pretty near through and shoidd 
have finished in about a months time but the Indians have 
been stirred up to insist upon my meeting them and they 
hold a General Assembly for that purpose upon the Result 
of wdiich depends the welfare not only of this but of the 
Colony of Carolina. The Spaniards and French have both 
been very active and have spared no ])ains to gain an interest 
sufficient amongst the Indians to persuade them to separate 
fi'om the English. 

I send you an account of sundry Disbursements made 
by me by the hands of Moore, and I submit them to you 
to consider of them and if you think they ought to l)e repaid, 
you will please to pay them to Mr. Verelst on my account. 
If there are any Articles that you object to, if you Avill let 
me know them I will explain them in the General Account, 
this being only an account of some Disbursements which 
I send home for your perusal till I can get the General 
Account and the Issues of all the Stores and Provisions 
by me bought and applied to the Trust's service. 

It is necessary to set down the following Articles for 
explaining the Expences of the Province. 

1st. The whole Civil and Military Expences were to be 
defi-ayed by the Trustees till the arrival of the Regiment 
And till my arrival none of the Trust's Military Expences 
were reduced. 

2ndly. On the arrival of the first Detachment with Colonel 
Cochran, the Tmstees were put to new Expences for Boats 
to carry up the Soldiers, the King's Stores and Provisions, 
also for Warehouses for them ; and at the Trustees Expence 
also Cleft-Board House were built for the reception of the 
five Companies quartered for the Defence of Georgia, These 


Expences, had I been here, slionld not have been paid, lint 
have been directly certified home, that the Trustees may have 
applied to the Crown to obtain payment for the pers(ms who 
had disburst them. It is very true that they were absolutely 
necessary or the Troops must have perished. It is also as 
true that Colonies who levy Taxes up(m the people do out 
of them Taxes defray all such contingent Charges necessary 
for the Troops sent for their Defence. But this is not the 
case of Georgia, where there can be no Taxes levied and 
consequently the Trustees cannot defray the Contingencies, 
therefore they very properly ought to have been represented 
to the Crown. 

3rdly. Mr. Horton when he found that it was necessary 
there shoidd be Cleft-board Houses provided for covering 
the Regiment, imployed as many of the Inhabitants as were 
indebted to the Trustees for food, as would work, and thereby 
lessened the Expence of those Buildings, since he thereby 
secured the Payment of Debts which it would otherwise have 
been very difficult to recover. 

4thly. Mr. Hugh Mackay imployed at St. Andrews the 
Trustees Servants to build the Cleft-board Houses there and 
some few other Carpenters and hired men. 

Sthly. I presume that the Trustees have a very good 
Demand for the building of the above mentioned two Camps 
of Cleft-board Houses in which 500 Men and their Officers 
are conveniently lodged since it was done by servants and 
Creditors fed and clothed by the Trust, whose Labours have 
been other ways of use to them. 

6thly. It is necessary for the Trustees to use their En- 
deavours to people the Colony for which they are entrusted 
with the Publick Money. People cannot live without protec- 
tion and communication. The regular Troops protect the 
Frontier Islands but Boats are necessary for Communication 
and Watchmen for preserving the peace of the Country and 
Horsemen for pursuing m the Woods Felons, Runaway 
Servants, Outlaws and Slaves fi"om CaroUna which have 
already molested the Inland parts of the Coiintrey, and thiev- 
ing for want of Rangers to pursue them is grown so common 
that great numbers of Hogs and not a few Cattel have been 


killed ill the Woods so that it is dangerous to let them and 
People have neither Inclosures nor Food to keep them at 
home. The killing and stealing of Hogs has been so frequent 
at Savannah that there is hardly one person in that Town 
that has one though when T left that Province there were 
several hundreds there. 

7thlv. There are great numbers of Servants belonging 
to the Trustees, those at Savannah were under the care 
of Mr. Bradley and Mr. Causton, of whose work I have been 
hitherto not able to get a full account. Those at Darien were 
under the charge of Mr. Mcintosh and have learned to saw, 
so that all the Boards imployed in the King's Works, as also 
those for building the Chappel at Frederica have been sawed 
by them, the value of which, I believe will near answer the 
keeping of them. And next vear, as they are now Masters 
of their Business, will I hope consideralily more than main- 
tain them. The Servants on Amelia are under Mr. Hugh 
Mackays charge there is a very fertile spot of gi'ound on 
which I placed them and they have made a Plantation ; 
It promises fair for a great cro]) of c-.orn, much more than 
they can eat, but theii' cloathing and meat kind will be still 
some charge, nor can the Trustees ex])ect that their Servants 
should at first entirely defi'ay their charges for they must 
consider that a great part of their time must be taken uj) in 
building Hutts and clearing and fencing of Land, which is an 
Improvement of the Province and a greater gain to it than 
the Crop raised Avithin the Year. 

Stilly. Several Boats are absolutely necessary for the 
Province, one at least to each Settlement, which if the Trust 
does not maintain the People cannot, and it is as good with- 
drawing at once from the Colony as forcing the People to 
leave it. I have done all I could to reduce the charge 
of Boats, as I have wrote mc^re at large. 

9tlily. This Countrey cannot be supported without Cattel, 
the Trustees have a large herd, the keeping of which hath 
been considerable Expence to them but I think the Profit 
upon the Increase notwithstanding that vast numbers have 
l)een killed and stole is above treble the charges they have 
(•ost, bxit if Mr. Jones the Storekeeper had not acted with 


great courage there was a general combination to eat tlie 
Trustees Cattel and I cannot say that the Magistrates at 
Savannah did act with that vigour that they might have done 
'till I myself was obliged to make them examine the people 
before me and there was such a good natured spirit stirring 
that I was informed no Savannah Jury W(juld find a man 
gTiilty for killing the Trustees Cattle in the Woods, of which 
I su]jpose Mr. Jones has given you a full account. This has 
forced me to continue a number of Cattel Hunters by whicli 
means I have ah'eady stopped the stealing and above sixty 
^nld Calves have been taken up and marked at the Cow pen 
at Ebenezer. 

lOthly. Till the present stores are issued of which I have 
laid in a great quantity, there will be occasion not only for 
a stoi-ekeeper and clerks bvit several other Servants and 
Labourers for unloading and preserving. Several may be 
reduced as soon as we can put the new Regulations into 
Practice, particularly a Smith for the Indian Arms, a Sur- 
veyor Area. 

I am afraid I shall tire you with too long a letter if I should 
enter into the whole Detail of the Province and it is impos- 
sible to explain all things at this distance. The only method 
that I can think of to hinder any increase is strictly to 
adhere to the notice you have already advertized and which 
is now up at all the Store house doors that no person shall 
contract any debt chargeable upon the Trustees, and I fear 
the allowing any of the People here to indorse yonv Bills will 
give a new Credit to them persons, which perhaps may be 
better let alone for this reason. I scratched out the Indorse- 
ment which I had ordered to be made to Mr. Causton and 
issued them myself, and have charged myself with that £500 
received from you. 

I mentioned in my tirst letter that if you would acquaint 
me how much you intended to expend yearly in Georgia, 
I would frame an Establishment to that sum in the best man- 
ner I could and would take care to whilst I was here that 
it should not be exceeded and to have left the strongest 
orders for seciu'ing the same after my return and to have had 
security given for the execution of them, 


There are two matters of great importance that I cannot 
omitt speaking of before I conehide. First 

You mention a new Law concering the altering the Entails 
of Estates. There are infinite difficulties in getting the Laws 
noAv in being for this Countrey executed, therefore I should 
not yet wish for any new Ones. The Titles are at present 
upon a very good Footing and those who made most noise 
about their Lands are those who have taken no care 
of making any use of them. I suppose the heads which you 
send me will be very well considered, and before passed 
many things amended, for as they stand they first deprive 
the male Heir who has now a Flight froni the Grandfather, 
in favour of the daughter of the Son. Secondly They tend 
to uniting of Lotts and destroying the Agrarian Equality, 
one of the first principles on which you set out. Thirdly, 
they leave Freehold Possessions open to the Frauds of Wills 
a grievance complained of in England, and a yoke which 
neither we nor our Fathers could bear. They bring Free- 
holds to be judged by the Civil Law, which is the Law by 
wdiich Wills are decided instead of being judged by the com- 
mon Law^ of the Land. And this will make a Court of 
Doctors Commons and a Chancery necessary either of w^iicli 
will be enough to crush a full gi'own, much more a young 
Colony. I am persuaded that you will not pass any Law till 
such time as the Accounts and Affaus of the Colony are 

The second thing is, You sent over <£710 in Bills to be 
issued for certain purjDoses. I immediately signed and issued 
MO to Mr. Mcljeod, £70 to Mr. Bolzius and Mr. Gronan and 
£60 to Mr. Jones for the Servants and sent them to Mr. 
Jones to be signed. Mr. McLeod & Mr. Jones ttca. inform 
me that (-olonc^l Stephens and Mr. Parker have both refused 
signing of them by which means they will be greatly dis- 
tressed for want of money. Upon wdiich Mr. Jones came 
up in an Express Boat to me from Savannah. He will 
acc{uaint you with Mr. Parker's reasons. This might have 
occasioned some uneasiness to the Trustees Afl'airs but 
I have prevented it for I will take up the Bills and pay the 
Orders and I have sent home the Biljs and hope you will pay 


into Mr. Verelst's hands tlie amount of those Bills making 
X710 to answer my Draughts upon him for the same. Though 
this is an Inconvenieucy I think it hath prevented a worse 
that is to say, your giving a credit to any persons in America 
after your Orders published to the contrary. 
I am. 


Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

The HonoW** the Tnistees. 

rec-i 2 Nov. 1739. 


16 July 1739. 


I send you by Mr. Auspourger about twenty pounds weight 
of silk, we hoped for five times the quantity but for want of 
room we made use of the House where the sick people used 
to be, and the Infection had such an Eti'ect (as Camus tells 
me) that it occasioned a sickness amongst the worms, which 
destroyed a great many. Some of the silk was wound last 
year, but most, this. I hope we shall have better success 

Several applications will V)e made to you for Lands, but I 
hope you will make no new Grants whatever till we can get 
those already granted in some manner cultivated. There is 
one Talfeur an A])othecary Surgeon who gives Physick and 
one Williams of whom I wrote to you formerly, a Merchant 
who quitted planting to sell rum. To these two, almost all 
the Town is in debt for Physick ct Rum and they have raised 
a strong spirit to desire that Lands may be alienable and 

P, R, O, Georgia, B, T. yol 21. P- 150. 


then they would take the Lands for the Debts, monopolize 
the Countrey and settle it with Negroes. They have a vast 
deal of Ai-t and if they think they cannot carr}* this, they 
would ap])ly for any other alteration since they hope thereby 
to bruig confusion and you cannot imagine how much uneasi- 
ness I have had here. I hope therefore you will make no 

I desire you would send over an appointment to the Magis- 
trates of the Town Court of Savannah for the time being to 
])roceed to put the Rum Act in execution. 

There is lately a considerable trade started up here and 
Mr. Fallowlield Collector of Savannah and Mr. Grant Naval 
Officer and Searcher at St. Simons, vigilantly acquamted me 
that they had discovered there were some Spanish Sugars 
imported here which I think ought to pay a Duty to the 
King. I ordered the two Officers to write to you and hope 
you will order proper LaAvyers to be consulted and send us 
advice Avliat to do. 

The French and Spaniards have used their utmost endeav- 
ours to raise disturbances amongst our Indians & the not 
deciding clearly in the Act relating to them has given such 
Insolence to the Carolina Traders that the Indians have 
declared, if I do not come up to them they will take Arms 
and do themselves Justice & have ordered a General Assem- 
bly of all the Nations to meet me. I set out this night and 
am. Gentlemen, 

Your most obedient 

humble servant 

James Oglethorpe. 

Kith July 1789. \ Indorsed] 

The Hono'^''- the Trustees. rec^^ 2 Nov. 1739. 



5 Sept. 1739. 

Fort Augusta in Georgia 

5th September 1739. 

I am just arrived at this Place from the Assembled Estates 
of the Creek Nation. They have very fully declared their 
rights to and possession of all the Land as far as the River 
Saint Johns and their Concession of the Sea Coast, Islands 
and other Lands to the Trustees, of which they have made a 
regular Act. If I had not gone up the misunderstandings 
between them and the Carolina Traders fomented by our two 
neighboring Nations would probably have occasioned their 
beginning a war, which I believe might have been the result 
of this general meeting ; but as their complaints were reason- 
able, I gave them satisfaction in all of them, and every thing 
is entirely settled in peace. It is impossible to describe the 
joy they expressed at my arrival they met me forty miles in 
the woods and layd Pro\'isions on the roads in the woods. 
The Express being just going to Charles Town, I can say no 
more but that I have had a burning fever of which I am per- 
fectly well recovered. I hope the Trustees will accept of this 
as a letter to them. 
I am, S-^' 

Your very humble Serv*' 

James Oglethorpe. 
To Mr. Harman Yerelst. 

rec^ 30 Nov. 1739, 

* 1". R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 21, p. 162. 



5 Oct. 1739. 

Savannah, 5tli October 17H9. 

I am returned from tlie Iiidiuu Comitrey jukI thank God in 
good health. I have received the Kings Commands to anoy 
the Spaniards and am going to execute them. I've been 
obHged to make large presents to the Indians, who are now 
thoroughly engaged to us. Tooanahowi is gone with '100 men 
against the Spaniards the Cherokees are raising GUU Men and 
the Creeks 400 who are to act with me. The Affairs of the 
Colon}' are much mended but the accounts are n(3t gone 
through. Mr. J<mes will let you know the progress that is 
made in them. I am forcd to make several Expences upon 
this rupture, which I hope will be laid before the Parliament 
not as the Trustees but as a Governmentall Expence. There 
has been a great sickness in Charles Town, but Georgia is 
healthy. Pursuant to his Majesty's Orders the Inhabitants 
have fitted out a Privateer. 
I am, 


Youi* most obedient 

humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 

P. S. As soon as possibly I can get time I write I'll send 
you the state of the Colony to lay before Parliament. 

P. P. S. I fear I have tired you with the length of the 
inclosed and for more particulars of the Province I n)ust 
refer you to Colonel Steven's Journals. I've been forc'd to 
put 30 Rangers upon tooting to employ several Scout Boats, 
to promise pay tt) the Indian Traders for raising the Indians 
to x>reserve the Province in this critical juncture. 

The Hono'^'^- the Trustees. 

rec-^ 13 March '39-4(1 

* p. H. Q. api'VKi". 1^- T- vd. n, p. 167, 



9 Oct. 1739. 

Savannah in Georgia 
October 9tli 1739. 


Just now Captain Mackay arrived and Captain Thomson 
is on the Bar. Captain Mackay returns on board to go with 
him down to Frederica to which place he must sail immedi- 
ately, whilst the Men of War are on the Coast to protect 
him. I have wrote to the Trustees at large and hope Mr. 
Vernon and Mr. Towers and all my friends will accept of it 
as a letter to each. 
I am, 

Your very humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 

P. S. I 1 you would have 

the inclosed account of the 
Insurrection of the CaroUna 
Negroes inserted in some 


11 October 1739. 

Savannah 11th October 1739. 


I have seen Captain Mackay who amved last Sunday. 
Captain Thomson and all on board is safe. I have received 
your letters and have desired Mr. Jones and Colonel Stephens 
to send you very full answers. As we every hour expect 

* p. B. O. Gecrgia. B. T. vol. 21. p. 172. t Oripinal MS. torn and partly illegible. 

t p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. voL 21, p. 174. 


Action Avitli the Spaniards, T liave hardly time to write out 
the difterent nct-essary orders for tlie Indian Nation, the 
Rangers, the Garrisons, the Boats and Letters to Carolina, 
Virginia, the Nortliern Colonies and Men of War. As the 
safety and lives of the People and honour of the English 
Arms in these parts depend upon using the present Conjunc- 
ture, I hope you will excuse uiy not writmg a long letter. I 
shall use my utmost Endeavours to see your Orders executed. 
Some things I believe you will think necessary to alter in 
them, ])articularly the allowing an Aleh(juse at Tybee wliich 
would be the occasion of making Boatmen drunk and might 
be the loss of many Boats and Men and would be attended 
Avith the sajne ill Consequences as the Alehouse on the Caro- 
lina side hath been which on the losing of several Boats and 
drowning 14 of my men I have applied to have suppressed. 

Upon the rupture with Spain and the discontents of the 
Cherokees and Creeks against the people of Carolina and 
their Traders, the greatest part of that ( ^olony own that I am 
})est able to manage the Indians and the Lieiitenant Gover- 
nour hath wrote to me that it is necessary to send an Agent 
amongst the Cherokees. But this as the} live in Georgia he 
cannot do, therefore I have sent up Mr. E} res as Agent and 
the Lieut. Governor joyns in suppressing of Bum. 

With respect to Colonel Stephens and Mr. Jones, they tell 
me that to give a full and satisfactory ansN\er to your last 
letters will require st)me time, l)ut I have desired them to 
w'rite to you in the mean time. 
I am, 


Your most obedient 

humble Servant 
James Oglethorpe. 

P. S. I have read over the Estimates, l)ut have not time to 
explain upon them till I have talked to the ditlerent Officers. 
Upon the first view I think there may be 4^20 a year saved 
upon each of the Pilots. Tliere is no allowance of a Sur\evor 
to the Southwtird and there are some other Charges which I 
believe may be sa^ ed, and some other Articles which I believe 
■\\'hen you hear you will think nec<^ssary to add, i^articularlv 


Tjthing men in the Towns & a Correspondent Clerk or Intel- 
ligencer to be m 
Cherokee Nation. 

ligencer to be maintained in the Creeks and another in the 

The HonoW" the Trustees. rec'' 13 March 1739-40. 


19 OcTOBKFi 1T8S). 

Duplicate. Savannah 19th October 1739. 


This is hy way of Explanation of some Accounts that I 
send Over to answer the Bills I have drawn upon you. The 
Trustees assured me that they would make good the Expences 
laid out for them. I have been as fiiigal as I possibly could, 
as you will see hy the Accounts. I thought to have bought 
Horses sufficient to have made the Journey to the Indian 
Nation & carried up the goods & for that pui-pose I drew 
upon you for £200 Sterling payable to Mr. Jenyns but bemg 
disappointed in purchasing Horses was obliged to buy goods 
in the Nation from the Traders to make presents to the 
Indians and paid an advance price, which was but half the 
price they sell them to the Indians for. I carried up as many 
as I could get Pack Horses for and upon those I saved the 
advanced price. I have sent the Bills at large though in 
them there are mixt Articles, some relating to myself some 
to the Indians, but 1 have set off all that Avas to my own 
account. In the Articles of the Trustees there is £20 lent 
Mr. Kent. Ive sent a letter from him to his Father, he is a 
young man of great worth and merit his Father was Member 
for Reading has a good Estate and is an acquaintance of Mr. 
Hucks's. I hope he will support his son. If he sends him 
over £300 Sterl^ Sr £50 a year he will make a very happy man 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 21. p. 175. 


of him, for he has a veiy fine tract of Land at Augusta and 
the best notion of improving of any man I know in the 
Province. There is an article of X12 which was a loan in 
cattel to one Overstreet an industrious man with a Wife and 
six Children, who is settled at Augusta. The Inhalntants 
recommended him to me, he having been aflfticted with Sick- 
ness and answered that bj the milk of six Cows the Wife 
would be able to maintain the family. There is £5 given for 
assistance to the Cattle hunters. Captain Cuthbert with the 
Cattle hunters and that small assistance cut a path for horses 
through the Woods Avhich were before impassable from 
Augusta to the Uchee Town above 60 miles on our side the 
River. The whole of this account, with the presents amounts 
to £648.10.2 out of which £123.9.4.^ I discharged from the 
Trusts to my own account, being the Expences of myself and 
family, so that their charge is £561.0.9.^. There is £200 
Sterling in Mr. Jeny's hands which 1 drew for to pay for 
horses, which as I could not get horses at a reasonable price, 
I have made an advance out of that money to some Butchers 
and Drovers who are Inhabitants of this Town, to slaughter 
here, and thereby enable them to furnish the Town and Ship- 
ping &ca with Provisions & to repay the same to the Trust 
as they receive it. This became quite necessary by the 
shutting up the Trustees Store and is what their Letter hints 
at of Encouraging People to sell Provisions. 

Besides which there is £40 which I pay to Camuse the 
Silk Winder in account he having a Demand upon the Trus- 
tees before my arrival and for Expences this year, which 
demand will be lessened by this £40, as will appear in the 
Accounts of the Commissioners for stating the Debts. 

The next is £63 paid to Mr. Jones in order to enable him 
to discharge the debts due to the Garrison at Augusta and 
would have been at a great discount to the prejudice of the 
Trust's Credit, because the poor people were not able to sta^' 
the sending them home to England. 

Captain Mackpherson has a very considerable demand 
upon the Trust as appears by the Report of the Commis- 
sioners, he having made it appear that he was in the utmost 
distress I advanced him £61.4.0 which lessens the debt due 
by the Trust. 


Mr. Jones having occasion for provisions ttca. from Cattell 
and Austin at Charles Town I advanced him £o() for the 
same for whicli he is to account to the Trust. 

A ship belonging to Captain (^aleb Davis arrived here with 
Molosses and as there was no probability that more would 
come up by reason of the War, Mr. Jones by my order 
bought the cargo which is to be issl^ed by him to tlie people 
here for money and as soon as he receives the same it will be 
so much towards the jiaying the Estimate of the Trustees. 
It amounts to £4()(), of which I have at present draAvn for 
but £2t20. I have also di-awn for £107.9.0. =£100, and £20 
payable to Mr. Thomas Jones which money has been paid in 
discharge of the account of Indian presents and is ])art of 
the £684.10.0. 

The Cherokee Indians as will appear by the Affidavits sent 
over to England by Colonel Stephens, which I hope are 
arrived, were destroyed by Rum and the Small Pox, carried 
up by Traders from Carolina, some of whom had been 
licensed at Charles Town and some without any Licences 
but encoiu"aged from thence. Above 1000 of the Indians 
died and the sickness raged so that they could not attend 
their Corn fields. They demanded justice from all the Eng- 
lish, threatened Revenge and sent to the French for assist- 
ance. Their Deputies met me at Fort Augusta. I asked 
them if they were Georgia Traders that had sold the Rum 
the}' said No, and I prevailed Avith them not only to be paci- 
fied with the English l)ut also to promise me the assistance 
of a bod}^ of Men against the Spaniards. When they told 
me of the star^dng condition they would be in by their having 
lost their Corn harvest by the Sickness, I ordered as far as 
1500 Bushells of Corn to be bought at Augnista & to be given 
to the Cherokee Nation if they came down to fetch the same, 
to be divided amongst all the ToAvns Avliere the dearth of 
Corn was. Upon my acquainting the Chiefs of my ha^dng 
done this before they asked it, they said, that the Tiiistees 
treated them as Fathers do their Children they did not give 
them Toys nor unwholsome Liquor, but gave them Wisdom 
and Justice and supplied their wants when misfortunes came 
upon them. They called them the Preservers of theii- Na- 


tion, as they did the Carolina Traders, the destroyers of it. 
I have drawn for £107.10.0 to pay for this Corn wliicli stands 
in about 18 pence per Bushell dehvered at Augusta, and this 
is paid into the hands of Mr. Jones to answer that Demand. 

There was a great damp upon Phinting and indeed upon 
every other thing when I came over, but things are now 
much mended, yet I was obhged to encourage the phinting 
and with much difficulty could I persuade any one near the 
Town to it, so w^as obliged to promise a bounty of two 
shillings per Bushell upon Indian Corn and pease, and one 
shilling for Potatoes in the hopes of which some have planted 
& have large Crops. This Bounty extends only to the Dis- 
trict of Savannah. The People of Ebenezer were contented 
with a less Proemium viz : 12 pence per bushel and that only 
upon Corn and Pease. The sum total I cannot yet tell, but 
I suppose a good deal of the Bounty will be paid by setting 
off some of the Debts due to the Store, those who. are most 
necessitous I pa}^ in money. By the Regulation there can 
be no Fraud, for the Ground on which the Corn gi-ew is to 
be viewed, as well as the Corn measured. I have drawn for 
£150 which is left in Mr. Jones's hands for this purpose. 

I shall lend Mr. Burnside upon Cattel £40 in order to 
enable him to buy the same in Carolina, the Cattel will be in 
this Colony as security, and Cattel ma}- be very necessary 
in case supphes should be cut off. And for that and some 
other Expences Avhich I have left with Mr. Jones to make, 
I have drawn for £80. If the Trustees do not think this 
Encouragement to be within their intention continue that 
£80 upon my account. 

You see by this that there is great part of the Amount 
of these Bills in the Colony to answer tlie Trustees Estimate. 
There is part of it to pay the Expences of the last year and 
part to lessen the Debt before my arrival, so that there is no 
increase of this Years Expences nor nothing exceeding the 
Estimate. Therefore I hope the Trustees will pay you the 
same and take them off from my account. I believe that 
it will be necessary to incourage the people ia planting 
to give next year a bounty of one shilling per Bushel upon 


Corn and I have promised four shillings a ])ound for silk 

I am, 


Your very humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
Mr. Harman Verelst. 


vec^ 7 March 1739-40. 


20 Oct. 1739. 

Savannah in Georgia 
20th October 1739. 

The Order relating to Negroes is arrived and published 
& hath had a very good effect. The Resolution shown by 
the Trust hath in a great measure quelled the troublesome 
spirit. The remainder of the Idle Walkers and Doctor 
Tailt'er are preparing to leave the Colony but several indus- 
trious people are settling. This week above eight Lotts have 
been taken up. 

I defrayed last years Expences as I mentioned in my 
former and thank you for the kind paragraph in your letter, 
that you will repay those Advances. I am not able yet to 
send home all the Accounts and Vouchers, but some I have 
and explained them in a letter to Mr. Verelst and hope you 
wiU pay them. 

The estimate for the EstabUshment of this year is very 
short, the Pro\'ision for the silk which is one of the most 
important improvements in the Colony is far fr'om being 
sufficient to carry that on. There is no provision made for 

* p. 11. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 21, p. 17C. 

90 LETTtUS ritO^ AenK^RAL 6(^IL'KTilOh^1^.. 

Magistrates or Constables at Augusta, nor for Ty thing men 
in this Town, nor for Agents in the Indian Countrey nor for 
Tything men in the Out Villages of Hanipstead, Highgate, 
Skidoway and Abercorn therefore probably the Out Villages 
will quit their ground for want of propei- Officers to preserve 
the peace. 

There is also no prox-ision for Tything men at Ebenezer. 

The Darien hath been one of the Settlenirnts where tlie 
People have been most industrious as those at Savannah 
have been most idle. The Trustees have liad several Servants 
there who under the direction of Mr. Moore M'lntosh have 
not only earned their bread but have furnished the Trust 
with such Quantities of sawed Stufl' as hath saved them 
a great sum of Money. Those Servants cannot be put under 
the direction of any body at Frederica nor any one that does 
not understand the Highland language. The Woods fit for 
sawing are near Darien and the Trustees engaged not to 
separate the Highlanders. They are very usefull under their 
own Chiefs and no where else. It is very necessary therefore 
to allow Mr. Mackintosh for the overseeing the Trusts Serv- 
ants at the Darien. And mdeed I do not think there is Occa- 
sion for an Overseer with any large Salary at Frederica since 
there is very little work for Servants there, except about the 
store. There are several other absolute necessary Expences 
but as I know that the Trustees cannot exceed a certain sum 
I shall not venture upon making them, though I believe the 
Colony will sutler for want of them. I am indeed of opinion 
that with the sum of £5000 a year here would have done 
if no war had happened. I could have distributed it in such 
a manner as to have supported the Colony, but I fear it 
cannot now be done, for the ha\'ing given notice to the 
Magistrates and others that they are to have such large 
Salaries, they cannot now be reduced. There is no Provision 
in the Estimate for encouraging the Vineyards, no bounty 
upon Corn, no food to encourage young Planters, nor no 
Provisions for Servants out of their times. There is £500 
a year for aU Contingencies. I shall take all the Care to 
divide that in such a manner as to make it go the farthest I 
can, but fear it will nothing near answer the necessary ser^-ices. 

LETTERS EI^6M 6ENEiR.a 06tETlff6i^¥.fi. dl 

There are two Articles, without which we should be entirely 
destroyed, those I shall venture upon and I send you over 
notice of them that if you think they are not within the 
power of the Trust to apply Money to, I should desire you 
would use your interest in Parliament to procure a separate 
sum for that purpose in your Vote. The one is a Troop 
of Rangers and Pay for those who head the Indians as 
Officers, without which we shall lye entirely open to the 
Insults of the Spanish Horse and Indians upon the Con- 
tinent, for it is impossible for one Regiment of Foot to cover 
such a vast Frontier. I send you the Establishment of these 
Bodies of Men. There is also the Garrison at Augusta the 
first party that I sent up there under Ensign Kitson was 
drowned and I cannot' spare any men fi'om the Regiment 
to so far a post now we have the Spaniards upon our Backs, 
therefore I have kept up that Garrison with ten men. I have 
also kept one Agent or Intelligence in the Creek and one in 
the Cherokee Nation with an appointment of <£30 a year for 
themselves and £24 for a Servant and to find themselves food. 

Colonel Stephens and Mr. Jones ha\'ing acquainted me 
that Mr. Williamson was gone away to Charles Town and 
not like to return and that therefore Mr. Christie could not 
leave the Recorders Office & consequently not succeed Mr. 
Parker. They farther acquainted me that Mr. Parker now 
behaved well, had entirely left off" drinking and that they 
thought it would be most serviceable to the Colony to con- 
tinue him first Magistrate. I accordingly did till your farther 
Orders and I believe you will think it proper to continue him 
on. This Place is now very quiet & the whole Pro^ance 
wears a much better face than when I arrived. Georgia hath 
been very healthy this year, the fatal Rum Fever of Charles 
Town hath not extended to us & I believe five men have not 
died out of the five Companies of my Regiment quartered in 
this Province. 

I am 


Your very humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
The Hono^"^ the Trustees. 


[Indorml] rec^> 7 March 1739 -iO. Rend before the Com- 
mittee of Correspondence March 22d 1789-40. 


3 Nov. 1789. 

Copy. Savannah in Georgia 3d Nov'" 1739. 

ReV^ Sir, 

I was speakmg to yon of the sitnation of several Dutch 
famihes, who are ah"eady at Frederica and others who are 
coming thither, in the great want they were of one Avho could 
preach the Gospel in their Language. The edifying manner 
in which you have behaved in this Colony makes me desirous 
of obtaining a Minister from the Place where you were 
educated and though I cannot hope to have one with the 
same perfections yet I am persuaded those bred with Mr. 
Professor Francke under his excellent discipline, do partake 
of the same spirit therefore I should desire you to olitain 
one for me, I will take care of giving him £40 pr ann : for 
his mamtainance here and should be very glad if in your first 
letter to Germany you would mention this and the sooner 
he arrives the better. 
I am, 

ReVi Sir 

Your very humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
The Rev'i Mr. Bolzius. 

* p. K. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 11, p. 202. 



10 Nov. 1739. 

Frederica in Georgia lOtli Nov. 1739. 

The Spaniards have falleii upon Amelia & killed two 
unarmed sick men, one of the Scout boats being there took 
the Alarm <S: they and a Party from the Garrison jjui'sued 
the Spaniards very briskly. We have not so nuicli as given 
the least provoctation to the Spaniards as yet, but most man- 
fiilly they suiprized two poor sick men, cut off their heads, 
mangled their Bodies most barbarously and as soon as 
a Party and Boat appeared which together did not make 
their number, they retired with the utmost Precijntation. 

A number of Scout boats are absolutely necessary. The 
Men of War stationed at Charles Town cannot be here. 
Since Capt. Burrish went away, we have had no Man of War 
excejDt Capt. Fanshaw and he did not stay above eight or ten 
days. The Launches from AugTistine can run uito almost 
every Inlet in the Province, therefore it is absolutely neces- 
sary that the Trustees should apply to Parliament for at 
least five ten Oared Boats and a Troop of Rangers, otherwise 
'there will be no possibility of the Peoples going out to plant 
mthout being murdered as those Highlanders were. The 
Regiment can defend the Parts they are in but they cannot 
march on foot over the waters without boats nor overtake 
Horse on Indians on foot in the vast Woods on the Con- 

The French have attacked the Carolina Indians, and the 
Spaniards have invaded us. I wish it may not be resolved 
l)etween them to root the English out of America. We here 
are resolved to dye hard and will not lose one inch of ground 
Avithout fighting, but we cannot do Impossibilities, we have 
no (-annon froiri the King, nor any others but some small 
Iron Guns bought by the Trust. We have very httle Powder, 
we have no horse for marching A: very few Boats and no fund 
for paying the men but of one Boat. The Spaniards have 

* V, n. U. Ueoryia. U. T. vul. ll, p. 179, 


a number of Launches, also horse, and a fine Train of Artil- 
lery well provided with all Stores. The best Expedient I can 
think of is to strike tirst and as our strength consists in men 
and that the people of the Colony as well as the Soldiers 
handle their Arms well and are desirous of action, I think 
the best way is to make use of our strength & beat them 
out of the field and destroy their Plantations and Out Settle- 
ments (in Avhich the Indians who are very faithful can assist 
us) and to form the siege of Augustine If I can get Artillery. 
It is impossible to keep this Province or Carolina without 
either destroying Augustine, or keeping Horse Kangers and 
Scout boats sufficient to restrain tlieir nimble Parties. 
I must therefore again desire you would insist for our having 
an Establishment of Four Ten Oared Boats to the South- 
ward and one at Savanah, a small Train of Artillery, some 
Gunners and at least 400 barrels of Cannon and 100 of 
Musquet Powder with bullets proportionable. 

I am fortifying the Town of Frederica & hope I shall be 
repaid the Expences ; fi'om whom I do not know, yet I could 
not think of leaving a number of good houses & Merch^^ 
Goods and which was more valuable the Lives of Men, 
Women and Children in an open Town at the mercy of every 
Party and the Inhabitants obhged either to fly to a Fort and 
leave their Effects, or suffer with them. 

Mr. Williamson who was appointed to succeed Mr. Christie 
in case the latter could make up his Records, had left his 
Plantation and was removed to Charles Town & settled as 
a Lawyer there before your letters arrived, on the hearing 
that he was appointed Recorder with a Salary, he came back 
but did not bring his family with him & it was reported in 
the Town that he intended to act by Deputy, which he denied 
to me, but at the same time said he would not bring up his 
family till after he was declared Recorder, and insisted that 
the Magistrates Imployments ought to be held during good 
behaviour, That the Trustees might not turn them out 
precipitately. I found by his Conversation that he was very 
much of a Lawyer and a much better Attorney than the 
Town of Savannah wants, he is likely to have very good 
practice at Charles Town, whert the people like him mightily 


<t I believe it will be much better for him to be encouraged 
there than to be buried at Savannah where the whole Town 
can hardly pay the charge of one Chancery suit. Colonel 
Stephens thought that according to your orders he could not 
deliver him his constitution till he had conformed to them. 
All things are very quiet with the new Magistrates, and 
I believe will continue so, if the Court remains as it is, but 
I believe any alteration would hurt, unless it were the 
changing Christie for Pye, a very industrious young man who 
writes an exceeding good hand, is a pretty good Scholar, very 
honest & sober and is no Attorney. 
I am, 


Your very humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
To Hono"'^' the Trustees. 


rec'^ 10 March 1739-40. 


29 Dec. 1739. 

Frederika 29th DeC 1739. 

I have received fi-om Captain Thomson several things, 
amountmg in the whole to =£686.16.4 of which gi-eat part 
is for the service of the Trust, a great part of the Account 
itself is a voucher of its having been applied, as that to the 
Boats ttca. That to the Rangers is in part of an old debt 
due by the Trustees to them. As many of these Articles as 
the Trustees think proper to charge to their account, I em- 
power you to receive from them ; the rest you will post to my 
Account. I shall send you a farther Explanation of how 

f, R. 0, gteorgift. p. f- vol. 21, p. 18$, 


these things are applied pursuant to the Trustees Orders. 
I have wrote at hirge to them by this occasion. Mr. Horton 
will explain all Affairs here and can give a very clear light 
into them. 

In Captain Thomson's former Acco* of £110. which the 
Trust refused to ird.y ; That which I took m order to give the 
Spaniards, in case we had had a Treaty with them and which 
Presents are a necessary Expence and part of the support 
of the Civil Government as all matters of Negotiations are, 
is not now necessary, because we have no fi-iendship with 
them, so as the things are here I will receive them and you 
may charge that £7.1.7 to me. 

As for the Credit given to Shopljeepers it is what the Trust 
always used to do, and what their letters approve of, Setting 
up people in Business that they may sell at reasonable prices, 
and thereby take off the trouble from the Store. I therefore 
ordered Credit to be given to Philip and Anne Courtney who 
were recommended by my Lord Egremont and to Abbott 
an old Widow Woman that came with the first people here. 
Abbot has paid 4()s. back, Courtney has paid some little on 
account, and the Trustees cannot think that to set up Shop- 
keepers in this Town is no concern of the Publicks but is a 
personal Affair of mine. It can be no personal affair of 
mine, since I have no benefit from it, it is the business of the 
publick to support the Town and has been always judged a 
useful Charity to put poor people into an honest way of earn- 
ing their Livelyliood by small Credits. 

With respect to the £58 delivered to Mr. Mcintosh at 
Darien, it was to suppoi-t the Inhabitants of Darien with 
cloathing and delivered to the Trustees Store there, for which 
the Individuals are indebted to the Trust. Part of it was 
paid in discharge of service done to the Trustees in building. 
Part is still due and some do pay and are ready to pay which 
you may see by the Darien accounts. I am perswaded that 
when the Trust considers this they will find that I have 
nothing to do with it, and more particularly, that some part 
of this very money has been paid for in Timber for building 
the Chappel. 

The £6,13.6 charged to Mr, Oajteret was by him paid for 


by bill of Exch® which I sent home to yoxi. This is all that 
I can say upon that account, which I understand to be part 
of the Charge of the last year, excepting that I would some 
what farther explain that the Goods for the Shopkeepers were 
taken into the Ti-ustees Store, and part issued to them, and 
part retained in order to be issued, as they made Payments. 
And if they did not make paym*® then the Remainder was 
not issued to them, but issued to others, and the same paid 
into the Trustees Account. By the payments arising fi-om 
Debts due to the Trustees, the Debts contracted have been 
lessened and several Buildings and Publick Works have been 
paid for by Labour done in payment of those Debts particu- 
larly the building of the Barracks, and these Goods stand in 
the same light as many others taken in & issued in that man- 
ner, therefore I think the Trustees cannot refuse paying 
Captain Thomson for them & they in the general account 
will find that they have Credit fi'om the persons to whom 
they are issued. Capt. Thomson will have a Declaration fi'om 
Mr. M'Intosh and from Mr. White that these Goods have 
been received, and that the Trustees have credit for the 

I am, Sir, Your very humble Servant, 
Mr. Harman Verelst. James Oglethorpe. 


29 Dec. 1739. 

Frederica 29th Dec-" 1739. 

I send this by Mr. Horton whom there is no need of recom- 
mending to you. You know his behaviour when he com- 
manded the Southern Division of the Province in my 
absence. I could not think of a way more likely to acquaint 
you with the whole Particulars of the Province, than by 

* p. R. O. Qeorgift. B. T. vol. 2^ p. 186, 


sending him home, who can explain every thing. I was in 
hopes to have sent you all the Accounts, but have been intol- 
erably plagued by the backwardness of y'" Clerks. I have 
been obliged to imploy my own Secretary Moore, in almost 
every thing, though writhig for me is full one Man's work, 
and I can to this minute get nothing finished hj the others, 
nor any other Account than that Cash Book, which he kept. 
To give a general Idea of the Accounts, there is three distinct 
terms of time, one before my arrival, which you have put 
into an excellent method by appointing Commissioners to 
state. Some debts due in that Term to persons who must 
have been ruined if not paid, I have paid, the Commission- 
ers ha%'ing acquainted me that they were justly due, and Mr. 
Jones hath j^romised me to transmit the Report, which if you 
approve of, you will pay what I have advanced to Mr. Verelst 
on my account. 

The second teim of time is from my arrival to the time of 
receiving Your Establishment, during which time I proceeded 
m the Dark, having only this General Eule to go by, not to 
make any Expences as I could avoid and at the same time 
not to neglect doing those things which were necessary for 
the preservation of the Colony, amongst them the taking the 
German Servants which came over by Captain Thomson, and 
the lending their Passages to such Persons as were desirous 
thereof & were capable of maintaining them, and keeping the 
rest for the Trust. I thought an absolute necessary measure 
for the service of the Colony, since it not only increased it 
with so many able bodied industrious People, but it would 
have been a Cruelty to turn the poor People a starving into 
other Provinces, and have prevented the being able to pro- 
cure more Germans & thereby augmenting His Majesty's 
Subjects, by the accession of Foreign Protestants. I hope 
therefore that this step will be approved of, and that you will 
order Captain Thomson to be paid the Passage of those 

As I promised to you when I first arrived I have main- 
tained the Colony for the year, and think it will come within 
the £5,000 as I guessed at first. I drew upon Mr. Verelst 
who had Cash of mine and mentioned in y*" Ijett^r,s of advice 


generally, the services for wliicli those Bills were drawn. 
The proper Vouchers showing that the Money was appHed 
to the Pnblick Service according to the Trustees maxims for 
Improving and Settling the Colony, shall be sent over as soon 
as ever I can get the Clerks to draw them out in order. But 
a journey in open Boats to Charles Town a Journey by Land 
for several hundred miles over many vnde Rivers to the far 
Indian Nations and the preparations for invading the Span- 
iards and making Inroads upon them, have took up so much 
of my time that I have not been able to do the Business my 
seK nor can I prevail with others to do it for me. If I come 
back ahve from this Expedition, I will labour at the accounts 
and do not doubt to settle them and the Province upon a 
good foot of Oeconomy. I hope you will make good to Mr. 
Verelst those payments that I have made here upon the 
Tnists' Acco* and thereby replace the money I drew from 

There wiU be this year over & above your EstabUshment 
several Expences necessary for the preserving of the Colony. 
The small Garrison of a Captain and ten men at Fort Au- 
gusta will be necessary to be continued, since we cannot 
weaken the Regiment by sending a Detachment to so great 
a distance as 300 miles. The Regiment of Foot that is 
here, is not sufficient to make War in the Woods by Land 
and overtake Indians or horsemen therefore I have been 
obliged to call down our Indian Allies they have very readily 
assisted me, but whilst they lose their hunting & Corn season 
for our Defence, we are forced to give them Food, Ai-ms, Am- 
munition & some Cloathing which they would otherwise buy 
with skins which they get by hunting. Their Leaders and 
Interpreters have certain allowances. I sent you over them 
for the Creeks & Cherokees, those for the Chickesaws Uchees 
and Yamacraws have the same. 

Horsemen also I am obhged to raise & have order'd 60 
Rangers. Their Establishm*® Mr. Horton has with him. The 
Settlements must all have been destroyed and the commu- 
nication between the Troops cut off when the Spaniards 
attacked Ameha, if I had not armed out Boats, which I did 
in the cheapest manner, taking no more men upon hire than 


just enough to navigate them, and even saving this Expence 
upon some by imploying the Trust's Highland Serv**" whom 
Mr. M'Intosh and Mr. Mackay had taught to Row ; the rest 
of the men are Soldiers to whom we only allow prov^ during 
the time they are on board. Thus the Colony Periagua is 
fitted out Avitli 4 Guns, rows with 20 men & carries 20 more, 
so that having 40 men she is able to engage a Spanish 
Launch stands only in the wages of a Commander, a Patroon 
and six men, the rest of the 40 being Soldiers, of whom only 
them that roAv have Provisions. By these Boats I have drove 
the Spaniards out of the River St. John's, can, when I will, 
land in Florida, as well as protect this Colony and Carolina 
which without them would be entirely exposed, as by the sad 
accident at Amelia, when we had only two Boats in service 
too plainly appeared. 

The Forts that I built were run to ruin, bemg mostly of 
earth, having no means to repair them and having also orders 
not to fortify. Upon the Hostilities being committed, I 
thought I should be answerable for the blood of these people 
before God and man if I had left them open to be surprized 
by Spanish Indians and murdered in the night and their 
houses burnt, and if I did not take all proper means for their 
defence they being under my charge. I therefore began to 
fortify Frederica and inclose the whole Town in which there 
are some very good houses. It is half an Hexagon with two 
Bastions and two half Bastions and Towers after Monsieur 
Vauban's method upon the point of each Bastion. The 
Walls are of earth faced with Timber, 10 foot High in the 
lowest place and in the highest 13 and the Timbers from 
eight inches to twelve inches thick. There is a wet Ditch 10 
foot wide, and so laid out that if we had an allowance for it, 
I can by widening the Ditch double the thickness of the 
Wall and make a covered way. I hope in three months it 
will be entirely finished and in that time not only to fortify 
here but to repair the Forts on Amelia and Saint Andrews, 
The Expence of these- small above mentioned Works, wlii(!li 
is all that I can now make, will not be gTeat. Frederica will 
come within £500, St. Andrews £400, and Amelia £100. I 
made an Iiu'ond into the Spaijish Florida by the help of the 


Boats drove them to take shelter in their Forts & kept the 
field several Days, parties of Indians killing their Cattel <feca. 
even to within a few miles of Augustine, but could not pro- 
voke them to fight. I am going to make another Inroad and 
trust in God it will daunt them so that we shall have full 
time to fortify and if the people of Carolina would assist us 
heartily, we might take Augustine, to which these frequent 
Inroads pave the way, for they dishearten their people make 
us acquainted with the Country and encourage the Soldiers 
by living on the Enemy's Cattel and Provisions. 

I hope if the Trustees will represent the necessity of the 
above Expences to Parliament the House will gi-ant to them 
sufficient to defi'ay the Estimates of them. Or if the Parlia- 
ment thinks this Expence too much for the preserving of this 
Colony, I hope they will withdraw both the Colony and the 
Regiment since without these necessary preparations they 
will be exjDosed to certain Destruction. 
I am, 


Your very humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 

The Hono^'e the Trustees. 

Pvec-i May 2 1740. 


29 Deo. 1739. 

Frederica 29th December 1739. 

There were 69 heads of Germans Servants deHvered by 
Capt. Thomson to different Persons in Georgia upon Credit, 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 21, p. 187. 


which I find did not appear to the Committee of Accounts to 
be chargeable on the Trust by any Evidence by him pro- 

The first was a Family of 5f heads, Servants to Mr. Chris- 
tie, he has an open Account with the Trustees as Recorder 
& there has been Orders from the Trustees relating to Serv- 
ants for the Magistrates there. 

The Second is one head dehvered to Mr. Matthews, whose 
Wife was Widow of Mr. Musgrove, Interpreter to the Indians, 
as She herself is now. The passage of this Servant was 
given to them as a Recompence for Services with the Indians, 
and for an Indian Servant belongmg to them, killed in the 
Disputes with Watson. 

Andrew Duche is the Potter at Savannah who goes on 
very well there, is one of the most Industrious in the Town 
& has made several Experiments which seem to look hke.the 
making of China, he had two Servants whom he breeds to 
the Potter's Trade. 

The two Servants to the Widow Harris are paid for. 

BaiHff Parker's Servant depends upon the Trustees orders 
relating to the Magistrates. 

Those dehvered Mr. Bolzius were Famihes in which there 
were many unmarried young women, the Congregation of 
Saltzburghers desired they might be left there, there being- 
many unmarried men and no unmarried women. They 
believed that several would take them for Wives and that 
such as did would pay the passage into the hands of Mr. 
Bolzius, to remain there for the Trustees directions, I hoping 
they would apply it to the maintenance of the Orphan house 
at Ebenezer and as such be a usefull Benefaction to the Saltz- 
burghers. They amount to 11 heads, some are married and 
they all have behaved very well, as Mr. Bolzius informs me. 

Mr. Fallowfield has been a very active inhabitant of the 
Colony, has settled here at his own Expence, and expended 
a great deal of money, and was Constable, he thought he had 
a Pretension to have Servants fi-om the Trustees upon the 
footing of Constable, according to former Letters, by which 
they gave Servants to make up the time which the Officers 
imployed in the Publick Service. 


Noble Jones and Mr. Causton undertook to maintain their 
Servants and bonded for the payment of them. West did 
y same and one of them is returned to y*" Trustees being a 
Wheelwright, and a necessary man for their service. 

Mr. Mouse has a family of 5 children is a very industrious 
man and was the only Inhabitant that stayed upon the 
Island of Skidoway out of ten families, therefore the giving 
him Credit for this Servant I intended to recommend to the 
Trustees as an Encouragement to Out Planters. 

Mr. Perkins is a Magistrate of Frederica and has a Credit 
upon the store upon this years Establishment. 

Mr. Hawkins had paid for his Servants. 

Walker works upon the Fortification and is willing to pay 
for the passage of his Servant out of his work. 

Walset is a good Planter, has a large Family, came at his 
own Expence from Germany and has a demand on the Trus- 
tees for a Debt in Mr. Causton's time, and has sixty Bushells 
of Corn, ready to be delivered the Trustees this year, and 
they want Corn to feed their Servants and horses. 

Upon the whole at that time there was a disgust to white 
Servants artfully fomented by the NegToe Merchants. The 
Trustees had stopped all Payments and the People were 
diffident of getting Provisions for themselves therefore did 
not care to take Servants least they could not feed them. I 
was glad therefore to get people that could feed them and 
take them, but yet there remain several that nobody would 
take. Those I placed in a village, lent them Provisions and 
they gave their own bonds for their Passages. Some of them 
it is true are dead, some have throve and the Colony is in- 
creased by that number, and the Germans seem to take more 
to planting than the English do. I should think therefore 
that there is not a better service can be done to the Colony 
than paying the passage for them, taking it up again accord- 
ing as they can pay and thereby discharging the Establish- 
ments here and lessen the Trustees Remittances so much. 
Those who dye, indeed, will be a loss to the Trust, but then 
by those who five, the Province will require so many planting 
Families. The bonds were continued in the name of Captain 
Thomson, because that I believed the people would more 


willingly pay to liiia tlian to the Piiblick, uiul tliat lie might 
upon his coining hack push for })ayni(nit and he will give you 
an account of what Payments he has been able to get. 
I am, 


Your very humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 

P. S. The necessity of acting on this 
breach with the Spaniards obliged me 
to take Capt. Thomson's Long Boat down with 
me & preventing my dispatching him till 
I returned fi-om the Frontiers ; so that he 
could get his discharge fi-om me but 
this day. His hands have been very 
usefull in helping to fit out our Boats 
as you Avill see by his Account. 

\Imh>rsed^ Kec*^ May % 1740. 


24 January 1739-40. 

Frederica 24tli January 1739-40. 

Lieutenant Horton has orders to raise 30 Kecruits for the 
Kegiment. If the Tnistees would give passage to their 
Wives it would be a cheap way of increasing the Colony by 
30 famihes, from single men there are very great Incon- 
veniences and their being obliged to leave their wives behind 
plunges them into gi'eat difficulties. I need say no more on 

* p. E. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 21, p. 190. 


that liead but desire the Trust would give passage to the 
Wives aud Corn and Meat to them for one year. 
I am, 


Your most obedient 

humble Servant 
James Oglethorpe. 
The Hono'^i* the Trustees. 

brought by Captain Thomson & by him 
delivered at the Trustees Office 2 May 1740. 


1 February 1739-40. 

Ereperica 1st Feb^y 1739-40. 

Since the Spaniards began hostilities by attacking Ameha 
& murdering the Men there, I pursued them mto Florida, 
swept the Elver St. Matthoeo by the Indians called Alata, 
and which the Spaniards would fain now call St. John's. 
I landed on the Sj)anish main drove in their Out Guards and 
the Lidians burnt 3 Guard houses. I proceeded one day's 
march towards Augustine, stayed 3 Days hunting their Cattle 
and ravaging the Country, but could not provoke them to 
action. Their Horse and a party of Negroes and Lidians 
once appeared, but went oif upon a gallop and took shelter 
in their Forts. The Spaniards had in Florida besides the 
Fortress of Augustine, the Fort of St. Marks, with a Gar- 
rison of 80 regidar Troops, 100 Spanish Transports, besides 
Negroes, Indians &ca. This Fort Hes on the Bay of Apel- 
lacliee which makes the most Eastern part of the Gulf of 
Mexico, and by it Augustine has a communication with 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 21. p. 194. 


Mexico. It also influenees the Creek Indians, being not far 
fi-om their Towns, They had also huilt a new Fort called 
St. Francis de Pupa on the British side of St. Matthreo, or 
Alata before mentioned. This Fort was an encroachment, 
and bnilt not long since to protect a Ferry over the River 
Alata, to defend their Communication with St. Marks and to 
give them an Entry into that part of Georgia inhabited by 
the Creek Indians and also all the Northern parts of Georgia 
and Carolina by land, it being but 5 days Journey from this 
Fort to Mr. Matthew's new Settlement and that but two days 
Journey from Savannah. Over against this on the south side 
the Alata which is there so wide as to be no longer a River 
but a Lake, they had a Fort called Picolata in the shape 
of a Star and a Ferry boat going from the one Fort to the 
other. They had also the Fort of St. Diogo 7 leagues fi-om 
the Alata 6 from Augustine and 3 fi'om the Sea. They had 
another called Rossa with a Garrison mostly Indians, another 
Chicketo with 4 Bastions, the Garrison partly Indians and 
partly regular Troops & lies about a league from Augustine. 
Another called Pinnion and they were building a new one 
of Stone called Moosa to protect the Plantations they had 
granted to run away Negi'oes wdio were armed and officered 
in order to garrison the same. A particular account of St. 
Augustine is inclosed. 

On my first Inroad the Spaniards quitted Moosa and drew 
off the Negroes. I sent Lieut. Dunbar up the River with 
two Scout Boats to destroy what Boats the Spaniards had 
and to view their Forts and attack them if weak. Accord- 
ingly after 12 hours rowing up the Alata he came to where 
it forms a Lake bemg in many places above 2 leagues wide 
biit straitened in one by 2 Points so that it was not above 
2 miles wide. On the Northern Point was Fort St. Francis, 
and on the Southern Point that of Picolata. He landed in 
the night and thought to have surprised the latter, but after 
several hours firing and three men being wounded he found 
he could not carry it without Cannon, so returned. On New 
Year's Day I set out with a i)arty of the Regim' accompanied 
by Captain Mackay, Captain Desbrisay, Lieutenant Dunbar 
and Ensigns Mackay, Mace, Sutherland & Maxwell and 


Adjutant Hugh Mackay. The Kangers, Fannee Mico with 
the Chickesaws and Captam Gray the Uchee King with the 
Uchees and Hewitt Hillyspilh and Santouchy witli the 
Creeks Mr. Matthews and Mr. Jones, one Periagiia 13 Boats 
and a small Privateer Sloop, who went in at the River Alata. 
On the 27th after having got over many difficulties by day- 
break the Indians surprized and burnt the Fort of Picolata, 
the Spaniards ha%dng abandoned it. At 10 the same day 
I landed and invested Saint Francis de Pupa with the Indians 
and Rangers, and formed the Regular Troops and landed 
four pieces of Cannon, posted them and marked out a Battery 
in such manner that they were sheltered fi-om the sight 
of the Garrison by the Woods. In the mean time the 
Indians advanced as near as they could under the shelter 
of trees, some of which stood within 100 yards of the Fort, 
but in most places the ground was cleared 300 yards round. 
The Indians fired very briskly upon the Fort and the Span- 
iards returned the same very hotly till towards 3 of Clock 
when their Fire lessened considerably. This kept the Span- 
iards so amused that they did not discover our men at the 
Batteries so that they worked undiscovered till 5 of clock 
when the Spaniards began to fire upon them but the Breast 
work being then finished they did no mischief. Before sun 
set the Battery fired on the Fort when I ofi"ered them terms 
but they refusing the Cannons fired a second time which had 
so good an effect that they cried out for Quarter, became 
Prisoners of War and surrendered the Fort with two Pieces 
of Cannon, one Mortar, three Swivel Guns, 150 Shells, 
a number of glass bottles filled with Powder, and artificial 
Fireworks, a sufiicient Quantity of Ammunition, Pro\dsions 
&ca. for a long Defence. The Fort consisted of a strong new 
built Tower about 30 foot high 16 foot square within with 
a Manchicolis above which flanked the foot of the Tower, 
without that a Rampart faced with Timber a foot thick and 
12 foot high, filled up within side with 6 foot earth but the 
Garrison was very weak consisting only of a Sergeant, a Cor- 
poral, 9 Soldiers and one Indian. The Governour ha^'ing 
since the first Inroad withdrawn the Garrison fi-om Picolata 
and part of that fi*om Pupa, they formerly consisting of 


a^ComiHsioiied Officer and 30 men. I left a Garrison in this 
Place & have added to the Fortification it being of great 
consequence, since thereby the Coniniunicatiou with the 
Creek Indians is secured and their means of invading by land 
the Northern parts of the Colony is taken away, and if any 
party of Horse comes fi-om Carolina, they may be here 
sheltered 'till they be ferried over and Picolata at which they 
land, is within 21 miles of Augustine, and the Country 
between is full stocked with Cattle and Horses. 

I have received some letters from the Trustees relating 
to the title of Lands, which I wish may not give room to the 
troublesome peoples making new Cavils. I have not yet had 
time to consider well of it, but think it would be right to take 
them into mature consideration that at the same time they 
are published they may be thoroughly explained to the 
people, and thereby Dissentions at this critical Juncture 
be prevented. 

I am, Sir, 

Your very humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
I desire you would show this letter 
to Mr. Jones. I have sent Mr. Horton 
to England and Capt. Heron to Charles 
Town to solicit assistance for the 
siege of Augustine & other matters 
for the safety of the Province. 

Colonel Stephens. 

By the examination of the Prisoners which confirms former 
Informations ; the Castle of Augustine is a fort built of soft 
stones with four Bastions, the Curtain sixty yards in length, 
the Parapet nine foot thick, the Rampart twenty foot high, 
casemated underneath for lodgings and arched over and 
newly made Bombproof. There are fifty pieces of Cannon 
mounted in the Castle, they have been for some time working 
on a Covered way which is not yet finished. Sixteen of the 
Cannon are Brass & some tw enty four Pounders. The Town 
is entrenched with Ten Salient Angles in each of which are 
some small Cannon. The Forces in Florida consist of by 
Establishment : 


One Troop of Horse 

One Company of Artillery 

Three Independ*^ Comp^ of old Troops, each 

Two Companies of the Eegim* of Esturias 

One Company of Valencia 

One Company of Catalonia 

Two Companys of Cantabria 

Two Companys of Mercia 

Armed Negi'oes 

AVhite Transports for Labour 

Militia of Inhabitants one Company 

Indians the Number uncertain 

Brought by Capt. Thomson who deUvered it at the 
Trustees Office 2 May 1740. 

|and Mkn 

'IN KAf'H. 












2 April 1740. 

Charles Town April 2'^ 1740. 

I acquainted you m my last of our taking Fort St. Francis, 
since which we have had some further advantages. CaroHna 
has voted £120,000 assistance, a Regiment of Foot, a Troop 
of Horse &ca. and the Men of War assist in attacking the 
Town and blockading the Castle of Augustme. I send you 
inclosed a Copy of my answer to Mr. Jones's Representation 
relating to the Orphans, and am 

Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

The Hon*'''' the Trustees. 

James Oglethorpe, 

rec'^ 2 June 1740. 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 21, p. 20.3, 


As for Milledge's brother uiid sister I think yonr repre- 
sentntion is very just, that the takhig them away to the 
Orphan House will break up a family which is in a likely way 
of lining comfortably. Mr. Whitefield's design is for the 
good of y'' people and the Glory of God and I dare say when 
he considers this, he will be very weU satisfied with the Boy 
and Girls returning to their brother John Milledge, since 
they can assist him, and you ma}^ allow them upon my 
account the Provisions they used to have upon the Orphan 
account. Upon this head I am to acquaint you that I have 
inspected the Grant relatmg to the Orphan House. Mr. 
Seward said that the Trustees had granted the Orphans to 
Mr. Whitefield, but I showed him that it could not be in the 
sense he at first seemed to understand it. It is most certain 
that Orphans are human creatures & neither Cattel nor any 
other kind of Chattels, therefore cannot be granted, but the 
Trust have gTanted the care of the helpless Orphans to Mr. 
Whitefield & have given him 500'^ Acres of Land and a power 
of collecting Charities as a consideration for maintaining all 
the Orphans who are in necessity in this Province, and 
thereby the Trustees think themselves discharged fi-om main- 
taining of any, biit at the same time the Trustees have not 
given as I see any power to Mr. Wliitefield to receive the 
effects of the Oii^hans much less to take by force any 
Orphans who can maintain themselves, or whom any other 
substantial person will maintain. The Trustees in this act 
according to the Law of England m case Orphans are left 
destitute they become the charge upon the Parish and the 
Parish may put them out to be taken care of, but if any 
person will maintain them so that they are not chargeable to 
the Parish, then the Parish doth not meddle with them, and 
since the taking away of the Court of Wards and Liveries 
the Guardianship of Orphans is in their next Relation, or 
themselves at a certain age can chuse their Guardians and 
the Judges, Chancellor, Magistrates &ca. have the same 
inspection over the effects and persons of the Orphans as 
they have over those of his Majesty's other subjects, and the 
effects and persons of Orphans are as nnu-h under the pro- 


tection of the Laws as those of any other of His Maj(^sty's 
Subjects. I send a copy of this Paragi-aph to Colonel 
Stephens and think it would be right in you and him to give 
an account to the Trustees of this matter and of all other 
things relating to the Orphan house. 

Copy of General Oglethorpe's Answer to 
Mr. Jones's Representation relating to the 
Orphans inclosed m the General's letter 
to the Trustees dated 2 April 1740. 


10 April 1740. 

Savannah lO*"^ April 1740. 

I was in hopes to have saved the charge of the Garrison 
of Augusta on my first arrival here by the Regular Troops 
and for that purpose sent up a second Ensign and 14 men 
but the Boat being cast away and the Officer and most of the 
men being drowned I never was able to spare a pai-ty since, 
by reason of the Spanish Alarms, so could not reduce that 
Garrison and it being continued, I have been obliged to pay 
into Mr. Jones's hands money for discharging the arrears, 
and which I desii-e you would pay to Mr. Verelst on my 
account. I shall relieve the Garrison with the King's Troops 
as soon as the siege of Augustine is over and thereby save 
the Expence of the Trustees men, but a Constable and 
a Magistrate will be very necessary there and an allowance 
for them, since that is the gi-eat resort for the Indian Trade 

* P, R, O. Georf,'ia, B. T, vdI. 21, p. 204. 


and there is a very pretty Town built with a nuinl)er of white 
faniihes without any expence to the Tnist except the Gar- 
rison for their protection. 
I am 


Your very humble Servant 
The Hono''^'' the Trustees. James Oglethorpe. 

[Lidorml] rec'^ 12 June 1740. 


38 ApiiiL 1741. 

Fkederica in Georgia 28 April 1741. 

NotwithstandinjT the sillyness & desertion of some of our 
Inhabitants and the underhand endeavours of the Sjjaniards 
whose private Agents in Charles Town have hightned every 

uneasyness. The Town contains of Freeholders and 

there is more likelyhood of planting upon this Island than 
there has hitherto been, being about one hundred and 
fifty acres already planted besides 40 acres of clear meadow 
enclosed for Hay & some teams of Oxen & Horses besides 
a great many rideing Horses most of 'em taken from the 

The desertion of the people I have been obliged to remedy 
by filling up the Lots in the inclosed form and thereby keep 
up the Guard Dutys & Improvements. I still think this 
Province is likelier to succeed than ever and to become 
a strong fi-ontier and usefull in furnishing all those produc- 
tions of warm Country s which we have from the Mediter- 
ranean and by the raising of them gives support to perse- 
cuted Protestants from foreign Countrys and others who are 
willing to be industrious and do not doubt to accomplish the 

* p. Jl. O. Georgift. p. T. vol. 22, p. 4, 


ends mentioned in our first Proposals. I have the more 
reason to believe this since we have had the utmost opposi- 
tion both publick & private that could possibly have been 
given by the Enemys of the Nation as well as by the idleness, 
wickedness &, folly of our Inhabitants & the jealousy & self 
interest of neighbouring Colonys. As God has been pleased 
hitherto to overcome all these oppositions, I thmk from 
thence we are much more likely to succeed than we were 
before we knew what opposition we were to receive. The 
chief thing is to persevere & go on steadily in spite of 
calumny, the weak but poisoned weapon of impotent Ene- 
mys. I think still as I have already mentioned the greatest 
services that can be done is to send over married recruits 
with industrious wives, the next is to get the Mess : Hopes 
to send the Germans from Rotterdam hither as they do to 
Pensilvania. The third without which the rest is useless 
is to defend the place by Boats mann'd with 100 men by the 
Highland Company for the Woods, two Troops of Rangers 
for the inland Country and a proper Sloop for the Coast. 
I have been at the charge of keeping up of this as much as 
I could also the supporting the Indians and other things as 
usual I think no Innovations by new Orders or Laws or by 
explanation of old ones. I do not doubt God would bless 
these endeavours with success. We want here some men fit 
for Schoolmasters, one at Frederica and one at the Darien, 
also a sedate and sober Minister, one of some experience in 
the world and whose first heat of youth is over. These are 
things I should chiefly think necessary. There are numbers 
of things which I should write upon but must refer you 
to another letter particularly the accounts. 
I am, 


Your very humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
Hon'^i^ the Trustees. 


rec*^ 36 Sept' 1741, 



G May 1741. 

Fkederica 6^^ May 1741. 
Sir, -^ 

I send you inclosed the List of the Widdows now at 
Darien and also the Eeceipt for the pay of the Troop of 
Highland Eangers. Mr. Mackay who is Captain of them 
was Ensign and Overseer of the Works at St. Andrews in the 
Trustees Service and held that place with thirty men, when 
the Spaniards attempted the mvasion of this Province, with 
a great number of men in the year 1737. I hope he will 
have all disi)atch in his affairs having waited with great 
patience till the Commissioners had leasure to report upon 
his accounts. Mr. Jones has promised to send the report 
by Gapt. Thomson to Avliich give me leave to refer you. 

I send also enclosed to the Trustees Copy of the Proceed- 
ings relating to a Negi-o Slave seized at Erederica and some 
Examinations which the Germans desired to be taken here, 
also a Certificate for the cloathing of the Eegiment for Mr. 

Doctor Hawkins tells me that he has sent you Vouchers to 
prove his Demands which when he sent his last accounts 
to the Trustees he did not think it was necessary to trouble 
them with but offered them at Savannah. I do well know 
that he has attended the sick very carefully and that he con- 
stantly went up to Darien when I was here and suppose he 
did so when I was not. It is no little thing to go in open 
boats in all weathers near twenty miles and no small expense 
to hire men and boats but these things will appear more fully 
from the evidence he has sent over and desire you would put 
them in a clear Ught to the Trust, for though he is very 
capable of doing his duty as Surgeon he is very ignorant in 

I am, Sir, 

Your very humble Servant 

Mr. Harman Verelst. • 

[Indormll reC^ 28 Sept. 1741. 

* p. B, O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 22, p. 6, 



28 June 174L 

Frederica 28'^ June 1741. 

Upon hearing of an unfortunate accident happened at the 
Camp down at the South end of the Island of a quarrel 
between Capt. Desbrisay & Capt. Norbury, I wrote immedi- 
ately to Lieut. Col. Cook and he spoke to the Major who 
sent me the enclosed letter on wliicli I wrote to Mrs. Norbury, 
of which a Copy is Enclosed. The Magistrates ordered 
a Jury being the Coroners Inquest to sit upon the Body who 
found the matter Manslaughter. One who was upon the 
Coroners Inquest, went down to Port Royal, that Mrs. 
Norbury might be informed of the whole, and I received 
answers from other People to whom I wrote but had none 
from Mrs. Norbury. 

In the meantime one Court Day came on and the Magis- 
trates would not bring on the Tryal of Captain Desbrisay 
that there might be time for Mrs. Norbury to send up, on 
which Capt. Desbrisay apply'd to be Bailed till the next 
Court Day And on the l"** of June being Court Day the 
Grand Jury found a Bill against Capt. Desbrisay upon which 
he was tried and found guilty of Manslaughter. Some time 
after his Tryal, Mrs. Norbury came up & I send you Copy 
of her Letters and my Answers Enclosed. She refuses 
to bring any Evidence against any Person here as also to 
commence any Action for the loss of Her Husband but 
seems to insist upon trying Capt. Desbrisay again in another 
Country. The Magistrates offered her the liberty of using 
any Records or Evidence of the former Tryal here, and to 
examine any person or to commence any new Suit that might 
be lawfully done, but she seems entirely to contemn all 
authoritys derived fi'om the Charter. I believe the Magis- 
trates will send home the full Proceedings to you. All the 
Colonys in America try Criminal matters finally in the 
Colony & if this or any other was deprived of that priviledge 

* p. R. Or C^eorgia. B. T. vol. 22, p. U. 


the oppression of twice being put into Jeopardy of their 
Lives <fe carrying Witnesses so far upon Expences would be 
too great for the subject to suffer, my opinion was that if she 
thought there was any injustice or omission of Evidence 
in the Tryal of Capt. Desbrisay which was for the loss of the 
King's subject, She might try him in the Colony for the loss 
of her husband and being upon the spot might have the 
benefit of -all witnesses without expence, but I believe she 
is very sensible that the Tryal was very full and seems by the 
removal of the Tryal only to mtend to put the persons she 
would attack to expences and to compass some other end. 

As the President of removeing Criminal Tryals after 
sentence and putting men twice in Jeopardy of their lives 
would not only destroy this Colony but also be an injustice 
to the People here I must desire you would have this matter 
well enquired into and would desu-e that Mr. Towers and the 
other Lawyers who are of the Trust would consider of it, and 
whether it would not be best to take the Attorney Soliciter 
Generals opinion thereupon. 

The Charter gives power to the Trustees & they to these 
Courts to try all matters, capital or not capital and to award 
execution thereon. 
I am 


Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe, 
The hon*"'' the Trustees. 


rec'» 28 Sept. 1741. 



29 June 1741. 

Frederic A 29th June 1741. 

I have wrote very fully to the Ministry to obtain assistance 
for the defence of this Colony, which every Day I believe 
shows the usefulness of it, since without any new succours 
from Europe we ravaged Florida and besieged St. Augustine 
and have since defended ourselves though the Spaniards have 
received great reinforcements fi'om Cuba. 

The Spanish Emissarys are very busy in stirring up Dis- 
contents amongst the People, hence their principal point is 
Negroes, since as many slaves as there are so many Enemy s 
to the Government and consequently Friends to the Spaniard. 
Another gi'eat point is to discourage the Planters since they 
think if planting don't go forward England will gi'ow tired of 
supporting the Colony and then of course the Spaniards will 
gain their ends. 

The way to overcome all this is to persist in allowing no 
Slaves, encourage the importation of Germans and married 
Recruits and prevail with the Government to answer those 
necessary Expences of Rangers, Sloops, Boats and Fortifica- 
tions. In spite of all opposition our Vineyards go on pros- 
perously and Colonel Stephens wiU give you a fuU account of 
the silk from Savannah. 
I am 


Your most obedient 

humlile Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
The hon'^i'^ the Trustees. 

rec-i 28 Sept. 1741. 

-■ p. R. O. Geui-Kia. B. T. vol. 22, i). 15. 



12 Nov. 1741. 

Fred^ 12tli November 1741. 

Several Iiiliabitants of Frederica &. Neigliborliood being 
forAvard enough in their kinds to want Mulberry Trees and 
able to preserve them, they desired of me that they might 
have them pursuant to the promise of the Trustees and Mr. 
Graham having raised on his Plantation upon the Savannah 
River a large nursery, I bought of him G,000 Trees which 
were deUver'd <t distributed as '^ enclosed. I have drawn 
for the amount making £25 : — which I desire you would pay 
and apply to the Trustees for Reimbiirsement thereof. Too- 
anohivi returned yesterday with a party of Uchee and Creek 
Indians from incursions against the Spaniards, they deliv- 
ered to me a Lieutenant of Spanish Horse and another 
Horseman whom they took Prisoners near Augustine. 
I am etc., 

James Oglethorpe. 

Mr. H. V. 

rec. 4 Feb. 1741. 


3 March 1741 2. 

Frederica 3d March 1741-2. 

Governour Clark hath for some years past laboured to 
T)ring about one of the noblest designs and most advantage- 
ous for all the British Settlements on the Continent of Amer- 
ica which is to make a peace between all the Indians that 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 22, p. 34. t P- R- O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 22, p. 42. 


are subject or under the Crown of Great Britain and thereby 
preventing their destrojdng and slauglitering each other as 
they now daily do, besides the saving so many hves & making 
the Western part safe, it enables the English Indians to act 
with more vigour & greater numbers against the Spaniards 
or any Nation at war with us. Those men who otherwise 
would be forced to stay at home for their own Defence will 
be enabled to leave their Towns by the Peace. I have with 
much difficulty made a Peace between the Chickesaws, Cher- 
okees & Creeks but the great work of making a Peace be- 
tween them & the six Nations remains with Governour Clark 
to do. 

If the Chickesaws can obtain a Peace with the Six Nations 
which are called the back Enemy, They will be secured 
against the French otherwise that brave People will be over- 
layed with Numbers. They have acquainted me that the 
fear of the back Enemy did prevent their coming down this 
year to war against the Spaniards, Whereas last year they 
sent down forty, And if the Peace is made with the Six 
Nations they will send down every year 200 to war against 
St. Augustine. 

The Cherokees have also acquainted me that they are 
secured fi-om the back Enemy who lately killed their Em- 
perour Moy Foy. They will be able to furnish 2,000 men in 
case we should have occasion for them. 

I shall say no more to you on this head since Governour 
Clark in his letter speaks so fuUy upon it. His Reasons are 
so full and strong that I can add nothing to the works of his 
excellent pen therefore send you the Copy of his. 

As this Treaty is of greater consequence to Georgia than 
to any other Colony, I drew for £100 sterling upon Mr. 
Verelst towards defi-aying the charge hereof, which I hope 
you will reimburse. 

We still keep our ground and our Indians continually make 
Incursions up to the WaUs of St. Augustine. 

On 1st Feb^J' a Spanish Privateer Sloop which was sent by 
the Governour of St. Augustine to Guarica on Hispaniola for 
Provisions, arrived loaded with Wine, Clothing, Flom- &c. off 
the bar of Augustine, The half Galleys with 200 men went 


out to convoy her in, ])ut tli<^ weatlier blowing fresh, they 
went back again & <?arried on shore to the Governour the 
Chief Merchants & the letters & left the Sloop &ca Pilot to 
wait for and come in with the Flood. The Governour being 
extremely rejoiced at the arrival of this succour, ordered the 
Cannon round the works to be fired and bonfires to be made 
and sent out a party of Indians to get wood for the same. 
A Detachment of our Savannah Indians fell upon the Wood 
cutters killed some and took five Prisoners whom they 
brought in here and so took away the Bonfire which the 
Spaniards might the better spare since at the same time our 
St. Phillip Guard Sloop came up with the Spanish Sloop 
before the tide of Flood was full made who took her and 
brought her in here. 
I am, 


Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
The Hon"** the Trustees. 

rec'i 23 July 1742. 


28 May 1742. 

Frederica in Georgia 
28th May 1742. 


The mutinous temper at Savannah now shows itself to be 
fomented by the Spaniards and that the destruction of that 
place was but part of their scheme for raising a general dis- 
turbance through all North America. Their Correspondence 

♦ p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 22, p. 59. 


with the Negroes too fatally manifested itself in the fires at 
New York and Charles Town and the insurrection of the 
Negi'oes in Carohna when Mr. Bathurst and above twenty 
white people and forty Negroes were killed. The vigilance 
of the government of Virginia, New York, New England &ca. 
hath prevented farther consequence and we have lock'd them 
so up in Augustine that they could not favour their Partizans 
in those difi'erent Colonys. They found three insuperable 
obstacles in their way in driving out the EngUsh from this 
Colony, 1st The People being white and Prostestants and no 
Negroes were naturally attached to the Government. 2ndly 
The Lands being of inheritance, as men could not sell they 
would not leave the Country so easily as new Commers would 
do, who could sell their Emprovements. 3rd Distilled Liquors 
were prohibited which made the place healthy. Their Parti- 
zans laboured to get those who perhaps intended no ill to 
bring about what they desired. 1st To obtain Negroes being 
secure that Slaves would be either Recruits to an Enemy or 
Plunder for them. 2dly Land alienable which would bring 
in the stock jobbing temper, the Devill take the Hindmost. 
3d Free importation of rum and spirits which would destroy 
the Troops and labouring people here as it hath done the 
Army in Jamaica and Cuba and would give a reputation of 
unhealthiness to the Province. To bring this to bare no 
money was spared you have had a constant history of the 
effects of their bribery from Savannah, when they found all 
their cunning of no Effect. They show'd their last effort of 
impotant rage against the rest of the Trustees by scolding & 
raising virilent and malicious lies which they even ventured 
to print. Every faithful and honest Magistrate they were 
for destroying. Mr. Jones gave me an account of a design 
against him as you will see by the enclosed. I sent to Col. 
Stephens & ordered such assistance to be given him as he 
should have occasion for, of which you will see the good 
effects by the enclosed. I beUeve this will be the Spanish 
factions last effort at Savannah for the new orders to the Men 
of War to act with vigour against the Spaniards and to come 
to me for advice has given a gi-eat turn to every thing. Now 
the Spaniards private Emissarys are striving to make the 



people of Carolina quarrel with the Iiidiaiis and I must now 
labour to prevent the effects of their indiscreations. In a 
few days Capt. Dunbar will proceed for England with the 
Spanish prize he took <t I shall send on bofird the Invalids 
of the Regiments a Spanish Lieiitenant <fe some of their 
Officers taken prisoners by me. We have had a crop of 
wheat of about sixty bushels on the farm in this Island. The 
Vines grow prodigiously. We hope for a great crop of Indian 
corn upon the Island. The Soldiers hold the spade in one 
hand and the sword in the other and both successfully for 
since we destroyed seven Spanish Forts in Florida in the 
Campaign against Augustine, we have held them into this 
very hour so that they have not been able to rebuild any one 
of them. 

Thp Darien Settlement florishes exceedingly so does the 
Town of Ebenezer. I shall send ^ Capt. Dunbar a return 
of the improvements in the Southern part of this Province 
which are really wonderfull considering tlie situation and 


I am, 


Your most obed*^ 

humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
The Hon''i^ the Trustees. 


5 August 1742. 



Lieutenant Sutherland whom I send express will give you 
an account of the wonderfull manner God has been pleased 
to defeat the Spaniards in their invasion of this Colony. I 

p. U. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 22, p. 65. 

LSfl^fiilS ¥ti,OM GENERAL OCiLfiT«OIlPE. 128 

refer you for particulars to his account and must desire you 
to grant to him 500 Acres of Land which I have ordered to 
be set out about 16 miles from Darien also 500 Acres for 
Lieut. Charles Mackay who assisted in the defeat of the 
Spaniards in the Granadeer Savannah. 
I am, 


Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
Fred'' in Georgia 
5th August 1742. 

The Hon'^i'^ the Trustees. 

reel 24 April 1743. 


24 Nov. 1742. 

Frederica 24"> Nov"- 1742. 

My Lord, 

A matter of importance coming now to my knowledge and 
having this opportunity of sending by New York to England 
I could not omit acquainting Your Grace that a Party of our 
Rangers having been surprised and most of them killed by 
the Yamassee who are Spanish Indians they burnt Mount 
Yenture and thereby opened a passage into the Upper 
Settlements of Georgia over the North Branch of the Alata- 
maha River. I shall strive to build a stronger place at that 
passage but it is not only this matter and the consequences 

* p. E. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. '25, p. 49. 


of it that makes me trouble your Grace but that of one 
of our Indians taken by the Spanish Indians at that place 
escaped from them after they had held him some days on 
their return towards Augustine ; they told him that since the 
last invasion and repulse here the Spaniards had received 
fi-equent succours of men by sea at Augustine, that they had 
lost a great many men in their last attempt which they were 
resolved to revenge and that they expected the French would 
attack along the River Savannah and the Spaniards would 
take this Place. 

I shall do all I can to baulk their Expectations but the 
condition we are in is such that I hope Your Grace wiU 
excuse my so frequently troublhig you with our necessity s 
and my demands. 

It was with much difficulty and not without the apparent 
hand of God that we made head the last time against a vastly 
superior force and that with a few Cannon, doubtless they 
are stronger and will take better measures. We have no 
addition and the Men of War have refused to stay in this 


I know it is near the Enemy but am perswaded the declin- 
ing of danger can never be their reason for choosing a more 
distant port, howsoever as they are not here I have been 
obHged to keep the same Twenty Gun Merchant ship that 
did fight the last time for the defence of the Harbour. 

I am forced to be at very considerable Expences but the 
sparing of them would be very ill Oeconomy since it would 
probably be the loss of the Country. 

Permit me to acquaint Your Grace that if this Province 
is conquered by the Spaniards the Negroes in the next will 
probably join with the Enemy & God alone can tell how far 
alone their success may extend. This I can say that the 
knowing what a terrible consequence the loss of this place 
would be has made me expend my fortune and expose my 
person much more than by the strictest rales of duty I should 
have been obliged to do. 

I hope Your Grace will apply to His Majesty that this 
Frontier may be supported or that I may not be blamed 
if I dye in an unsuccessful defence of it for the being killed 


in one's duty is all that the bravest man or best officer that 
wants the necessary means of war can do. 
I am 

My Lord 

Your Grace's most devoted 

and obedient humble Serv*' 

James Oglethorpe. 
His Grace 

The Duke of Newcastle. 

rec*^ Janry 5**^- 


24 Nov. 1742. 

Frederic A 24*^^ Nov'^ 1742. 

The Friendship you have shewn towards me on all occa- 
sions makes me give you this trouble tho' I am perswaded 
you will not think it such since it is upon a point of great 
service to the publick. 

You have already had an account that we defeated the last 
Spanish Invasion beyond all expectation. At Charles Town 
they were so stupid (not to say worse) that they prevented 
the Men of War from coming hither tho' I gave them very 
near a month's notice. If there had been but one twenty 
gun ship besides a Merchant Ship of twenty Guns which was 
here and our Guard Sloops they would have beat them at the 
Entry of the Harbour and have saved the loss there which 
amounted to at least 20,000jG. 

We did beat them at land but did not persue them so that 
they are now capable of undertaking a second Expedition, 
I have given notice of it to the Men of War but can get none 

* f . Jt. 0. An}. & W. Ind. vol. 25, p. 50, 


to stay here and unless I should punn I can't say we have 
any Balls to entertain them Avitli. 

The Detachment from Jamaica is returned from Charles 
Town without ever coming here. 

We have reason to expect an Invasion both fi'om French 
& Spaniards who if they succeed here instead to push their 
Conquest as far as Virginia and I fear if this is destroyed 
they may have too much reason to hope for success all North 
& South Carolina beuig full of provisions and above ten 
slaves to one white man besides a very busy Spanish Faction 
stirring at Carolina. 

I must desire the favour of you to put my Lord Duke in 
mind of obtaining His Majesty's further orders to me what 
I am to do on these new Emergencies whither I am to take 
the Artillery at Charles Town whither the men of War are 
to assist according to my directions whither I am pursuant 
to His Majesty's former Orders to continue to defend His 
Dominions as far as the Bounds by the Charter of King 
Charles the Second and to continue hiring of the Indians 
Rangers and Boatmen and in keeping the Magazines full 
of Provisions whither I am to finish the necessary fortifica- 
tions and orders if I am not to act in this manner what I am 
to do with a single Regiment without Provisions Fortifica- 
tions Cannon ludians or Horse in the neighborhood of a 
powerful! Enemy furnished with all. 

Pardon me for troubling you with a repetition desiring you 
to put my Lord Duke frequently in mind of laying these 
matters before His Majesty so as to obtain some answer for 
my remaining in uncertainty may not only prove fatal to 
myself but very probably the consequence of it may be the 
loss of two or three Provinces. 
I am 

Your most obedient 

humble Servant. 

James Oglethorpe. 
By this occasion I send a 
letter relating to the same 
to His Grace, 


Andrew Stone Esq'"*'- 



22 January 1742-8. 

Erederica 22^ Jan'-y 1742-3. 
My Lord, 

This goes by Capt. Dunbar with the Prize Sloop taken by 
him which I formerly mentioned to your Grace. I retained 
her here to help to make the defence against the Si^aniards, 
I send him to surrender her to His Majestys Orders. 

When I fitted out Privateers at His Majestys expence 
I agreed and gave in orders that the Officers and Men both 
Sailors and Soldiers should have the half of every Prize for 
their encouragement and His Majesty the other half towards 
defraying the expence of fitting them out whereby if we had 
success a fund would arise for the increasmg Privateers for 
guardmg this Coast and annoying the Spaniards and this 
is the more necessary since it appears by experience that the 
.shoals on this coast are such as renders it very difficult for 
the Men of War to prevent supplys fi-om arriving at St. 
Augustine or Privateers from coming out thence. 

Give me leave to desire Your Grace to recommend to His 
Majesty the giving to the Captors in the case of this present 
prize the Moiety which is reserved to His Majesty & I must 
the sooner desire Your Grace's favour upon this occasion by 
reason that most of the Captors have behaved extremely well 
in the defence of the Coimtry And if His Majesty would 
be gi-aciously pleased to order me to have this Prize Sloop 
repaired and continued in service she will be of great use 

* p. R. 0. hm. k W. Ind. vol, 25, p. 64. 


Give me leave to recommend to Your Grace's protection 
Capt. Dunbar who lias been with me from the beginning 
of the setling this Colony and distinguished himself upon 
many occasions in His Majestys service. I send him home 
to solicit the necessary assistance. 
I am 

My Lord 

Your Grace's most obedient 

and most devoted Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 
His Grace 

The Duke of Newcastle. 

rec'i April 24**^- 
(by Capt. Dunbar.) 


22 Januaky 1742 3. 

Frederica 22"* Jan'-y 1742. 
My Lord, 

Your Grace will receive with this a short account of the 
Proceedings here with Copys of the Letters and other Papers 
proving the Facts and thereby Your Grace will find the ill 
Consequences that attended Lieut. Gov. Bull and the Capt. 
of the Men of War's neglecting the advices I sent them. 

It was by the great Blessing of God that we defeated the 
Enemy they had all Preparations numbers and time sufficient 
to have destroyed us and had I been as incredulous and as 
unprepared they had in all human probabihty not only con- 
quered Georgia but both Carolinas for the Negroes would 
have certainly revolted and if the Spaniards had defeated us 
they had nothing but what would have run from them. 

' '" ~ *p. R, 0. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 25, p. 65, 


I would not trouble Your Grace with these Reflexions were 
not it necessary to prevent future ill C(jnsequences by dear 
bought experience I have all along mentioned how unable 
Men of War fioni Charles Town were to come to our assist- 
ance and the event has proved the truth of that as well as 
of the Spaniards Preparations. 

I hope this good use may be made of a bad accident that 
it may give weight to the representations of those who are 
near danger and who can certainly perceive the danger and 
take the measures necessary for defence sooner than those at 
a distance can. 

His Majesty has been pleased to power his favours on me 
far above my Deserts or capacity yet let me be never so per- 
sonally inconsiderable I should be wanting in my duty if I did 
not mamtain the character of General of his forces in two 
fi'ontier Provinces since he has honored me with it. 

It is the duty of that Office and my standing orders to 
defend the Provinces I saw the danger every day more 
certam and too near to receive support or orders from 
England on such an Emergency therefore as in duty bound 
made all the Preparations I coidd, these occasioned expence 
and that expence was crowned with success and I drew for 
sums towards defrajdng it, had I done otherwise and for want 
of these necessary assistances of Indians, Vessels, Rangers, 
Provisions, &ca. and had lost these Provinces I should have 
deserved to have answered it with my life. 

As I had early intelligence of the Spanish designed Inva- 
sion I beg leave to acquaint Your Grace that the Past is only 
a Prelude of a second Invasion fi'om the Spaniards which 
is to be supported by the French. 

I must again sollicit Your Grace to lay before His Majesty 
the dangerous scituation of these Provinces and to move His 
Majesty that a second Battalion may be added to the Regi- 
ment the manner of raising wdiicli wdtli the greatest oeconomy 
Captain Dunbar can more fuUy exi)lain. 

Absolute necessity obliges me to repeat to Y^our Grace that 
the many expences for the extraordiiiaiys of the War are so 
necessary to be satisfied that these Provinces cannot be sup- 
ported without them. 


l\"niiit me t(i refer Your Grace to tlie enclosed Letters for 
further particulars. 
I am, 

My Lord, 

Your Grace's most obedient 

and most devoted Servant 

James Oglethohpe. 
P. S. It is from all Quarters 
confirmed that the French and 
Si:)aniards are preparing to 
invade us. 

His Grace 

The Dake of Newcastle etc. 

I In<hn:se(l\ 
rec^i April 24'i» 
(bj Capt. Dunbar.) 


8 June 1743. 
[Li Gen. Oglethorpe's of Jan'> '22'' 1742 3.J 

Frederica in Georgia 
8 June 1742. 

I send you enclosed ('apt. Hainer's account of the action 
he had with the convoy and some of the Transports that 
brought the succours into St. Augustine. Our Guard 
Schooner is on the Spanish Coast ^ will probably bring us 
back some intelligence. I have sent the Faulcon Guard 
Sloop to the Soutlnvard. I will also send out the Sloop St. 
Phillip to watch their Motions as soon as I can get guns, 
having lost several in a storm which disabled her from going 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. lua. vol. 25, p. G7, 


to sea iintill the arrivall of those Guns which I ordered Mr. 
Maxwell to buy. 

You would be in the riji;ht to have the Militia iniinediat(dy 
reviewed and ready for service. I expect the Spaniards will 
attack us and if they do, doubt not to give them a warm 
reception and make them sick of it, but if tliej should get 
the better of us, they will immediately follow their advantage 
and you may expect a visit and its possible they may excite 
an insurrection amongst the Negroes. I expect you should 
send to Fort Frederick what is necessary for the defence 
of that Place of which I send you an Estimate and one to 
the Assembly to be laid before them. If there's any trilling 
in this and an accident thereupon should happen, You may 
depend on it yon are answerable for it. I have often given 
notice how the Place was neglected. Some of the men in the 
Garrison were countenanced in their desertion & harboured 
by some ill designed People. I therefore desire you would 
l)ublisli a Proclamation for the apprehending of them setting 
forth the Consequences upon those who receive them. These 
men have l^een four years in the Regiment and never at- 
tempted to desert till in Garrison in the Province of Carolina. 
If encouragement be given them and no notice taken of 
Deserters^ there, it will be the worse Consequence not only to 
the King's Service but the Defence of the Province itself. 
I am Sir 



18 .June 1742. 

[In General Oglethorpe's of Jan'^ '22d 1742-3.] 

Cojiy. • Frederica 18tli June 1742. 


Our Guard Schooner is just returned from oft' the Barr of 

■■ p. U. O. Aia. & W. Ind. vol. 22, p. 


St. Auf^ustine, The Offitrers report that thej saw nine wail 
at Anchor without the Barr but night coming on prevented 
their discovering them more exactly but the next day they 
stood in again ch)se and discovered six sail more malting in 
all fifteen sail of which two seemed twenty Gun ships one 
large Sloop and the rest large Sloops and Schooners, the 
large Sloop and Schooner chased her and one of the ships 
shewed her fore Topsail. Their schooner outsailing their 
sloop ours lay by" for her upon which she tacked and stood 
back, the Weather came on hazy and our Schooner cruized 
along shore and at the mouth of St. John's River discovered 
a Spanish Row Galley who run m and was soon out of sight. 
I must desire the assistance of His Majesty's ships in such 
manner as you shall think fit. If I was to advise it would 
be best to have some Men of War in this port or cruizing to 
the southward of us when we may assist each other whereas 
at present the S})aniards will engage us singly. I desire you 
would acquaint Governour Bull with the news havmg not 
time to write at length we certainly shall have a visit. I 
must desire the favour of your assistance and give counten- 
ance to the officers. I have sent up to get men & guns &c. ■ 
for His Majesty's service. 

P. S. The Bearer Jas. Howell under- 
stands the Pilotage of this Port. I send 
him for that reason to wait upon 
you that if the Men of War come 
this way and have occasion he may 
bring them in. I can join them if 
they come down with a Sloop of 
ten and a Schooner of 14 Guns. 

General Oglethorpe to the Commander of His Majesty's 
Ships at Charles Town, 



[In General Oglethorpe's of .January 22(1 1742-8.] 

Frederica in Georgia 
80th July 1742. 

The Spanish Invasion which has a long time threatened 
the Colony Carolina and all North America has at last fallen 
npon us & God hath been our deliverance. General Horca- 
silas Governour of the Havalnnah ordered those Troops who 
had been em})loved against General Wentworth to imbark 
with Artillery and every thing necessary upon a secret expe- 
dition. They sailed with a gi-eat Fleet amongst them were 
two half Galleys carrying 120 men each &. an 18 j^ound Gun. 
They drew but five feet water which satisfied me they were 
for this place. By good gi-eat Fortune one of the half Galleys 
was wrecked coming out. The Fleet sailed for St. Augustine 
in Florida. Capt. Hamer the latter end of May called here 
for Intelligence. I acquainted him that the Succours were 
expected and sent him a Spanish Pilot to shew him where to 
meet wdtli them. He met with ten sail which had been 
divided from the Fleet by storm but having lost 18 men in 
action against them instead of coming here for the defence 
of this Place he stood again for Charles Town to repair and 
I having certain advices of the arrival of the Sjianish Fleet 
at Augustine wrote to the Commander of His Majesty's Ships 
at Charles Town to come to our assistance. 

I sent Lieut. Maxwell who arrived there and delivered the 
letters the 12tli of June and afterwards Lieut. Mackay who 
arrived and delivered letters on the 20th of June. 

Lieut. Colonel Cook who was then at Charles Town and 
was Engineer hastened to England and his son-in-law Ensign 
Eyre Sub-Engmeer was also in Charles Towm and did not 
arrive here till the Action was over so for want of help I 
myself was obliged to do the duty of Engineer. 

* p. R. O. Am. *i W. lud. vol. 22, p. 70. 


The Havannali Fleet being joined by that of Florida com- 
posed 51 sail with land men on board a List of whom is 
annexed they were separated and I received advice from 
Oapt. Dunbar (who lay at Fort William with the Guard 
8clio()n(n- of 14 Gnns and ninety men) that a Spanish Fleet 
of 14 sail had attempted to come in there Imt ])eing drove 
(mt by the Cannon of the Fort and Schooner they came in 
at Cumberland Soimd. I sent over ('ai)t. Horton to land 
the Indians and Trt)o[)S on Chimberland. I followed myself 
and*was attacked in the Sound but with two Boats fought 
my way through. Lieut. Tolson who was to have supported 
me with the third and strongest boat quitted me in the fight 
and run into a River where he hid himself till next day when 
he returned to St. Simon's with an account that I was lost 
but soon after found. I was arrived there ])efore him for 
which misbehaviour I put him in arrest and ordered him to 
be tryed. The Enemy in this action suffered so much that 
the day after they ran out to sea and returned for St. Augus- 
tine and did not join then- great Fleet till after their Grena- 
diers were beat by Land, 

I drew the Garrison fi'om St. Andrews reinforced Fort 
Wilham and returned to St. Simons with the Schooner. 

Another Spanish Fleet appeared the '2Sth off the Barr l>y 
God's blessing upon several measures taken I delayed their 
coming in 'till the r)tli of July. I raised another Troop of 
Rangers which with the other were of great service. 

I took Captain Thomson's Ship into the Service for defence 
of the Harl)our. 1 imbargoe'd all the Vessells taking their 
men for the service and gave large Gifts and pronjises to the 
Indians so that every day we increased in nund)ers. I gave 
large rewards to men who distinguished themselves upon any 
service, freed the Servants, brought down the Highland Com- 
pany and Company of Boatmen, filled uj) as far as we had 
Guns. All the Vessels behig thus prepared on the 5tli of 
July with a leading Gale and Spring Tide 36 Sail of Spanish 
Vessels run into the Harbour in line of Battle. 

We Cannonaded them very hotly from the Shipping & 
Batterys. They twice attempted to board C;i])t Thomson 
but were r(^])uls(Ml. They also attempted to board the 


Schooner but were repulsed by Capt. I)niil)iir witli a Detacli- 
nient of tlie Regiment on board. 

I was witli the Indians Rangers and Batterys and some- 
times on board the ship and left Major Heron with the Regi- 

It being impossible for me to do my duty as General and 
be constantly with the Regiment therefore it was absolutely 
necessary for His Majesty's service to have a Lieut. Colonel 
present which I was fully convinced of by this day's experi- 
ence. I therefore a])pointed Major Heron to be Lieut. 
Colonel and hope that Your Grace will move His Majesty to 
be pleased to approve the same. 

The Spaniards after an obstinate Engagement of four hours 
in which they lost abundance (^f men passed all our Batterys 
and Shi})ping and got out of shot of them towards Frederica. 
Our Guard Sloop was disabled and sunk one of our Batterys 
blown up and also some of our Men on l)oard Capt. Thomson 
upon which I called a CV^uncil of War at the head of the 
Regiment where it was unanimously resolved to march to 
Frederica to get there before the Enemy and defend that 
Place. To destroy all the Provisions, Vessells, Artillery &c. 
at St. Simon's that they might not fall into the Enemy's 

This was accordingly executed ha\ing hrst drawn all the 
Men on shoar which before had defended the shipping. I 
myself staid till the last and the wind coming fortunately 
about I got Capt. Thompson's Ship our Guard Schooner and 
our Prize Sloop to sea and sent them to Charles Town. This 
I did in the face and spite of thirty six sail of the Enemy as 
for the rest of the Vessells I could not save them therefore 
was obliged to destroy them. 

I must recomend to His Majesty the Merchants who are 
sufferers thereby since their loss was in great measure the 
preserving the Province. 

We arrived at Frederica and the Enemy landed at St. 

On the 7tli a Party of theii's marched towards the Town 
our Rangers discovered them and brought an account of their 
March on which I advanced with a party of Indians Rangers 


and the Highland Company ordermg the Regiment to follow 
being resolved to engage them in the Defiles of the Woods 
before they could get out and form in the open Grounds. I 
charged them at the head of our Indians Highland Men and 
Rangers and God was pleased to give us such success that 
we entirely routed the first party took one Captain prisoner 
and killed another and persued them two miles to an open 
Meadow or Savannah upon the edge of which I posted three 
Platoons of the Regiment and the Company of Highland 
foot so as to be covered by the woods from the Enemy who 
were obliged to pass thro' the Meadow under our fire. This 
disposition was very fortunate. Capt. Antonio Barba and 
two other Captams with 100 Grenadiers and 200 foot besides 
Indians and Negi'oes advanced fi'om the Spanish Camp into 
the Savannah with Huzzah's and fired wath great spirit but 
not seeing our men by reason of the woods none of their 
shot took place but ours did. 

Some Platoons of ours m the heat of the fight the air 
being darkened with the smoak and a shower of rain falling 
retired in disorder. 

I hearing the Firing rode towards it and at near two miles 
from the place of Action met a great many men in disorder 
who told me that ours were routed and Lieut. Sutherland 
killed. I ordered them to halt and march l)ack against the 
Enemy which orders Capt. Demere and Ensign Gibbon 
obeyed but another Officer did not but made the best of his 
way to Town. As I heard the fire continue I concluded our 
Men could not be qviite beaten and that my imediate assist- 
ance might preserve them therefore spurred on & arrived just 
as the fire was done. I found the Spaniards intirely routed 
by one Platoon of the Regiment under the comand of Lieut. 
Sutherland and the Highland Company under the Comand of 
Lieut. Charles Mackay. 

An Officer whom the Prisoners said was Capt. Don Antonio 
Barba was taken Prisoner but desperately wcninded and two 
others were prisoners and a great many dead upon the spot, 
Lieut. Sutherland, Lieut. Charles Mackay and Serj*- Stuart 
having distinguished themselves upon this occasion I ap- 
pointed Lieut. Sutherland Brigade Major and Sei-j*- Stuart 
second Ensign. 

LETTERS ElloM OENERAt. OGLE'l^HoiiM!. 187 

Capt. Deraere and Ensign CTil)))(>n lieing arrived with the 
men they had rallied Lient. C-adogan wdth an advanced party 
of the Regiment and soon after the wliole Regiment Indians 
and Rangers I marched down to a Causeway over a Marsh 
very near the Spanish Camp over which all were obliged to 
pass and thereby stopt those who had been dispersed m the 
fight in the Savannah fi-om getting t(^ the Spanish Camp. 
Having passed the night there the Indian scouts in the morn- 
ing advanced to the Spanish Camp and discovered they were 
all retired into the ruins of the Fort and were making In- 
trenchments under shelter of the Cannon of the ships. That 
they guessed them to be above 4000 men. I thoiTght it im- 
prudent to attack them defended by Cannon with so small a 
number liut marched back to Frederica to refresh the Soldiers 
and sent out Partys of Indians and Rangers to harrass the 
Enemy. I also ordered into arrest the Officers who com- 
manded the Platoons that retired. 

I api^ointed a General Staff Lieut. Hugh Mackay and 
Lieut. Maxwell Aids de Camp and Lieut. Sutherland Brigade 
Major. On y^ 11th of July the Great Galley and two little 
ones came up the river towards the Town. We fired at them 
with the few Guns we had so warmly that they retired and I 
followed them with our Boats till they got under the Cannon 
of their ships which lay in the sound. 

Having intelligence from the Spanish Camp that they had 
lost 4 Captains and upwards of 200 men in the last Action 
besides a great many killed in the sea fight and several killed 
in the night by the Indians even within or near the Camp and 
that they had held a Council of War in which there were 
great divisions insomuch that the Forces of Cuba separated 

from those of Augustine and the Italick Regiment of 

Dragoons separated fi-oni them both at a distance from the 
rest near the Woods and that there was a general Terror 
amongst them upon which I was resolved to beat uj) their 
Quarters in the night and marching down with the largest 
body of men I could make I halted within a mile and a half 
of their Camp to form mtending to leave the Troops there 
till I had well reconitred the Enemy's disposition. 

A French Man who Avithout mv knowledge was come down 

138 T^TiTTKits FuoAr OTiNEi^vt, or.T.r/PTTor.i'rl. 

amongst the Volunteers fired liis (Inn and deserted. Onr 
Indians in vain })ersned and could not take liini. ITixm this 
concluding we were discovered I divided the Drums in ditter- 
ent parts and beat the Grenadiers march for about lialf an 
hour then ceased and we marched l)ack with silence. 

The next day I prevailed with a Prisoner and gave him a 
sum of money to carry a letter privately and deliver it to that 
French Man who had deserted. This Letter was wrote in 
French as if from a friend of his telling him he had received 
the money that he should stiive to make the Spaniards be- 
lieve the English were weak. That he should undertake to 
pilot up their Boats and Galleys S: then bring them under the 
Woods where he knew the Hidden Batterys were, that if he 
could bring that about he slumld have d<mble the reward he 
had already received. That the French Deserters should 
have all that had lieen promised to them. The Spanish 
Prisoner got into their Camp and was imediately carried be- 
fore their General Don Manuel de Montiano. He was asked 
how he escaped and whither he had any letters but denying 
his having any was strictly searched and the letter found and 
he upon being pardoned confessed that he had received 
Money to deliver it to the Frenchman for the letter was not 
directed. The Frenchman denied his knowing anything of 
the contents of the Letter or having received any Money or 
Correspondence with me, notwithstanding which a Council 
of AVar was held and they deemed the French Man to be a 
double s])y but General Montiano would not suffer him to be 
executed having been imi^loyed l)y him however they im- 
bargued all their Troops and halted under Jekyl, they also 
C(mfined all the French on board S: imbarked with such pre- 
cipitation that they left behind them Cannon &cn. and those 
dead of their wounds unburied. The Cuba Squadron stood 
out to sea to the number of 20 sail General Mcmtiano with 
the Augustine Squadron returned to Cumberland Sound 
having burnt Captain Horton's houses &c. on Jekyll. I with 
our boats followed 1dm. I discovered a great many sail under 
Fort St. Andre Avs, of which eight appeared to me plain l)ut 
being too strong for me to attack I stmt the Scout Boats 


I went with my own Cutter & landed a Man on Cninl)er- 
land who carried a letter from me to Lient. Stuart at Fort 
William with orders to defend himself to the last extremity. 

Having discovered our Boats & believing we had landed 
Indians in the night they set sail with great haste in so much 
that not having time to imbarque they killed 40 horses which 
they had taken there and burnt the Houses. The Galleys 
and small Craft to the numV)er of fifteen went thro' the inland 
Water Passages. They attempted to land near Fort William 
but were repulsed by the Rangers they then attacked it with 
Cannon and small Ai-ms fi'om the Water for three Hours but 
the place was so bravely defended by Lieut. Alexander 
Stuart that they were repulsed and ran out to sea where 
twelve other sail of Spanish Yessells had lain at Anchor 
without the Barr during the Attack without stirrmg but the 
Galleys being chased out they hoisted all the Sails they could 
and stood t<^ the Southward. I followed them with the Boats 
to Fort William and fi'om thence sent out the Bangers and 
some Boats who followed them to Saint Johns but they went 
off rowing and sailing to St. Augustine. 

After the news of their defeat in the Grenadier Savannah 
arrived at Charles Town the Men of War and a number 
of Carolina People raised in a hurry set out and came off 
this Barr after the Spaniards had been chased quite out 
of this Colony where they dismissed the Carolina Vessells 
and Capt. Hardy promised in his Letters to cruize oft' St. 

We have returned thanks to God for our deliverance have 
set all the hands I possibly could to work upon the Fortifica- 
tions and have sent to the Northward to raise men ready to 
form another Battallion against His Majesty's Orders shall 
arrive for that purpose. I have retained Thompson's ship, 
have sent for Cannon Shott etc. for Provisions and all kinds 
of stores since I expect the Enemy who (tho' greatly territied) 
lost but few Men in comparison of their great numbers as 
soon as they have recovered their fright will attack us with 
more caution and better discipline. 

I hope His Majesty will approve the measures I have taken 
and I must entreat Your Grace to lay ni}- humble request 


before His Majesty that ho Avonld ])o gracionsly pleased to 
order Tr()o])s, ArtilltM y and other iiecessarys sufficient for 
the defence of this Frontier and the neighl)ouring Provinces 
or give such directions as His Majesty shall think proper and 
I do not doubt l)ut with a moderate support not only to be 
able to defend these Provinces but also to dislodge the 
Enemy from St. Augustine if I have biit the same numbers 
they had in this expedition. 

LIEUT. MAXWELL.* 14 July 1742. 

I In General Oglethorpe's of 22 January 1742-3.] 

Frederica 14*^^ July 1742. 

The Spanish Fleet is locked in this Harbour and very weak 
in Shipping and Gunns being but one 20 Gun ship one 16 
Gun Schooner & the rest Ships of six or eight Guns ill fitted. 
One Galley with a large Gun I think a twelve pounder m her 
Prow with some half Galleys. 

God has given us Victory over them in two Engagements 
by Land and the Galley and half Galleys attempted the 
Town by water and were repulsed. I am extremely glad 
of yoiir arrival since I beheve you will be able to destroy the 
whole Spanish Fleet I send out Capt. Wm. Morgan to Pilot 
you over the Barr if you think proper to come in. I shall 
attack the Spaniards l)y land whenever you attempt it. 
I should not take upon me to advise you who knows so much 
better the sea affairs but in my opinion it is absolutely neces- 
sary for His Majesty's Service and our own Honour to attack 
them both by sea and land and I think the best method 
would be to come in as they did with a leading Gale since 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. a.-), p. 73. 


the upper part of the Harbour is entirely in our power 
whereas it was not in theirs. I will make three Snioaks in 
the heart of the Island to shew that we are ready. I have 
three strong Boats which carry about thirty men each who 
will meet and assist you as soon as you are come by the 
Spanish Fleet and come to the l)ottom of the Harbour. 
If you see an English Jack hoisted upon the Sea Shore you 
may know it to be us if it is proper I will also fire a Platoon 
near the Jack and make two smoaks. 

I am Sir bi lioj)es of seeing you soon and accomplishing 
one of the most noble things that has been done this war 
which will redound to youi' eternal Honour as well as to the 
service of your King and Country. 
I am &c. 

P. S. Mr. Maxwell is my Aid-de-Camp and Lieut, in the 
Regiment, Capt. Morgan is Master of the St. Philip Guard 
Sloop for the defence of this Province in His Majesty's 
service. If the Guard Schooner Walker is wdth you I desire 
you would send her in at the North End of the Island to 
this Town and she with our Boats can certamly destroy their 
Galleys and all their rowing Craft. 

Copy. Letter fi'om General Oglethorpe 

To the Commander of His 
Majesty's Ships at Sea. 


13 February 1742-8. 

Eeederica 12'^ Feh'-y 1742-3. 

I received yours from Mr. Martin of the 10"' of August to 
be sure it was very right that a Hearing should be had 

* p. B. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 22, p. 87. 


relatiiij;" to St('])li('iis Imt 1 think it was iiiiroi'tiiiiatc that that 
hearing shoukl be at a time when the necessary defence of 
the Cok)ny obhged every man of worth to be here present 
and as there was none in England the Folly as well as 
improbability and falsehood of his assertions could not 
appear. A mistake both in the charge and defence run thro' 
the whole. It was Villainy in him and it Avas natural for our 
Council to be incited by making a defence against His charge. 
This mistake is speaking of Savainiah as if it was the whole 
Province of (leorgia Avhereas the district of Savannah is l)ut 
a small })ortion of it. The Province extends beyond the 
Mississippi Westward <fc beyond Frederica Southward and 
the Trustees Orders are obeyed in every part of it except at 
Savannah. ' 

It was not till after the War obliged us to be upon the 
Frontier that the Laws for the welfare of the Colony and the 
Trustees Orders were disobeyed at Savannah. There has 
been since my coming away nothing but continual complaints 
between the Magistrates and Iidiabitants and between each 
other. These disj^utes have been ai-tfuUy kept up by the 
S})anisli Emissarys of whom it seems too apparent young 
Stephens is one. It was near as good to them to draw oft" a 
man from this Colony as to get one to Augustine. Since this 
Spirit has been stirrmg the Town & District of Savannah has 
decreased "daily in men. I find they say at the Barr they 
di-ank rum publickly, I believe it may at Savannah have 
been drank plentifully, by the great sickness and mortality 
there, Imt here there has been no such thing and the people 
have been healthy. 

The Mortality in America is chiefly owing to distilled 
Liquors, the mixing with Water makes them less hurtful but 
is very far from making them wholesome. 

At St. Andrews where no distilled Liipiors were drank they 
lost out of two Companys of 100 men each but three and at 
Port Royal where rum Avas drank we lost out of one Com- 
pany between forty and tifty in one year and I can assure 
you if Rum is allowed in any shape here the Soldiers Avill be 
unfit for action and the Inhabitants for la])our tt sicknesses 
will be as fatal as at Jamaica A\hich will be then imputed to 
the Climate, 


As for the Magistrates being unable to entV^rce the LaAvs it 
is the fault of such Magistrates. I am sure here the Laws 
are strictly put in execution. Besides the health of the 
People the consumption of Beer and Wine is greatly more 
beneficial to Trade than distilled Liquors. Tlu^y employ 
more shipping Beer is the manufacture of Britain imploys 
many hands who pay Rents and Taxes. Wme comes fi-om 
Madeira and is paid for by English Goods and this imploys 
the poor English Manufacturer and the importing of Molasses 
which is the material for small Beer here is much more 
beneficial to the Sugar Colonies than the importing of Rum 
since Rum is a Comodity that will sell any where as well as 
in this Colony but Molasses is a Drug of but little vent 

I am of opinion that this is the Crisis and upon the 
Measui-es taken depends the Fate not onW of this Colony 
but in a great measure of North America also j;he importance 
is now proved by the great Armament of the Spaniards dis- 
api^ointed by the resistance they met with here. It is 
impossible to advise what should be done at the distance 
between this and Europe before one can send over a Proposal 
have it debated and receive an answer the executing of it 
becomes out of season. Two Battallions and a small Squad- 
ron with Mr. Vernon would at first have taken Carthagena, 
4000 men after the}' were prepared could not do if. 

The little strength I had if they would have joined me in 
March would have reduced Augustine but they Avould not 
come up from Carolina till May and in that space the half 
Galleys were arrived and other preparations made which 
rendered the enterprise impracticable. The same is in Civil 
as in Military Affairs, the encouragem' of cultivation by 
Prcemium if promised after planting time is useless. A num- 
ber of Magistrates necessar}- among 4 or 5000 people are a 
nusance if reduced to 100. 

These are only instances to prove a general proposition 
the important point now is to defend the Province against a 
numerous enemy or else all cultivatii^i nuist cease or which 
is worse be beneficial to an Enemy. If the Government 
thinks proper to have the Colony vigorously defended I could 
with great ease have all the improvements carried on. 


The tirst Mcnsuies for ns as Tixistees to take is nHvr sup- 
porting Ixeligiou to encourage Marriage and the rearing u\) 
of C-hiklren. Here are a great number of married people 
and yet there is now in this place only above 700 men more 
than there are Women most of these would marry if they 
could get Wives. The sending over single Women witlunit 
Familys that could })rotect them might be attended with 
Indecencys but the giAdng })assage to the Wives, Sisters and 
Daughters of Recruits and a small maintenance till they go 
on board would be a remedy to this and much the cheapest 
way of i)eo})ling the C*ountry smce after their arrival they are 
no further expense for tlieii' Husbands can maintain them. 

We have found also that the married Soldiers live easiest 
many of them having turned out very industrious Planters. 
The next thing is protecting the Magistrates in the execution 
of the Laws and at the same time protecting the people fi"om 
their insolence litigiousness and extortion in the shape of 
Fees. Next iii persevering and encouraging the Europe kind 
of agriculture as Vines, Silk, Olives &c. all which by experi- 
ence we know thrive in the Country. Accidents and the War 
has prevented a large increase of them but the keepmg out 
of Slaves and peopling the Country with labouring Hands 
fi'om Europe, perticularly fi'om Germany, which is the conse- 
quence thereof, will soon make Wine and Silk the staple 
Comodity of this Country smce most foreign Protestants are 
accustomed to either the one or the other produce bvit it is 
needless to talk of these things if the Country is exposed to 
the Enemy. The sutferings of the People here have been 
very great by the late Invasion and it is natural to believe 
that People will not carry on Cultivation in so exposed a 

I think it Avould not only l)e a very just & charitable but 
also a highly coniendable step in the Trust to become their 
Advocates many of whom have lost their all by the Enemy 
and most of whom voluntarily destroyed their whole for fear 
it should be beneficial to the Enemy. 

I already gro\v tedious shall therefore refer you to Capt. 
Dunbar for a full account of all things here. 

As I hope' we shall succeed in our applications and have 


such assistance as will put this place in a posture of defend- 
ing itself it will then be absolutely necessary that Vessels 
should be encouraged to come over with Passengers as 
servants to Frederica. 

Labourmg hands are much wantnig and there are many 
who are able and willing to pay their passage for them. 
The Palatines have hitherto been found the best. 
I am 


Your most obed' 

humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe, 


veo^ 24 April 1743. 


14 February 1743-3. 

Frederica 14*'^ Fe\yy 1742-3. 

My Lord, 

Frequent delays having happened gives me an opportunity 
of acquainting Your Grace that every day confirms the 
imminent danger. I am like to bear the first brunt therefore 
think it my duty to acquamt Your Grace therewith that you 
may lay the same before His Majesty. I must also desire 
that you would move His Majesty that he would lie graciously 
pleased to gi'ant such assistance as He shall thmk proper. 

In the present scituation I am in I shall do the best I can 
but have reason to apprehend the worst of consequences 

* p. K. O. Am. .'<c W. Iiul. vol. 25, p. 93. • 



from the gi'eat numbers of tlie Enemy if I have not timely 

I am, 

My Lord 

Your Grace's most obed' 

humble Servant 

James OGLETHonrE. 


R April 24*^?- 

(By Capt. Dunbar.) 


16 February 1742 3. 

Fredeeica in Georgia Feb^^' 16*^ 1742-3. 

There being repeated advices of the Spanish Intentions 
privately countenanced by the French, to make a strong push 
in North America, and but too much reason to imagine that 
they have a Faction in some of the Provinces, makes me 
obliged to send over Capt. Dunbar to solicit my affairs in 
England, and for proper support. I must desire the favour 
of you to give him your Countenance and to introduce him 
to my Lord Duke, and to esteem what he says as coming 
from me, I having impowered him to present such Memorials 
as is proper in my behalf. If I dare presume farther on 
your friendship I should desire you to instinct liim how to 
act towards obtaining assistance, which if we have not Ave 
must certainly perish. 

I am 


Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

Andrew Stone Esq'' 

* p. U. 0. Am. & W. lua. vol. 25, p. 94. 


\ Indorsed] 
R April 24"'- 

(By Captain Dunl)ar.) 

[Addressed] To Andrew Stone Esq 

Member of Parliament. West. 


23 February 1742-3. 

Frederica 22'' Felyy 1742-3. 
My Lord, 

Notwithstanding the large Pacquet I troubled Your Grace 
with a new accident forces me to write again. 

The Spaniards fi-om Augustine have sent a Sloop with 
a Flag of Truce to Charles Tovra ct the Lieut. Governour 
and Managers there have not only suffered them to come 
over the Barr but given them hberty to go about the Town 
and allowed an exchange of Prisoners. This may be 
attended with the most dangerous consequences for many 
of those Prisoners whom I sent up m the late Invasion were 
Pilots & they have had the liberty there to stroll about the 
Country therefore if they return to Augustine they can give 
better information than any spies as well as be Guides to 

I sent up to the Lieut. Governour not to take this step but 
I fear he will neither take my advice or obey my Orders 
being strangely changed (by what motive I can't tell) for 
of late he has pretended that they were in no apprehension 
of the Spaniards even when they were in possession of this 
harbour- & refused to send me some of the 18 pound Cannon 
which lay useless at Charles Town. 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol, 25, p. 97. 


This Flag of Truce looks as if they wanted InteUigence 
and Avere ready for an Enterprize. 

Cai)t. Dnnl)ar has some. Prisoners and amongst them a 
Lieut, of Horse if Lieut. Southerhmd wliom I sent Express 
should be taken as it is reported this would furnish an 

A Spanish Captain taken Prisoner here in the Invasion 
desired I would forward the inclosed to Spain. Your Grace 
will be Judge how far it is j^roper. He is himself Infirm and 
has a family at Augustine and desired I would not send him 
over since it was probable he might not have lived to have 
been exchanged he therefore with the rest of the prisoners 
remains here for His Majesty's orders. 
I am 

My Lord 

Your Grace's most devoted 

ct most obed*^ Servant. 

I Imlor.sed] 

II 24'!^ April. 

By Capt. Dunbar. 


22 Feb. 1743-3. 

EKEDEiiicA 22'^ Feb^y 1742-3. 

I desire you would recommend to the Trustees Thomas 
Sumner who has l)eliaved very well here who goes over with 
an intention to come back. If he co'^ bring over Servants as 
he intends I believe he might bring a valuable branch of the 
Timber Trade here. I therefore should wish the Trustees 
would give him passage for same servants in case they send 
over any Vessels which would be much better for the people 

* p. R. 0. Georgia. B. T. vol, 22, p. 89. 


than sending them free since they woiikl have no House to 
cover them or person to take care of them whereas he Iiath 

It was he whom I sent to bnild the Light House which he 
executed in 10 months and is liy much the best building 
of that kind in America. 

I shall say no more on this occasion but am, 

Your very humljle Serv* 

James Oglethorpe. 


Mr. Harman Verelst 

at the Georgia Office 


[Indorsed] Eec'i 27"' April 1743. 


13 March 1743-3. 

From the Camp on the River St. 
MatHtEo or St. John's m Florida 
12*1^ March 1742-3. 
My Lord, 

Having wTote at large to Your Grace by Capt. Dimbar, 
I shall only trouble Your Grace ^\4th what has happened 

I prevailed wdth the Creek Indians to send a large Party 
of then- Warriors to join me. The Spaniards at Augustine 
were so strengthened by the Troops left there after the Inva- 
sion of Georgia amongst which were the Dragoons of the 
Regiment of Italica that they repulsed all the Partys of 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Iiid. vol. 2.'5, p. 100. 


Iiuliiins that I could send out against tliem. I also liad 
Intelligence of a strong party of Men marching towards the 
River St. Matth»o. As I concluded this was to enlarge their 
Quarters ready for the recejition of the next body of Troops 
that they expect in the Spring from the Havannah and with 
which they propose to invade all North Ameiica and to begin 
Avitli the Conquest of Georgia and Carolina. I therefore 
thought the best measures I could take was to oppose them 
in time and myself in person to lead the Indians and dispute 
with them the Field before their Troops came from Cuba. 
I therefore with a Detachment of the Highland Company of 
the Bangers and of the Regiment landed in the night in 
Florida & had such success that the Indians advanced undis- 
covered & attacked the Spaniards & killed upwards of forty 
of them but one of their own party being killed they would 
give no Prisoners Quarter therefore I have no intelligence. 
I march tomorrow and if I have success I trust in God I 
shall be able to force the Spaniards once more to take shelter 
in their Town which I shall look upon as a great point gained 
since it will delay their intended operations and give heart to 
our Indians and keep them steady to His Majesty's Interest 
who were a good deal staggered l)y some strange step taken 
by the Lieut. Governour of South Carolina which Capt. 
Dunbar will inform Your Grace of but any success I can now 
have will l)e only putting off for a short time the fatal bloAv 
which must attend the vast preparations making at Cuba 
if we are not strongly and speedily supported. 

I should think myself inexcusable if I did not inform Yoiir 
Grace of the dangerous scituation of His Majesty's Colonies 
as well those two under my charge as those neighbouring to 
them. I dare not at present write more perticularly least 
this should fall into the Enemy's hands. 

Not having time to transcribe Paragraphs of them I inclose 
two letters to Your Grace which I just now received they con- 
taining advices of consequence. I am with profound respect, 
My Lord, Your Grace's most devoted 

& most obed* Serv* James Oglethorpe. 

His Grace 

The Duke of Newcastle. 

[Indorsed} R July 7*^- 


TLE. =^ 

31 March 1743-3. 

Florida on the River St. Math^eo. 

21^t March 1742-8. 
My Lord, 

I am to acquaint Your Grace with the success of His 
Majesty's Arms. The Spaniards have quitted the Field and 
are retired into St. Augustine. Tlie Troops made a very 
extraordinary March in four days of ninety six miles for so 
many it is fi-om this place to St. Augustine & back again & 
this we performed without leaving one sick man behind us 
and the whole party is in health and strength. 

I hear fi'om all hands that there is a strong body of Troops 
in Augustine and can hardly conceive the reason of their 
behaviour and precipitate retreat from numbers so much 
inferiour to them unless they have orders from their Court to 
preserve their strength entire for the intended Invasion. 
I did all I could to draw them to action and having posted 
the Grenadiers S: some of the Troops in ambuscade advanced 
myself with a very few men in sight of the Town intending 
to skirmish & retire in order to draw them into the Ambus- 
cade but they were so meek that there was no provoking 

The Indians advanced so nimbly as to get up with a party 
of the Enemy & killed above 40 of them under the Cannon 
of the Town. 

I am, My Lord, Your Grace's most devoted 

& most obd* Serv*- 

James Oglethorpe. 

[Lidorsed] R July 7*^- 

* p. E. O. Am. & \V. Ind. vol. 25, p. 104. 



32 Ai'iiiT, 1743. 

Frederica 2'2a April 174B. 
My Lord, 

A very extraordinary transaction that has happened in 
Carolina obliges me to trouble Your Grace since if proper 
remedies are not applied the consequences may be detri- 
mental in the highest degree to His Majesty's aftairs in 

As I am always willing to put the l)est Construction upon 
every Man's actions I would not trouble Your Grace with the 
conduct of the Lieut. Governour of Carolina and his advisers 
l)efore the last Invasion because I believed it proceeded from 
ignorance and that I should be al>le to prevent their Actions 
doing any hurt to His Majesties ser\dce. The Spaniards are 
now preparing (as Advices fi-om all sides sayj for an Expe- 
dition from the Havannah. 

In their last Invasion of this Province one of our Chief 
advantages lay in their want of Pilots and Guides. The 
Governour of Augustine has sent a Spanish Vessell to Charles 
Town to exchange Prisoners many of whom are Pilots by 
water or Guides by land. Lieut. Governour Bull suffered 
this Vessell which was commanded by Don Domingo de la 
Croix one of the Spaniards best Pilots to go over and conse- 
quently know the Barr of that Town and ventured to receive 
Messages fi'om His Majesties Enemys without acquainting 
the General who comands in Chief His Majesties Forces in 
that Province. He also received Alexander Paris who piloted 
the Spaniards into St. Simon's Harbour in the last Invasion 
and he walks about Charles Town at full liberty. 

These Pilots may be of the greatest consequence to the 
Spaniards in the ensuing Expedition if designed against us 
since it lays our harbours open and makes the fastnesses of 
our Woods less advantageous. What makes this step more 
extraordinary is that many of them were prisoners taken by 

* p. K. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 25, p. 108. 


me or ransomed hy me from the Indians whom I sent up to 
Charles Town least they should escape in the late Invasion, 
and at that place they gave them liberty of going about by 
which means they may have been acquainted with the weak- 
ness of the Country and the disposition of the Negroes. One 
Prisoner sent info Augustine is equal to five or six delivered 
in Spain since every recruit to that Garrison costs the Crown 
of Spain between forty and fifty Pounds sterling. 

Every advice I send up they slight so far that tlio' I sent 
notice to Charles Town that the Spanish Armada for the 
Invasion was actually arrived at Augiistine, the Lieut. Gov- 
ernour not only treated the Advices with contempt but 
talked in such a manner of them that Capt. Frankland in 
the Rose went to his Station at Providence & no assistance 
arrived here till eleven days after the Sj^aniards were beat 
out of this Province which was very near two months fr'om 
the first advices. 

The frequent hindrances he gave to my buying things 
necessary for the defence and to the Planters who were will- 
ing to join me and many other perticulars I shall not trouble 
Your Grace with, but this is not out of any disregard to me, 
he professing a personal attachment and even gratitude to 
me for solliciting and carrying over his Commission of Lieut. 
Governour without sufi'ering him even to pay the Fees. 

A very odd kind of man one Pryber was taken by the 
Indians and brought hither prisoner. He has been for some 
time solliciting them to fall upon the English. The perticu- 
lars are in the Paper inclosed. 

I must desire Your Grace that I may have Instructions 
what I am to do in both these Cases. I must also iutreat 
Your Grace to move His Majesty for succour. The inclosed 
shew the designs of the Spaniards and advices from all 
Quarters agTee that there is a j^owerful Armament making 
in the Havannah and it is said to be designed against this 
Place and the rest of His Majesties Dominions upon this 

I am, My Lord 

Your Grace's most devoted 

and most ol)d* Serv* 

James Oglethorpe. 


R July 2<)tli. 

From Capt. Dunbar. 


10 June 1748. 

Frederica lOtli of June 1743. 

The people of the French Cliurch at Savannah having 
desired of nie that tlie Rev'^ Mr. Chiffelle nii^ht assist them 
in Spiritual Matters and that his Charges of Boat hire &c. 
for coming from his residence at Purisburgh to Savannah 
might be defrayed, I did allow thereof and it appears unto 
me by the annexed & other evidence that the said Mr, Chif- 
felle has done his duty for five years and upwards And that 
the sum of Twenty one Pounds sterling may be a reasonable 
allowance for his Charges &c. and that the said sum of 
Twenty one Pounds is due unto him by the Honourable the 
Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America 
and therefore recommend the same for payment. 

James Oglethorpe. 

To the Honourable 
The Trustees for establishing 
the Colony of Georgia in America. 

A True Copy, John Dobell. 

Not seeing any cause of objection, I humbly submit it to 
the Honourable the Trust for their direction. 

Will. Stephens. 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 22, p. 108. 




24 August 1744. 
My Lord, 

I have frequently applied to Yoiir Grace myself as well as 
by Letter to acquaint you of the danger of the Provinces 
where I have the Honour to command. I particularly repre- 
sented long ago to Your Grace the want of Artillery as well 
as Powder in Georgia, as also the necessity of supporting the 
Indian Nations of whom I have one C^hief with me, and the 
benefit of getting them to assist in tlie "War. I farther ac- 
quainted Your Grace of what I thought necessary for the 
defence of Carolina and Georgia from the Experience gath- 
ered by near ten years spent in those Provinces as well as 
fi'om the efforts of a Spanish Invasion of much larger Force 
than that Enemy can now make. I have received no Answer 
to those Proposals but hear that measures entii'ely opposite 
are to be pursued and which I think would be detrimental 
and can be proved to be of no manner of service but a useless 

I have received the enclosed Advices. Your Grace will be 
the best Judge what credit to give to them. I have the Ship 
Success which mounts upwards of Twenty Gims ready to 
take in Stores and carry over the Indian C-hief who can raise 
several hundred Indian Warriours if Your Grace moves His 
Majesty that in time we might have Artillery and Powder 
sent, this will be a proper occasion. AVhatever may be the 
Event I have not m any shape neglected making all applica- 
tions, so that I cannot be blamed for any Loss that may 

I am 

My Lord 

with profound respect 

Your Grace's most 

obedient humble Ser* 

James Oglethorpe. 

24th August 1744. 

His Grace Duke of Newcastle. 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. 2.'5, p. 149. 


P. 8. I find by the Enclosed the Letters I sent to Georgia' 
were not received and I liear fi-om other Hands that some 
were Intercepted at C-harles Town. 

I wrote to the Secretary at War the enclosed Letter upon 
which he told me to acquaint Your Grace it was properly in 
Your Province, I therefore enclose the whole to Your Grace. 

Letters from Sir James Wright. 


20 December 1778. 

Savannah in Geokgia the 20"' Dec. 1773.t 
N^'- 8. 

My Lokd, 

I have now the Honor to Transmit Your Lordship my 
Report in Answer to the several Queries Relative to the State 
of this Province, in which I have not Attempted a Pompous 
description or Account of the Country <fec, but Conlind 
myself to the more Substantial & Material Facts which from 
the best Informations I have been able to obtain, and to the 
best of my knowledge & Judgement I have Truly Stated, 
and hope the same will prove Agreeable to His Majesty's 
Royal intention, and a Satisfactory Account of the Present 
State of things in this Province. 

I have the Honor to be with Great deference 
My Lord your Lordships 

Most oblig'd & most obed' Serv'- 

Ja. Wright. 
The Earl of Dartmouth 

etc &C &C. 

* p. R. 0. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 235. t K. 24th Feb. 1774. 


20TH SEPT. 1773." 

t Answers to the Heads of Inquiry relative to the present 
State and Condition of the Province of Georgia in obedience 
to His Maj*^'*" Commands signified by the Earl of Dartmouth 
His Maj^y'*" Principal Secretary of State and received the 
Fourteenth of September 1773. 

Answer to the first Querie. 

The Province of Georgia is situated to the Southward of 
South Carolina upon the Eiver Savanah which is the North 
Boundary of the Province and extends Southwardly as far 
as the Eiver St. Mary which is the South Boundary between 
Georgia and East Florida. Tybee Inlet at the entrance 
of Savanah Eiver lyes in the latitude of thirty one and fifty 
five North Lat : and Longitude of Eighty West fi'oni London 
and Cumberland Sound or the Inlet at the Entrance of St, 
Mary's is computed to be an hundred Miles South of Tybee 
Inlet and in the longitude of 80 West from London. 

The Lands in general on the Sea Coast are low & flat and 
rise gradually as you go back into the Country, but no 
remarkable Hills till you get back Westerly or West and be 
South about 160 miles fi'om Savanah when you come to very 
hilly stony ground. The Nearest Mountain is at Chote a 
Cherokee Town about 45 Miles above the Indian Boundary 
Line, settled at the Congress held with the Cherokees and 
Creeks on the third of June last And the Blue or Appelachee 
Mountains are supposed to be about 55 miles beyond Chote. 
The soil upon all the Eivers and in the swamps is strong 
rich and fertile and in general has a black or loamy mould 
at the to}) with a rich blue clay underneath but these lands 
are intermixed with very large ridges of Pine Barren Land 
and not worth cultivation which greatly im})edes the settling 
of the Province and often occasions the Plantations to be at 
a very considerable distance from each other. 

* \rnihrxfil] Report to the Earl of Dartmouth on Suiutry Queries sent me, Ja. Wright. 
[In Sir James Wrighfs (No. 8.) of 20th Deer. 1773.] 

t P. p. O. Am. & W. lud. No. 235. 


The Climate in point of health is by no means bad, in the 
fall of the year there often is intermitting Fevers with Agues 
and sometimes stubborn and putrid Fevers and in the Winter 
Season Pleurisies Peripneumonies and other disorders com- 
mon in aU these Countrys. In January, February and March 
common Wintei- Weather and sometimes intensely cold and 
the Mercury in the Thermometer has been down at 20, but 
usually from 25 to 30. From the latter end of March to the 
end of May very pleasant agreeable clear weather. From 
the end of May to the end of September clear weather but 
excessively hot and often close and sultry for as the To^vn is 
settled up Savanah Eiver about 15 miles from the sea we 
have no sea breezes, the Thermometer in the Summer months 
rises to 92 and very seldom higher l^ut usually fi-om 80 to 92 
and during these months Squals of W^ind and Rain are very 
common, with sharp thunder and lightening. From the end 
of September to the end of December is generally very 
pleasant clear cool weather. We have no constant or 
periodical rainey seasons, tho often more in July and August 
than at other times. 

The Latitude and Longitude of Tybee Inlet has been 
settled by good observations by his Majesty's Surveyor 
General of this Province and East Florida, as well as by 
several other persons. 

Answer to the Second Query. 

The present Boundaries of this Province are North on the 
most Northern stream of Savanah River as far as the Head 
of the said River and from thence Westward as far as his 
Majesty's Territories extend, on the East by the Sea Coast, 
from the said River Savanah to the most Southern stream 
of the River St. Mary, including all islands within twenty 
leagues of the coast lying between the said Rivers Savanah 
and St. Mary And on the South by the said River St. Mary 
as far as the head thereof and from thence Westward as far 
as His Majesty's Territories extend by the North Boundary 
Line of East and West Florida. Our present Indian 
Boundary Line between Savanah River and Ogechee River 
extends back from the Sea Coast including the late ceded 
Lands about 230 Miles in a strait Line. But the Lower 


Bouii(Liiy LiiR' cross from Ogecliee to the Alutanialia on 
Ogecliee River, 1 believe does not exceed 110 Miles. At the 
Alataniaha Eiver not above 70 Miles and at St. Mary's River 
I suppose not above 45 or 50 Miles from the Sea. 

I don't know that there is any donbt or dispute at jn-eseiit 
about our Boundaries either with the adjoining Provinces or 
with the Indians. 

Answer to the third Quere. 

The extent of the Province along the Front or Sea Coast 
fi'oni Savanah River to St. Mary's River is computed to be 
about one hundred Miles as the Coast lyes, but less in a 
direct line from Tybee Inlet. The distance back up Savanah 
River and fi-om the head of St. Mary's River is as far as His 
Majesty's Territories extend which it is impossible for me to 
determine, but the size and extent within the Boundary Lines 
settled with the Indians is as above and has been computed 
by His Maj*^'" Surveyor General to contain about 6,695,429 
Acres, as follows Viz'' • Amount of Lands ceded in the time 
of the Trustees to General Oglethorpe 1,152,000 Acres. 

Additional Cession to me at the Congress in November 
1763, 2,408,800 Acres. 

Addition made by the extension of this Province fi-oni the 
River Alatamaha to the River St. Mary comijuted at 998,400 

Additional Cession 20,000 Acres in 1766. 
Additional Cession at the Congress held at Augusta the 
third of June 1773—2,116,298 Acres. 

In all within the Indian Boundary Line supposed to be 
6,695,429 Acres. 

It is difficult to say with any precision what part of the 
above Lands are actually cultivated and improved, but fi'om 
the best calculation that can be made, there is not less than 
fourteen hundi'ed settlements or Plantations containing dif- 
ferent Quantitys of Im})roved Lands in the whole not more 
than 120,000 acrt^s. And here I must observe that on the 
Avhole quantity of 93,000 Acres of Land granted to the In- 
habitants of South C-arolina in 1763, there is not above three 
or four Settlements at the most, just as I wrote the Lords of 
Trade in the year 1763 I was sure Avould l)e the case. 


The Titles to about 140,915 Acres are held under the 
Trustees originally nominated for settling this Colony. 
There is one Barony of 12,000 Acres held or claimed under 
a Patent fi'om the late Lords Proprietors of the Province of 
South Carolina. And the above 93,000 Acres under Grants 
from the Governor of South Carolina as aforesaid And all 
the rest are held under Grants from his late and present 
Majesty witnessed by the respective Governors of this 
Province. And here I must beg leave to observe that by a 
report made to me by his Majesty's Surveyor General in June 
1765 which I transmitted to the Board of Trade he deemed 
4*^^ parts of the Lands not then granted to be Pine Barren 
and bad Lands, and I really believe he may be right in his 
calculation. The Quality and Proportion of the good and 
bad Lands contained in the late Cession fi"om the Reports 
made to me by many and from my own Observation on my 
late Tour thro the greatest part of it Judge to be at least 
f^** if not three parts of it very fine Land. 

Answer to the Fourth Quere. 

The Principal Rivers are Savanah River, which extends 
back into the Country a North west and Northerly course to 
Augusta about three hundi'ed miles, altho by Land not above 
140. And above Augusta it extends above 200 Miles into the 
Cherokee Country and is said to interlock with the Tanassee 
River a Branch from the Ohio, but does not join it, pretty 
large Trading Boats go to Augusta, but no large Boats can 
go above that on account of a ridge of rocks and untill they 
are removed, it is only navigable for Canoes. Great Ogechee 
River the mouth of which is about twenty Miles to the 
Southward of Savanah River. This is a very fine River, is 
at present navigable for Vessels of 150 Tons about 30 Miles 
and for small Craft and Boats about 70 Miles and liy opening 
some Ridges and Stoppages may be navigable for Boats a 
gi'eat way further up And extends in the whole about 170 
Miles back from the Sea Coast, that is in a Strait Line by 
Land, but may be 300 by water. 

Medway River about nine or ten miles to the Southward 
of Great Ogechee River on which stands the Town of Sun- 


ij'iud.t on ^'^^^T' which is ii Sea Port, tliis River does not ex- 
Low^wattr tt'iul abovc cij^lit or ten Miles into the Country above 
Ti'deV'a'i'iIi the Town and then runs into ereeks. It is a very 
toot'at'iiiKii r?*****^ IiiU^ and earrys 15 feet water up to the Town, 
mnlrTi'.il's.' Avhich is about twelve miles from the Sea. 

Sapeloe River is about eighteen miles to the Southward of 
Medway and is a very tine Inlet but does not extend many 
miles back into the (\)untry. 

The Alatamaha River lyes about Ten miles S" of Sapeloe 
is a very good Iidet with fourteen to fifteen feet water at high 
Water Common Tides, and Avhen in, from three to six fathom 
Avater, and extends back into the C-ountry in a strait Line l)y 
Land about 100 Miles, but much more by Water. When it 
Forks — the North Fork or Branch of which is call'd Oc(mee 
River and the South Branch is caU'd Oaknmlpee River and 
which Branches extend a vast way into the Country and 
turn Southerly towards the Creek Nation. The next Inlet is 
St. Simons about ten miles to the Southward of the Alata- 
maha the North Branch from which runs up to Frederica 
which is about Ten miles from the Sea and where General 
Oglethorpe's Regiment used to be garrisoned, this River has 
a Communication with the Alatamaha River and the Naviga- 
tion up to the Town is sufiicient for a forty gun ship. 

The South Branch or River fi'om St. Simon's Inlet runs l)y 
the Place reserved and laid out for a Town l)y the name of 
Brunswick. This is a most pleasant situation on high land, 
lying Ten Miles from the Sea and there is on the Bar at Low 
Water seventeen feet and at high water Common Tides about 
twenty three feet and which depth it carries far up the River 
all along by the intended Town. 

There is a vast Body of very fine Lands on the Alatamaha 
River Turtle River and some other small Rivers or Creeks, 
and I firmly l)elieve that within thirty Miles, say fifteen miles 
on each side and twenty miles back fi'om this place, there is 
Rice Land enough if properly settled and improved to make 
100,000 barrels of Rice, and as this Spot is very near the 
Center of the Provmce on the Sea Coast I conceive in process 
of time, it will become a considerable Town. 

Little Satilla River lyes about eight miles to the Southward 


of Turtle River and is of no great extent, a salt water River 
and runs back about thirty miles. 

Great Satilla River lyes about Ten Miles to the Southward 
of Little Satilla and runs back about one hundred miles and 
has a great deal of very good land on its Banks and the Tide 
ebbs and flows about seventy miles. 

Crooked River lyes about Ten Miles to the Southward of 
Great Satilla River and does not extend far back — is a Salt 
Water River of little or no consequence but that of Water 
carriage to the Plantations which may be settled upon it. 
And St. Marys River lyes about Five Miles to the Southward 
of Crooked River and has very good navigation. The Bar is 
at the Inlet by Cumberland Island is an exceeding good and 
safe Bar and has seventeen feet water at high water common 
Tides and the River continues to be deep and navigable for 
large Vessels about twenty miles and may be for small Craft 
and Boats much further, but as this River is at the extream 
part of the Province and we have no Settlements above forty 
miles in a direct line fi'om the Sea it is not so well known as 
many of the other Rivers but it is said to flow about Eighty 
Miles. And here I must remark that the Courses of all the 
Principal Rivers is fiv^m West to North West, but this River 
after you get about Seventy or Eighty Miles uj) turns 
Southerl}'. Aboiit five miles up the RiA'er I have made a 
Reserve of four hundred Acres of Land for a Town if at any 
time hereafter it maybe thought expedient to settle one, it is 
a small Bluff, at which at Low Water there is fifteen feet 
water and in the bed of the River from three to five fathom, 
this I saw sounded myself. 

Answer to the fifth Quere. 

The Principal Harl)ours are Savanah on the Bar of which 
call'd Tybee there is three fathoms and a half water at low 
water or better. And up the River to the Town, there is in 
general about thirteen feet water at high Water common 
Tydes, but there being three sand banks in difl'erent Places 
therefore at present and untill they are removed Vessels at 
the To^svai do not load deeper than from twelve to thirteen 
feet and then are obliged to fall down to Cockspur to take in 
the rest of their loading. But for a more circumstantial 


cic'couiit of this Inlet Arc"- I beg leiive to refer to the Inclosed 
iiketcli niark'd A No. 1. 

There is at present no other Port in this Province but Sa- 
vanah and Simlmrv, the situation of Avhicli and depth of 
water I have mentioned in my answer next preceding. Bnt 
when the Conntrv increases a little more and Settlements are 
made in the neighbourhood of Brunswick that will certainly 
be tlie most c(mvenient in point of Navigation ttca. ttca. <tca. 

There is A'ery safe and good anchorage at all these places. 

Answer to the Sixth Quere. 

Since the Surrender oi the CUnirter by the Trustees the 
Constitution of this Government is estaV)lished by and de- 
pends upon his Majesty's Oomniission and Instructions to his 
Governor, b}' which, he with the concurrence of the Council 
and the House of Assend)ly (to consist of a certain number 
to be elected by the Freeholders as tludr Ivepresentatives) or 
the Major part of them is empowered to make LaA\s, Statutes 
and Ordinances for the Public Peace Wellfare and good Gov- 
ernment of the Province and the Inhabitants thereof, which 
Laws &ca. are nt)t to be repugnant but as near as may be 
agreeable to the Laws and Statutes of Great Britian. And 
the Governor as his Majesty's IlepresentatiAe and the other 
Branches of the Legislature are presiimed to be an Epitome 
of the Parliamentary Constitution of Great Britain. And 
here I must l)eg leave to observe that the right of the 
Council to sit as an Upper House being now denied m the 
Neighl)()iiring Province, much will depend on His Majesty's 
determination on that matter and if it be against that right 
I am very apprehensive that disagreeable consequences may 
attend it. 

There is a Court of Chancery and iu Court of General and 
Common Pleas, also a Court of Sessions or Oyer and Term- 
iner and General Gaol Delivery. The Rules and Method of 
Proceeding in all which, are as near as may be, agreeable to 
those m use and practice in His Majesty's Several Courts in 
Great Britain. 

Answers to the seventh and eighth (^ueres, as they in some 
degTee seem connected. 

The Trade of this Province is principally with Great 


Britain from wlieiice Ave are supplyed Avitli Liimens and 
Woolens of all Sorts, Ironware of all sorts Hats, Shoes, 
Stockings and all sorts of Apparel. Tea, Paper, Paints and 
a great variety of other articles ; and altho' the Negroes are 
brought here immediately from Aii'ica, yet the Returns in 
payment for them are made to Great Bi'itain, so that that 
may also he deemed as a part of our Trade with Great 
Britain, to which place we export Deer skins, Rice Indico 
Naval Stores and Sundry other Ai'ticles. The annual amount 
of our Im]>orts from Gieat Britain is com])uted at £.7C).?)22 
on an average for three years j^ast besides the Negi'oes im- 
ported which in the last year amounted to twenty thousand 
pounds. And our Exports to Great Britain only in the year 
1772 amounted to £68.688.10.2 sterhng. And besides this we 
are supplyed with Rum and Sugar from the West Indies and 
also with Rum Flour and Biscuit and other Provisions &ca. 
from the Northern Colonys. To the West Indies we send 
Rice, Corn, Pease, Lund^er, Shingles, Cattle, Horses and Live 
Stock also Barrelled Beef and Pork. But the Northern 
Trade is an injurious trade as they take of but little of our 
produce and drain us of every trifle of Gold & Silver that 
is brought here, by giving a price for Guineas, Moidores 
Johannes's Pistols & Dollars far above their real and intrinsic 
value, so that we can never keep any amongst us. There is 
belonging to this Province that is owned and part owned 
here, five ships, oue snow seven Brigantines, thirteen sloops 
and schooners and ten coasting vessels, in all to the amount 
of nineteen hundred and ninety tons and trading Boats that 
go up our Rivers and to Avhicli may belong about Two hun- 
dred and twelve seafaring men. And we have entered and 
cleared at the Custom House in the Port of Savanah for the 
last year one hundred and sixty one sail of Vessels of differ- 
ent sorts and at Sunlniry fifty six, in the whole two hundred 
and seventeen, the Tonnage of which is computed at 12,124 
Tons, and in all which Vessels there may be employed seven- 
teen hundred seafaring men. In the year 1761 we only 
entered and cleared in the whole Province forty five vessels, 
the whole Tonnage of which amounted only to 1604 Tons 
from which the increase of the Trade and Produce of this 
Province since that time is most evident. 

166 Letters from sir james wright. 

Answer to the Ninth Quere. 

For this I must refer to the account and Report made to 
me bv the Custom House Officers for this Port and herewith 
transmitted, B. No. 2. 

Answer to the Tenth Quere. 

The Methods are b}' taking care that the Custom House 
Officers do their duty, that the Master of every Vessel imme- 
diately on his arrival waits on the Governor with his Manifest 
and then goes directly to the Custom House When the Officers 
send a Waiter on board who stays till the ship is unloaded, 
and in general the Laws of Trade and Navigation are as 
duelv and regularly attended to and observed as it is possible 
to do. This is the method observed at the Port of Savanah 
and at Sunbury the Capt. goes immediately to the Collector 
who observes the same method as at Savanah and upon the 
whole I believe there is very little contraband Trade or 
smuggling carried on here, there may be some, biit I believe 
of no great consequence and as the Province and People 
increase illicit Trade may also, and they have great oppor- 
tunity as the Ports are not immediately on the Sea Coast 
and there are many Rivers and Inlets into which Vessels may 
run and land goods before they come in sight of the Towns. 
The Custom House Officers at Savanah have complained to 
me that the Commissioners of the Customs will not allow 
them a Boat and hands and that if they were to hear of any 
illicit Trade or Landing of Goods at ai\y Inlet or in any 
Creek <tc. before they could get a boat and hands, it would 
be too late to detect and seize them. Wherefore I should 
suppose, such Trade if attempted might be more effectually 
prevented if a Custom House boat was allowed. And as the 
Officers have returned me what they call a Political Repoi-t 
or Estimate of Loss to the Revenue by illicit Trade I think 
it my duty to transmit it, altho' I look upon the same to be 
chimerical and very erroneous. See C No. 3. 

Answer to the eleventh Quere. 

The Staple Commoditys are Rice, Indico, Deer Skins, Raw 
Silk, Pitch, Tar, Turpentine, Beef, Pork, Indian Corn, Pease, 
Tobacco, Staves, Shingles, Lumber of aU Sorts, and we have 
a great deal of fine hve oak for Ship-Building and Hemp will 

LETTEl^S V]\(m SIR .TAMKS WlilOfri'. 167 

grow very well, but little is planteel as yet. And besides 
these, Cattle, Horses and live stock is exported to the "West 
Indies. And also Bees Wax, Beaver Skins <tca. &ca. The 
amount of the whole Exports annually for live years past on 
an Average is £101,240 Sterling. 

Answer to the Twelfth Quere. 

I know of no Mines discovered or opened, but I should 
rather supj)ose in the back and mountainous })arts of the 
Province, there must be mines of some sort or other And on 
my late Tour 1 discovered a great Quantity of extraordinary 
fine Iron (n"e — I believe of the Richest and best quality. 

Answer to the thirteenth Quere. 

I suppose the mnnber of AVhites, Men, Women and Chil- 
dren in the whole Province may be eighteen thousand and 
upwards. And the nund)er of Blacks is computed at fifteen 

Answer to the Fourteenth Quere. 

In the year 17^1 the whole Number of White Inhalutants 
amounted to no more than six thousand one hundred. The 
Increase therefore since that time is eleven thousand nine 
hundred. The Reasons of this Increase; are principally the 
great inducement people have had to come and settle in a 
Province, where they could get fresh and good Lands at a 
moderate price and plenty of good range for Cattle Horses 
and Hogs and where they will not be so much pent up and 
confined as in thick settled Countrys. 

Answer to the fifteenth Quere. 

The number of Militia say effective white men from sixteen 
to sixty years of age, according to the several Returns, made 
to me lately by the Officers am<^unt to two thousand eight 
hundred and twenty eight in the whole Province And the 
Officers are all commissioned by the Governor, and obliged 
by the Law of the Province to furnish and provide themselves 
with arms, annnunition and accoutrements of every kind and 
to muster and exercise six times in the year and as much 
oftner as the Governor may order and direct. And the Gov- 
ernor is empowered to order them out as occasion may 
require to repell all Enemies, Invasions, Insurrections, Re- 
bellions, (fe*^- For a more particular account of which I beg 


leave to refer to the Militia Law at large which I assented to 
on the twenty ninth day of September last and which is now 
preparing to transmit to the Lords of Trade and Plantations. 

Answer to the Sixteenth Quere. 

The Forts are as follows Yiz'" : Fort George on the Island 
.of Cockspur opposite to Tybee Island being at the entrance 
of the River Savanah and a very necessary post as it is the 
Key to our Port and may command all Vessels that come in 
or go out ; Enforce due obedience to the Laws of Trade and 
our Provincial Laws And in case of War prevent Enemies 
Privateers from cuting out and carrpng off our shipping or 
fi'om coming up the River to plunder etc*- This Fort was 
built in the Year 1762 being mud walls faced with Palmettoe 
Trees, but is now almost in ruins for as it stands on a point 
of Land exposed to the Easterly winds fi'om the Sea, it is 
very lyable to suffer by the sea beating and washing against 
it when there is strong Easterly Winds. On the inside is a 
Caponiere which serves for Officers Apartments and in lieu 
of Barracks, it used to be garrisoned b}' an Officer and Ten 
Men but now as it's almost in ruins there is only an Officer 
and three Men just to make Signals etc"- I look upon this 
Fort or having a proper Fort at this Place to be of the utmost 
consequence and shall propose building a new Fort of Tabby, 
but as our property is yet small and our Taxes pretty high, I 
doubt much whether the Province can afford to go to the 
expence of building a Proper Fort. I am well informed that 
in South Carolina the Capt. of Fort Johnson (which is near 
the Entrance of the Harbour and answers the same purposes 
that Fort George is intended to do) is paid Two hundred 
pounds sterling per annum by His Majesty out of the Quit 
Rents and if His Majesty would be graciously pleased to 
permit that to be done here, it would be a great encourage- 
ment and inducement to the Legislature to raise and gi-ant 
money for building a new Fort. 

Fort Halifax in the Town of Savanah built in the Years 
1759 and 1760 made of Plank fiU'd in with Earth and four 
Caponiers, one at each Corner, this is totally down, except 
two of the Caponiers & indeed would be of little use. 

Fort Frederick at Frederica l)uilt l)y General Oglethorpe 


when he had a Kegiment there. There is still some Remains 
of good Tabby Walls etc'' but there has been no men there 
since the Independent Company were broke in the Year 1767, 
And is now going to decay very fast. 

Fort Augusta, in the Town of Aiigusta b;iilt with three 
inch plank but now going to decay, there having lieen no men 
or garrison kept there since April 1767 when the Rangers in 
this Province were broke. 

Fort Barring-ton on the Alatamaha River a large Capoinere 
inclosed round with Punchions, not garrisoned since the 
Rangers were broke and noAv going fast to decay. 

Answer to the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Queres which 
seem to be connected. 

The several Nations of Indians m this Province and in the 
adjacent parts or neighborhood are the Chactaws Creeks, 
Chickesaws, Cherokees, and Catawbas. The Chactaws from 
the best account consist of about two thousand live hundred 
Gun men or Efectives and as it is generally calcidatecl that 
amongst the Indians, their Women and Children do not ex- 
ceed two to one man or from to two to three therefore I reckon 
them at two to one. Say 7500. 

The Creeks have four thousand Eifective or Gun Men and 
consequently the whole may amount to twelve thousand. 

The Chickesaws have four hundred and fifty Effective or 
Gun Men & may in the whole amount t(^ thirteen hundred & 

The Cherokees have three thousand Gun men and in the 
whole may amount to nine thousand. 

The Catawbas are a small parcel of Indians and I suppose 
don't exceed three hundred men women <t children But as 
they lye on the borders of South & North Carolina I can't 
be certain of the exact number. AH these Nations or Tribes 
of Indians are in peace & fi'iendship with his Majesty's sub- 
jects m this and the adjoining Provinces. I firmly beheve 
many of them are very w'ell disposed through ixcluiafio)! but 
cJde^.y throngh intere-s-t as they cannot now be STipplyed with 
Arms, Ammunition and Goods from the French and Span- 
iards as formerly and have no resource but the English and 
they well know that a total stoppage of the Trade with them, 


would riHluce tlicin to tlie <i;re;itest necessities, they see we 
are iiu-reasiii^- da vly mid that it is now too hite for them to 
do anything ('ti'ectual against the white people ; The Creeks 
sa}' they might easily break up and ruin this Province and 
even distress the Province of South Carolina. But in the 
end, it would turn to their own ruin Hkewise. Considerations 
of this sort weigh with some of the most sensible and pru- 
dent. But I am well satisfied at the same time that there 
are a great many amongst them, pro1)al)ly the greatest part 
of them who would, and are disposed to promote a AVar at 
all Hazards and Events, and they certainly are a most base 
treacherous people and in whom you (^an have no confidence 
or dependence. I now speak chiefly of the Creeks. The 
Cherokees I think are half a t-entury before the Creeks, 
they are much more civilized and I beheve better disposed 
yet still they are Savages. The Chactaws & Chickesaws are 
at so great a distance and our intercourse so little and seldom 
that I can't take upon me to say any thing of them fi'om my 
own knowledge. 

Answer to the Nineteenth Quere. 

The Revenue arising within this Government is the King's 
Quit Bents, And what is raised annually by a Tax on Houses, 
Lands, Negroes, Money at interest, Stock in Trade and some 
other small articles. Also by a Duty on Rum &c^ from the 
West Indies &■ Northern Colonys. 

And the Revenue raised by the Province is applyed 
towards the support of Government — Viz'- To defray the 
expence of holding the General Courts and other Articles 
as appear by Copys of two last Estimates made out by me 
and herewith transmitted, one for the Year 1770 and the 
other for the year 1778 which is in fact for three years or in 
pai't for three years as there was no Tax raised in 1771 and 

The Sum raised for the Year 1769 was three thousand and 
forty six pounds sixteen shillings Sterlmg and raised and 
appropriated as mentioned in the Tax Law for that Year, 
transmitted to the Board of Trade. 

The Sum raised for the Year 1770 was three thousand three 
hundred and lift}' five Pounds nine shillings and one farthing 


sterling aud raised & appropriated as mentioned in tlie Tax 
Law for that Year, transmitted to the B'' of Trade. 

The Sum raised for the Year 1773 is Five tliousand one 
hundred and twenty one Pounds fifteen shillings and ten 
pence halfpenny sterl : and raised & appropriated as men- 
tioned in the Tax Bill for this Year assented to by me the 
twenty ninth day of September last and which will be trans- 
mitted to the Board of Trade as soon as the Laws can be 
copyed and got readj^ And to all which I beg leave to refer 
for a more particular account of these matters and answer 
to this Quere. But here I must observe that there is no 
standing annual Revenue but the Dutys on West India and 
other Goods and on Seasoned Negroes, and the Import on 
Shipping, all the other part of the Bevenue depends on the 
Tax bill which is past annually and is for raising more or less 
according as the Exigencies of Government may require 
Sometimes for Building and Bepairing Forts, a Gourt House 
and other Public Buildings as occasion may require. N B. 
I suppose our Annual Tax in future Ordinarj- and Extraor- 
dinary will not be less than from three to four thousand 
pounds Sterl" pr ann : and many other things would have 
l)een provided for in this Year's Tax had it not been swelled 
so much by ])ro\'iding in part for the Expences of Three 

Answer to the Twentieth Quere. 

The Ordmary Expences of Govern* will appear by the 
Estimates now transmitted and those annexed to the three 
last Tax Bills as mentioned, and as above The Extraordinary 
Expences of Govern* are casual and I humbly conceive can- 
not be known till they happen, But I am hopefull next year 
something will be done towards building a Fort at Cockspur, 
and building a Goal, establishing a nightly Watch in the 
Town of Savanah — And which last will then I presume 
become a constant annual expence. 

Answer to the Twenty First Quere. 

The Civil Establishments are the Governor appointed by 
His Majesty — Salary One thousand pounds Sterling f< 
annum — Perquisites on an average for three Years Three 
hundred and nineteen pounds ^ annum. Secretary James 


Habt'vshain, Salary one IniiHlicd ])()u]i(ls Stcvl*-' 'jp ami: Fees 
of OMce thret^ luindi-ed ^ forty one pounds And Fees to 
Ditto on Recording' all Deeds and Conveyances as directed 
by a Law of the Province amounts to "^ ann : one hundred 
and thirty one pounds Sterling — Out of which a Deputy and 
Clerks and all Expences are paid l)y liim, anuumting to three 
hundred t*t fifty pounds ^ ann: api)ointed as above. 

Anthony Stokes Chief Justice, Salary Five hundred pounds 
Sterl" '^ ann : — Perquisites or Fees of (Office Five hundred 
and twenty pounds Sterling. 

Receiver General of the Quit Rents, H^ Patrick Houstown 
Baronet, Salary One hundred pounds Sterling '^ ann :, Gross 
Fees of Office Seventy one pounds ~^ ann : Appointed l>y the 
Lords of the Treasury. 

Surveyor General Henry Yonge, Salary one hundred and 
fifty pounds Sterl^ ^ ann :, Gross Fees of Office three hun- 
dred and seventy three pounds ~j^ annum — Appointed by the 
Lords of the Treasury. 

Attorne}" General Charles Pryce, Salary one hundred and 
fifty pounds Sterling '^ annum — Fees of Office on Prosecu- 
tions and every kind of Busines Tavo hundred and fifteen 
pounds ster^' '^ annum, Appointed in obedience to His 
Maj*y"^ Royal Sign Manual. N B. Mr. Pryce having been 
some time in England by leave of absence fi'om His Maj''^'- 
James Hume acts as Attorney General by Commission fi'om 
me durmg the absence of Mr. Pryce. 

The Provost Marshall Samuel Smith, appointed as above. 
The Patentee resides in England and has a Salary of one 
Imndred pounds sterl*^ '^ ann : — The acting Provost Marshal 
who does the busines is allowed a Salary l)y the Province 
of thirty pounds Sterl : '^. ann-: for attending and taking all 
Elections, Summoning Jurys ^c** And by his Accounts 
rendered me the neat proceeds are two hundred and eighty 
pounds Sterl : N B. This Office is attended with much 
trouble, fatigue and risque. Judge of the Admiralty James 
Edward Powell not worth above Ten Pounds '^ ann : ap- 
pointed l)y the Gov'"- Register of the Admiralty, William 
Spencer, not worth above Twelve Pcninds "^W ann : appointed 
T)V the Gov'- Marshal of the Admiraltv, Andrew Elton 


Wellfe, not worth above Fifteen Ponnds ^ ann : appointed by 
the Gov*"- Clerks of the Crown and Pleas, Henry Preston 
and Charles Pryce Jmi'" no Salary, Fees of Ofiice Six hun- 
dred and thirteen Pounds Sterl "^ ann: Appointed by the 
Governor in obedience to the King's Sign Manual. Publick 
or Provincial Treasurer, no Salary, but is allow'd a Com- 
mission of Five '■j^. Ct. on the Tax received, this has generally 
amounted to about one hundred and fifty pounds Sterl :'^ 
annum : l)ut may l)e more or less, according to the Taxes 
raised, and the profits depend much on the Assembly. Fees 
of Ofiice for other business Eighty three Pounds "^ ann: 
Appointed by the Governor. CV)llector of the Customs at 
the Port of Savanah Alexander Thompson, Salary Sixty 
Pounds Sterl Fees of Ofiice Two hundred and ninety eight 
poimds ^ ann : Appointed by the Loixls of the Treasmy and 
Commissioners of the Customs. 

Comptroler and Searcher, AVilliam Brown, Salary as Comp- 
troler Fifty pounds — Fees of Office as ditto Seventy Pounds 
— Salary as Searcher Thirty Pounds, Fees of Office Ninety 
pounds ^ ann : Appointed as the Collector. N B. As these 
Gentlemen are very particular in their returns I send the 
original accounts signed by them. 

Collector at the Port of Sunbury James Kitchen Salary 
Sixty Five Pounds Sterl — Fees of Office Ninety Pounds — 
Appointed as the Collector at Savanah. Comptroler and 
Searcher Isaac Antrobus, Salary Sixty pounds. Fees of Ofiice 
Sixty Pounds, appointed as above. 

Naval Ofiicer, "William Haven no Sallary, Office Fees One 
hundred and fifty four Pounds seven shilhngs Sterl ^ ann : 
appomted by the Governor in ol)edience to his Maj*^'* Royal 
Sign Manual. Tho' here I must oliserve that the appoint- 
ment of this Ofiice is in the Governor by Act of Parliament. 
As the Present Naval Officer is very particular in his return 
I transmit the Original. 

Besides the above there is some Country Waiters, Conip- 
trolers. Inspectors of Hemp, Tobacco Arc. etc. and trifling 
Officers of very little consequence or profit appoint'^ by the 

There are also three Assistant Judges who sit with the 


Chief Justice but luive uo Stilary or Perquisites & are 
appoint'^ by the Ctov'' during pleasure. 

The Clerk of the ('ouncil Alexander Wylly, no Sallary. 
Fees on attending in Council, entering all Minutes and 
making a Fair Copy to transmit Forty six Pounds four shil- 
lings 8terl: Perquisites on drawing Petitions for Land, 
Keading them, Swearing the Partys and entering all Orders 
thereon, also on hearing Caveats and Countersigning all 
Grants one hundred A: thirty four pounds four shillings & six 
pence. To Ditto as Clerk of the Upper House Salary paid 
by the Province Thirty pounds f. ami: Allowed for OlKce 
business say for the attending the Upper House Entering the 
Journals and making a fair copy to transmit, a sum not 
exceeding Forty pounds ^ ann : is generally provided in the 
Estimate, but may be more or less, and if more, it is provided 
for the next year, out of which Clerks & all Expences are 
paid by him. Ap])ointed by the Governor. N B. This 
Ofiicer depends pretty much on the Assembly to pr(n'ide for 
or not. 

The Clerk of the Assembly Richard Cuningham Crook, 
Salary allowed l)y the Crown Twenty Pounds. Allowed by 
the Assembly for Office business. Say, Attending the House, 
Entering & Copying the Journals &c^ one hundred & eighty 
one pounds Sterl : (mt of which Clerks & all Expences are 
paid by him. Appointed by the Governor, But depends on 
the Assembly to provide or not for all but the above Twenty 

There are no Military Officers in this Province, except the 
Ca})tain of Fort George, James Edward PoweU, who is 
appointed by the Govornor & paid Ten Pounds '^ month by 
the Province. 

Also the Officers of a Troop of Rangers now raising for 
the protection of the Settlers on the Lands lately ceded to 
his Majesty. 

The Officers of the Regiment of Foot Militia who have 
neither pay nor perquisites I presume are not meant to be 

There is also an Indian Interpreter Moses Nunes who is 



allowed Fifty Poiuids '^ ami : out of the Contingent Money 
granted by Parliament but no Fees or Perquisites. 

All which I humbly Certify according to the best of my 
knowledge and belief. 

8a VAN AH IN Georgia the 20th of December 1773. 

Ja. Wright. 

An Account of the Number of Vessels which are owned or pait 
owned in the Province of Georgia with the Tonnage thereof; 
or as near as can be taken, Vizr : 

















Vessels. That makes Voyages to Sea 

Do. which seldom makes Voyages tt) Sea, being ] 
mostly employed amongst the Creeks and Rivers 1 
bringing the produce to market and shipping from f 
the Plantations J 












Custom House Savannah the 18th October 1773. 

Alexander Thomson, 

Wm. Brown, 
Compf ct Searcher. 





















Valtie at 
an Average. 




— 1 








' .1 

— 1 c 

Foreign Melasses 
whit^h have paid His 
Majesty's Duties. 


AiBa^sll o 


pAvo<j oSbs 

! 1 




•Samoa ?J«nb 

ni A'og 

! 1 

n.i() J 



a "3 







- B 

- i 


^ d 




• naxo ^ saaa^js 

! o 

1 V 



1 d 
1 i^ 




•saA'B^S p.PH 

31BO P9H 










•1— ( 





1 iS 



1 ^ 
1 "< 

•saAB^S adi<j 1 

^ 1 


•saAins P.nH 












1 a> 



•ni ^ii 




•ui ^tl 






•51UBH 1 



• -SnmnBS 






•a ■« :2 • 

13 1 -siaJJual 






' o 




•CO C; O 












<: is 

■= o 'i 



I I 

In Lat. 31.. 55 Longitude 80 is tlie entrance of Savannali Uivi^r. At Low water you have 3 Fathoms & i upon the 
Barr, from wliich to sail into Coekspur, your Course is Wi about 5 Miles, carrying 3..2i, 3..f, 3..3i Fathoms till 
you are of the Lighthouse in 4 Fathom. Then steer W.S.W. about 3 miles carrying in 3i..3..8 Fathoms to 
the point of Cockspur Island where you may anchor in 4 Fathoms at Low Water witli room sufficient for a 
Twenty Gim Ship or Frigat(\ Tlic flow of the Tides upon a Nieptide is Seven Feet and upmi a Spring Tide Nine 
Feet, E.8.E. makes high water upon the Barr, full and change. 

Branch Pilot lor the Barr & River of Savannah in Georgia. 
13 Dec. 1773. 
X.B. — In Tybec Creek there is a projM'r place and 

water sufficient to heave down & careen 
any Ship of the above mentioned size. 

W. L. 

A scA le: of mi LtS 







To the Chief Justices Account for holding Seven Sessions 68. 7.2- 

To the Clerk of the Crown for do 73. 6.6 

To the Attorney General's Acct. No. 1 and 2 98. 10. 7>i 

To the Provost Marshal for Summoning Juries &c. 3 Years 90 

To Lewis Johnson Esqr. for maintenance of Prisoners 8.13.4 

To Matthew Roche Esqre for ditto in part 73 . .5.2 

To the Cryer and Keeper of the Court three years 30 

To James Whitefleld Coroner No. 1 and 2 17. 1.8 

To George Mcintosh Esq. for holding Inquests 3 

To Robert Baillie Esqr. for do 1. 10 

To Doctr. George Eraser for attending Coroner 6. 6 27.17. 8 

To the Estate of Wm. Graeme deceased 42. 8. 10 

To the Cryer of the Court his act 2. 6.10 .514.16. 1}4 


To the Clerk of the Upper House three Years Salary. 

To the Estate of Chas. Wattson deceased 7. 10. 

To the present Clerk 82.10 90 

To the ijresent Clerk for Incidental Business 336 . 11 . 9 

To the Clerk of the Commons House of Assembly three Years Saly 

T( 1 the Estate of John Simpson deceased 22 . 10 

To the present Clerk 67 . 10 90 

To the Secretary for Incidental Business 165 .9.8 

To the Messenger of the Upper House three Years Salary 75 

To the Messenger of the Lower House his Salary 75 832. 1.5 

1346.17. 6' 


For Negroes Executed, Vizr : 

To Mary Maxwell for one Negroe executed 25 

To John Glen Esqr. Do. Do .30 55 

For apprehending Offenders per account delivered 189. 5. 6 

For Repairs of public Buildings pr. Do. 30. 9. 3 

For Expence of Expresses j* Ditto 9. 10 

For the Expence of running Township Lands Jtc. ^ Acct. ... 41. 6. 9 

For several Incidental Charges f» acct 435. 0. 1 

To Repairs of Fort George "# Account 14 . 16 . 3 775 . 7.10 

To the Register of Grants "^ account 20. 10. 8 

For Gov. Ellis's Annuity three Years 150 

To the Publick Commissary 3 Years Salary 60 

For the Garrison at Fort George f acct 414 

For sinking Certificates issued in the Year 1761 for building the Fort at Cocksimr 472. 8. 1,' 
To reimburse the Treasurer the Monies advanced for the support of the Watch 

Company in Savannah 580. 19. 9 

£38'20. 3.11 

Usually raised for encouragement of Pilots £170 lf( annum 

To the Officers of the Court of Oyer and Terminer for one Sessions . . 



To the Estate of John Siiiipsoii dcii-ased for iiiaiutaiiiiu^ Prisoners. . 

To the remainder of ^^latthew Roche Esq. .Veco: for ditto 

To the Coroner 

For Fire and C^andle f<ir the' umc of both Honses of Assembly 

For Incidental Business done by Charles Watson deceased 

The same done by J(jlinSimi)son deceased as Clerk of the Lower House 

The same to be done l)y tlie present Clerk of the ri)i)er House 

Tlie same done and to be done by tlie present (Jlerk of the Ominions 


To the Door Keepers of the Upper and Lower Hoiises 

To several .\ceots. delivered in and no Hums cliarf?ed 

To several .•Vccots. for bounties on Flour and Heinj) and for inspect" 

Flour and Tobacco 

To the Secretary for In<'idcntal BusincMs to be done 

Savannah in Geohuia 

c:ouucil Chamber 

the 5th of March 177:J. 

In .Sir .lames Wright's of tlie 'jnth Deer. No. 8. 


£ sh. d. 

For Fees on Knterinp; & filearins IKl Vessels from this Port between the 

.")th of .laury. 1772 and the nth of January 17715 '2.57 . 1'J 

For Fees paid by the Merchants; for Entries, Oaths, New Registers, Draw- 
back Certittcates (n; 40. « 

abt. as near a Calcnlatuni as (^an be made of the Fees "298 

For (Collectors Sallary, as is established 60 

In all £3,5K 

Out of which deduct Commissions to the Collector's Agent for receiving his 

Sallary <a o fi Cent ;{ 

.\nd the Wages of "2 Clerks in the Othcc (having no allowance for Clerks).. . . ll.i 118 

So that the t;ollector's net Income for 1772 was about £'240 

N. B. The ijresent Collector was appointed by Warrant from the Right Honble the Lords of 
the Treasury in July 1772 — but did not receive his deputation from the Honble the Commis- 
sioners of His Majesty's Ctistoms in .\nierica, uiitill the 25th of January 177:1 at which time 
h*' was sworn in and etmimenced to act in Offtce. 

Custom House Savannah the 18th Octr, 17"'^-. 

.\LEXANI>l'at Tho.mkon. 



£ 8h. d 

For the Fees of Office 70 

For Sallary, as is Established 50 

In all (haveiug uo allowance for a Clerk) £120 

N. B. The Searcher has acted in the above Quality since the Death of Mr. Russel in 1769 — 
by permission of the Honorable Board of Commissioners in North America. 
Custom House Savannah the 18th Octr. 1773. 

Wm. Bkown, 

Acting Coniiotmller. 


For the Fees of Office 90 

For Sallary. as is Established 30 

lu aU (& have no Allowance for Water Incidents) £120 

N. B. The Searcher was appointed by Warrant from the Right Honorable the Lords of the 
Treasury in 17(i(i. 

Custom House Savannah the 18th Octr. 1773. 

WrLLM. Bbown, 




24 AiGisi 1774. 

No. 2(5. Savannah in (Ieougia the 24111 of Aug. 1774. 

My L()1:J), 

111 iiiiiie oi July the 25th N(j. 2o A" Auj^iist the 13th Xo. 
24 I Hcc|iiaiiite(.l Your Lordship that I shoiikl give you a full 
account of the Conduct and Proceedmgs of the Liberty 
People here, as soon as I klle^\ for certain what they did or 
meant to do. and I mentioned that some Papers were pre- 
paiing l)y which I believed it would appear that these Eesolu- 
tions were not the voice of the People, but unfairly <fe 
insolently made by a Jmito (jf a very few only, Imt which 
Papers are not yet Completed. 

every thing my Lord was done that could l)e thought 
of, to Fi-ustrate their attempt, but tliis did not totally Prevent 
it, they have been strongly invited by the Carolina Sons of 
Liberty, who have been Suffered to do whatever thev Pleased 
without the least J/"/// <//' iJl-sdjijirolKifin/, or attempt to rlirck 
them, that I have heard of, and now again my Lord, as m the 
time of the Stamp act, I am to be Retlected upon tV: abused 
for ()p})()sin;4 the Licentiousness of the People and its throAm 
out " W litj -sliiudd our Gt tremor do .so d" so, irhen the People in 
' CiiroIiJdi hart' t/oiie Greofcr Lemith-s fho/i we h<i re outl the Gor- 
ier in ir /ills I, of fiil,-r/i iiiiij iiiif'nr of if." In short mv Lord at 
such times as these, if a man has resolution A integrity 
Enough to stand forth and attempt to do his Duty its Hke 
being set up as a mark to l)e Shot at and Eaising the 
Resentment of gieat iiund>ers against him. However altho' 
this is very disagTeeal)le I shall not Ptegard it. 

I have been Informed of another Summons A Meeting to 
be in St. Johns Parisli on the 30tli mstant and my Lord as 
long as these kind of Summonses and Meetings are Suffered 
a Private Man to take up»m him to Summons a Whole 
Province to Consult upon and Rediess Public Grievances 

p. U. U. .\m. i \V. lud. vol. 'Jyj, 

T.ET'reR« P*BOM Slli JAMES -WliiriHT. 181 

I apprehend there will be nothing hnt Cabals & Combina- 
tions and the Peace of the Province S: minds of the People 
continually Heated, Disturl)ed A- distra<'ted and the Procla- 
mation I Issued against them is termed tn'hi/rmi/ ([' npjtrc.ssire 
i{' (in (ifti'iiipt to (hlxir f/ieiii of thviv tiofuroJ and Jjurfnl ]ii(ilds 
((' pridh'tjcK. In short my Lord if these Calls k meetings 
are c(msidered as illcijul <('• Imfirojx'r it will require the inter- 
position of liUjher (iiiihoriiji to remedy the Evil, for the 
executive Powers of Government in the Colonies are too 
AYeak to rectify such abuses, and Prosecutions would (mly be 
Laughed at and no (rrand Jury wou'd fine a Bill of Indict- 
ment and the Persons ordering <t carrying them on Probably 
Insulted and abused. 

And noAv I am mentioning" these matters Permit me my 
Lord to say how things appear to me, and I conceive that 
the Licentious Spirit in America has received such Counte- 
nance & Encouragement fi'om many Peisons, Speeches and 
declrnrdion.s, at the time of the Stamp Act, and ever since in 
Great Britain and has now gone to so great a length, and is 
at such a height, that neither Coercive or Lenient measures 
mil settle matters and restore any tolerable Degree of 
Cordiality & Harmony with the Mother (\)untry, and in 
short things and circumstances in America have increased 
so fast, and at this time so amazingly exceeded what at the 
first Settling and Planting the Colonies could Possibly have 
been Supposed or expected, and America is now become, or 
Indisputably ere long will be, such a vast, Powerfull & 
opulent Country ov Dominion, that I Hund)ly Conceive 
in order to Restore 6: Establish Real S: Substantial Harmony 
affection Sz Confidence A' that Great Britain may receive that 
benefit & advantage which She has a Right to expect from 
the Colonies it may be found advisable to settle the Line with 
respect to To.vcdion (f-c by some new mode or C^onstitution, 
and \\-ithout Avhich my real and candid opmion is, that 
however matters may be got over at present <t whatever 
appearance there may be of amity k union the Flame will 
only be smothered for n time &: break out again at some future 
day ivith more Violence. 

But be these things as they may I doubt not but your 


Lordship will judge it is absolutely necessary that they are 
brouglit to a Point k Clearly Setled and Established some 
hole or other, and not Suffered to reiuaiu as they are. Noth- 
ing but Jealousies Rancour and ill Blood: Law & no Law, 
Government & no Government, Dependence and Independ- 
ence, if I may be allowed the expressions and everything 

unhinged and Running into Confusion, so that in short 

a Man hardly knoAvs what to do, or how to act and its a most 
Disagi-eeable State to one who Wishes to Support Law Gov- 
ernment & Good order & to discharge his Duty with Honor 
and integrity. 

I beg Pardon My Lord for Presuming to Touch on this 
Grand & very Delicate Point, but Trust that my Zeal for His 
Majesty's Service & to Discharge my Duty in every Respect 
with the Utmost integrity will Plead my excuse. But my 
Lord if any alteration should be thought of. Yet Previous to 
any thing of this kind intire Submission & obedience to the 
Sovreignty of Great Britain and Satisfaction for all Private 
Damages <fe Injuries ought to be exacted & fully Comphed 
with in & by all the Colonies. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem, 
My Lord, Your Lordship's 
most Obliged and 

most Obed* Hble Servant 

Ja. Weight 
The Earl of Dartmouth &c etc &c. 


R 26th October. 



IT Jink 1775. 

No. 49. Sav. in Georgia tlie 17 of June 177;"). 

My Lord, 

It gives me much foueeiii to acquaint Your Lordslii]) that 
on Thursday tlie LSth Inst, the Liberty Folks here assembled 
in the Town of Sav. and ]nit uj) a Liberty Tree and a Flagg 
and in the Evening paraded about the Town I am informed 
to the number of 800, some say 400. The pretence of the 
Meeting was to enforce their proscription against the four 
persons menti(m'd in the Athdavits inclos'd in my last, but no 
outrage was committed, as tAvo of them were really going 
away before they were proscribe! and the other two fell on 
some method of making their Peace with them. 

This happened My Lord on the 1st day of the Meeting of 
the Covirt of Sessions, when the Chief Justice gave an excel- 
lent charge very properly adapted to the present times, 
However the Liberty Tree and Flagg Avere kept up fi'om 
Tuesday Morning till now and is still flying in contempt and 
defiance of the C(mrt and of all Law and Government and 
which here as well as elseM'here seems now nearly at an end 
And it has been deliated whether or not to stop the Courts 
and shut up the Port but this I am assured is laid aside for 
the present although very probably will be resumed hereafter. 
But they have entered into an Association as Your Lordship 
will see by the inclosed Paper and wlij^itever is agreed upon 
by the Continental Congress, Avill undoubtedly be adopted 
and carried into execution here, and will meet with little or 
no opposition, for those who disapprove of these things and 
wish weU to Government say "Why should they expose their- 
Uves and properties to the resentment of the people when no 
support or protection is given them by Government'" And 
therefore they find it most prudent to waive opposition and 
remain quiet. 

* p. K. O. Am. A: \V. lud. vol. SSG. 


Your Lordship will see that there is soon to be Meetings 
in every part of the Province and at Savanah on the 22d 
inst. in order to choose Delegates to meet in Provincial Con- 
gress at Savanah on the 4th of July, at w'hich Meeting 
I suppose they will entirely approve of whatever may be 
determined upon by the Continental Congi'ess And as they 
see b}- my letter to Your Lordship of the 24 Aug. 1774 No. 
26 which has been published that I mention the bad conse- 
quences of these Meetings and Cabals and find that no 
Notice has been taken of these matters and nothing done to 
prevent them they presume that they are either not unlawful 
or that there is no power to prevent them and Proclamations 
&c. are only laughed at and I must beg leave to repeat that 
Your Lordshii3 cannot possibly conceive the dangerous con- 
sequences of suffering the Governor's letters to be made 
public and it is just hanging them out and exposing them to 
the resentment of an enraged people who are ready to tear 
any man to pieces who writes anything contrary to their 
opinions or in opposition to their measures or schemes. 

I have laid a state of the proceedings of all the Liberty 
People before His Maj*-^'"* Council and desired their opinions 
and advice what was proper to be done. Whether any Legal 
steps or whether by Proclamation to take notice of their 
conduct and i3oint out the illegahty and dangerous conse- 
quences of such proceedings, When all that were present 
(six) w^ere unanimous in opinion "that no Legal steps should 
be taken because as things are circumstanced no prosecutions 
would prove effectual and it would only exasperate and 
inflame. They were also clearly of opinion that issuing such 
a Proclamation would only be held in contempt and expose 
the weakness of the executive powers and that unsupported 
as we are & threatned from the next Province, they advised 
that no steps whatever should be taken, but to represent 
a state of all their transactions and facts to Y'our Lordship" 
Which I have done in my last letter No. 48, And now in this 
letter, this is very (jaUing, And it is Immbly submitted to 
Your Lordship what is most proper to be done and necessity 
seems to require that it be speedily. 

We have accounts fi'om Carolina that they have agi'eed to 

Letter^ i'kom sir james wright. 165 

raise two Regiments of foot of 750 each and one of horse 
of 500. 

My Lord I presume again to repeat my hund)le request to 
have leave to return to England, and have the honor to be 
with perfect esteem My Lord, Your Lordship's 

most obliged & most obed' Ser* 

J A. Wright. 
The Earl of Dartmouth &c &c &c. 

R 27tli July. 

[In Gov. Wright's No. 49.] 
A numlier of the Inhabitants of the Town and district of 
Savannah and also of several other parishes within this 
Province having assembled together and taking into consid- 
eration the alarming heighth to which the present contest 
between Great Britain and America is risen and reflecting on 
the danger of instigated insurrections among themselves 
were of opinion, That prudence and common safety suggest 
the immediate adoption of some measures within this 
Pro^dnce; They therefore entered into and subscribed the 
following Association Being persuaded that the salvation 
of the rights and liberties of America depend under God on 
the firm union of the Inhabitants, in its Adgorous prosecution 
of the measures necessary for its safety and convinced of the 
necessity of preventing the anarchy and confusion which 
attend the dissohition of the powers of government ; We 
fi-eemen, fi-eeholders and inhabitants of the Province of 
Georgia, being greatly alarmed at the avowed design of the 
Ministry to raise a revenue in America and shocked by the 
bloody scene now acting in the Massachusetts Bay, Do, in 
the most solemn manner, resolve never to become Slaves, 
and do associate under aU the ties of religion, honour and 
love to our country to adopt and endeavour to carry into 
execution, whatever may be recommended by the Continental 
Congi-ess or resolved upon by our Provincial Convention that 
shall be appointed for the purpose of preser\dng our Consti- 
tution and opposing the execution of the several arbitrary 
and oppressive Acts of the British Parliament, until a recon- 


filiation between Great Britain and America, on constitutional 
principles, which we most ardently desire, can be obtained ; 
and that we will in all things follow the advice of our General 
Committee to be appointed, respecting the purposes aforesaid 
the preservation of peace and .^oofl order and the safety 
of individuals and ])rivate property. 

And also came into the following Resolves 

First, That the foregoing Association be strcmgly recom- 
mended to the inhabitants of the several parishes and 
districts wdthin this Province ; and also that a ( 'Ommittee be 
appointed among themselves to carry tlu^ said measures into 

Second, That it is highly expeditmt that a General Provin- 
cial Congress be held at Savannah on the first Tuesday in 
July next and that it be recommended that each Parish and 
district elect Delegates to attend the same. 

Third, That the inhabitants of this Town and District 
meet at Savannah on the twenty second day of Jime instant, 
to choose Delegates to attend in the Pro\dncial Congress and 
also to elect a Committee iov enforcing the foregoing Associa- 

By Order of the Meeting 

N. AV. Jones, Chairman. 
Extract from 
The Georgia Gazette, No. 610 

Wednesday June 14 1775. 



17 June 1775. 

Savanah in Georgia the 17th of June 177.5. 
No. 50. 

My Lord, 

I have lately received a letter from General Gage of which 
the inclosed is a Copy, and the situation of affairs here, being 
,so much altered within these six weeks past and the number 
so small, it is the opinion of the Council in General and in 
which I concur that sending for so few would answer no good . 
purpose but might inflame the whole Province, and altho' an 
100 men 12 or 15 months ago would have done it is not the 
case now, and that they would be lyable to continual insults 
having no Fort or other place of shelter whatever ; And there- 
fore it was judged most advisable not to send for any, at least 
till we know the result of the Continental Congress and see 
how things are like to go on, so that this matter My Lord has 
not been made pubHc, And the Cruizer Your Lordsliip 
mentions in your Letter No. 18 I have not yet heard any 
thing of, and the gentlemen of the Council my Lord seem to 
be of opinion that less than 500 will not be sufficient or 
effectual, and that unless our Neighbours are kept at home its 
difficult to say what number might be sufficient and that 
there should be two sloops of war or one sloop and an armed 
Schooner, but really My Lord these armed Schooners are so 
small that they are of very httle use. 

And we are also of opinion that a Fort should be erected 
on some proper part of the Common, with buildings and bar- 
racks suitable for such number of men, as it ma}' be thought 
necessary to send, if any should, And then the Governor and 
Ofiicers would be in a state of security, whereas now they 
are and must be exposed to every kind of insult and violence 
the people may choose to offer them. 

* p. R. O. Am. k W. Ind. vol. 236. 


1 have the honor to be with perfect esteem. My Lord, 
Your Lordship's 

most ol)H<;>"ed !iiid ohed* Servant 

Ja. Wright. 

P. S. I should liope this letter may not be made public, as 
I'm sure it would give great offence. 

E '27 July. 

(1 Liclosure.) 

I In Sir Jas. Wright's letter No. 50. | 

Copy of General Gage's letter. 

received 29 May 1775. 

Boston 16 April 1775. 

I am to acquaint you that I have received His Majesty's 
Orders to send to Your Province fi'om the Garrison of St. 
Augustine a Detachment of 100 men and Officers in Propor- 
tion. I now take the liberty to inclose you Orders to the 
Commanding Officer for that purpose, which please to forward 
as soon as convenient and wherein you wiU see the Command- 
ing Officer of the Detachment Avill be ordered to consult you 
upon the means he may be employed most usefully for His 
Majesty's service. You will be so good as give him such 
directions as may put him in the Avay of getting to you as 
soon as ma}' be. 

I have the honor to V)e &c 

Thos. Gaoe. 



20 JuxE 1775. 

No. 51. Say. in Georgia 20 June 1775. 

My Lord, 

The Liberty people have now got another pretence for 
raising men, they assert tliat Mr. Stuart the Superintenclant 
has been endeavouring to raise the Clierokee Indians to come 
doAvn against them, this they alledge that they have got 
undoubted proof of, and all lie can say will not convince 
them to the Contrary, his Friends in Charles To\vn gave him 
a hmt, and he left that and came here but they, sent some 
of their party here who have so inflam'd <t enrag'd our 
People, that he did iiot think himself safe, and His Maj- 
esty's armed Schooner St. John haviiig put in from Provi- 
dence, he went on board her cV" I suppose by this time is 
saild for St. Augustine. And several Boats full of men from 
the Carolina side, have been down at our Iidet some days, 
the Accounts diiiter as to No. some call them 50 others 80 all 
well (t completely arni'd. Some alledge their intention was 
to seize on Mr. Stuart which very probably was part of tlieii* 
errand, But I believe they have another point in view^ and 
that is 3 Vessells l^eing expected here fi'om Londfju and a 
considerable quantity of Gun Powder being on board for the 
Indian Trade, they intend to seize on that & carry it to Caro- 
lina and this is certainly in their power to do and its not 
possible to j)revent it, if attemj)ted and one of these Vessells 
arrived here on Saturday the 18tli inst. c^- the Capt. one 
informs me that several Boats lay off a little way from him cV: 
that one with 3 or 4 men came on board and one of them 
inquir'd whether he had any Gun Powder on board and on 
showing His Cockets and their finding he had none they 
behaved very civilly and went away, but made great inquiry 
after another ship one Maitland who has a large quantity 
of Gun Powder on board and it is said thev intend to watch 

I'. U. O. Am. it \V, lua. vol, 230, 


our Inlet till the others come and to take out all the Gun 
Powder And if that is the case I am much afraid it will em- 
barrass us with the Indians for they helve for some time being 
very impatient for their usual supplys and in order to pacify 
them I have told them that the difference we had with them 
last year prevented the Merchants from sending for goods, 
that none was wrote for till after our disputes were settled in 
Ocf last and that it takes a great while for ships to carry 
letters and orders from hence to England and that then the 
goods would be to make (I told them this to gain time) and 
afterwards be sent here and that sometimes ships have very 
long passages and we could not depend on a supply till late 
in the summer and with this they were tolerably w^ell satisfied, 
but if they are now disappointed they will conclude we have 
some design against them and I can't tell what may be the 
consequence for they are a very jealous suspicious people 
and as they have been told by the Chickesaw Indians that 
the White people are going to join the Chactaws against them 
it may confirm that report and thus Your Lordship sees the 
state we are in in every respect and no King's Sloop or 
Cruizer heard of yet. By the inclosed Paper Your Lordship 
will see the extraordinarj' Resolves by the People in Charlotte 
Town Mecklenburg County and I should not be surprized if 
the same should be done every where else. 

I have the honor to be with perfect esteem My Lord 
Your Lordship's 

most obliged and 

obedient Servant 

Ja. Wright. 
R 27th July. 



8 .Illy 17Tr). 
No. 52. Savanah in Georgia the 8th July 1775. 

My Lord, 

I had the honor to write Your Lordship very fully in my 
Letters Nos. 47, 48, 49 50 <t 51 all which I Confirm and begg 
Leave to refer Your Lordship to those Letters for the State 
of Affairs in this Province at that Time, Since which a Pretty 
Extraordinary Procedure has happened at the Port of Sun- 
bury for the Particulars of which Y'our Lordship will Please 
to be referr'd to the Inclosd Copys of the depositions of Mr. 
Kitchen the Collector (k Mr. Antrobus the Comptroller <fe 
Searcher at that Port this Matter I laid l)efore the Council 
whose Opinioufs ct Advice your Lt)rdship will see by the 
Extracts of the Minutes of Council of the 4tli Inst. 

I wrote Your Lordship in my Letter No. 51 that our Inlet 
was Guarded by Boats with Many Arm'd Men fiom Carolina, 
Since which several have gone down there from Savanah : all 
waiting the Airival of a Sliij) Expected fi'om London with 
Gun Powder, it is said to seize upon the Gun Powder, those 
from Carolina to take the Gun Powder out belonging to the 
Iidiabitants of their Province and those fi-om hence to take 
out the Powder belonging to the inhabitants of this Province, 
at least this is what is given out. And Capt. Grant in His 
Majestys Arnid Schooner having calld in here T^e Liberty 
Gentlemen have fitted out a Schooner some saj^with 8 & 
some with 10 Carriage Guns Many Swivels & 50 Men. Capt. 
Grant is saild & no Vessel sent here yet by Admiral Graves 
And when in Council on the 4 Inst. Mr. Baillie the Commis- 
sary (in whose Charge the Guns &c. belonging t(^ His Majesty 
are) came there cV Iiiform'd me that a Great Many People 
were taking A: CarrA^ng away some of the Guns, Carriages, 
Shot &c. for the Particulars of which I begg leave to referr 
to the Inclosd Copys of Affidavits and to the Inclosd Extract 
of the Minute of Council Relative thereto, 

* p. R, O. Am. & W, Jiid, vol, 236, 


And Mv Lord I have Just been informd that Mr. Barnard 
EUicitt (a Capt. in the Troops Kaising h\ Sonth Carolina) is 
in the back Parts of this Province Inhsting Men without 
having made the least Application to nie, or taking any 
Notice at all. Am also Informd that the Committee in 
Charles Town, or Council of Safety (as they call themselves) 
it is not Ck^rtain which have, Appointed three Persons as 
Superintendants or Managers of the Indian Affairs in the 
Creek Country, and also three to Manage the Indian Afiau'S 
in the Cherokee Country, which Matters I also Laid before 
the Council and Your Lordship will see their Opinions & 
Advice hy the Incdos'd Extract of the Minutes And thus 
Your Lordship sees that Jthe Powers of Government are 
wrested out of njy Hands, that Law &r G(^vernment are nearl}^ 
if not quite annihilated & a mere Nominal Governor can be 
of little use & to me a most disagreeable Situation & its not 
in my Power to Support either any Longer, the Principal 
Reasons of this Great & sudden Change & falling off, I gave 
Your Lordship in the above Letters referrd to, And Your 
Lordship wall best Judge what is Necessary or Proper to be 
done. My Lord Pardon me, but the more I think of the 
Present State of Affairs between Great Britain & the Colonies, 
the more I am Convinced of the Propriety of what I men- 
tioned in my Letter of the 24 of August No. 26. 

The Provin(;ial (\ingTess is now sitting here And Yesterday 
I reed the Inclosd Application fi'om them to which Your 
Lordshiji will see my Answer and had I not done so, I Pre- 
sume they would fas in other Provinces) have Appointed one 
themselv(^ I am Informd Delegates are chosen to Proceed 
Immediately to Philadelphia and that our Ports & Courts 
are to be shut up, which I believe, altho I C-annot Positively 
assert it, as Nothing is yet Publishd or made Public, 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordship's 

most obhg'd & most obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 

The Earl of Dartmouth Ac &c. 

[ Inilorsed \ 

K lUth Aug-ust. 


[In Sir James Wriglit's (No. 'yl) of 8th July 1775.1 

To His Excellency Sir James Wright Bart ( ^aptain (leneral 
Governor and Commander in C-hief in and over His Majesties 
said Province Chancellor and Ordinary of the same 

May it Please Your Excellency 

The Provincial Congress deeply concerned at the Present 
Alarming State of Affairs and distresses of America, humbly 
reqeust that Your Excellency would Appoint a day of East- 
ing and Prayer to be Observed throughout this Pro\dnce, 
That a happy reconciliation may soon take Place between 
America and the Parent State, And that under the Auspicious 
Reign of His Majesty and his Descendants both Countrys 
may remain United, Virtuous, Free and happy untill time 
shall be no more. 

By order of the Congi'ess 

Arch'' Bullock President. 

Dated in Provincial Congress | 
the 7th day of July 1775. \ 

My Answer, Gent^'- 

I have taken the Opinion of His Maj*^'^ Council relative to 
the request made by the Gent" who have assembled together, 
by the Name of a Provincial Congress, and must Premise 
that I cannot Consider that Meeting as Constitutional, But 
as the request is Expressed in such Loyal and Dutifull Terms, 
and the Ends proposed being Such as Every Good Man must 
most ardently wish for I wall Certainly appoint a Day of 
Fasting and Prayer to be Observed throughout this Province. 

Ja. Wright, Sav« 7th July 1775. 

To Stephen Drayton Jun'" and the other Gentlemen who 
waited on the Governor. 





10 Jri.Y 1775. 
No, 58. Savanah in Geoiujia the lUtli of July 1775. 

My Lokd, 

Since Wiitiiijj my Last oi the Htli Inst. ('apt. Maitlaud 
Arvivil, the AVailike Schooner titted out as Mentioned before 
went to Sea and met with the Sliip al)out •! liea|;ues from the 
Bar Conductd lier in A: tlien took out all the (lun Powder on 
Board Amountinji; to al)out Six Tons as the (\-ipt. tells me and 
which is now in the Hands of the Libtirty People here who 
Forcibly Hold it against the Owners. The Capt. is going to 
make a Protest against tliem which if done before the Vessel 
(by which this is to go) Sails, I shall send Your Lordship a 
Copy of it for your more Particular Information. I am also 
to Acquaint Your Lordship that the Sandwich Packet Arrivd 
at Charles To.wn on the second Inst. When Your Lordsnip's 
Letters and tlujs(^ from Mr. Pownall S: indeed every Letter 
directed to me both Public A: Private were seized upon & 
opend in Charles Town A: on the Evening of tlu' 8th Inst. 
I receiv'd them seald up again by the Deputy Post Master 
General in Charh's Town and Indors'd thus "Opened bj the 
Committee of Ins])ection at Charles Town" G. Roupell. 

I must also Acquaint Your Lordship that a Committee 
from the 'Provincial Congress now sitting here, was sent to 
the Post Office, Who Order'd the Deputy Post Master here, 
not to send me any of my Letters, but after the Congress had 
Deliberated on the Matter, a Message was sent to the Post 
Master tlnit he might deliver them. And I accordingly receivd 
them after aboiit an Hour's Detention so that Your Lordship 
sees there is an End of all Correspondence And I cannot 
Attempt to send any Answers to Your Loi(lslii])s Letters in 
Future fi-om Hence by the Post to C'harles Town in order to 
go b}' the Packet, for Avere I to do it, they would Certainly 
be intercepted, l^he Letters now receivd from Your Lordship 

p. l{. C), Am. \ >V. Iiiil. vol. y:)0. 


are only the Orifijinal and Duplicate of Your Lordships Cir- 
cular Letter of the 15th of April last, signifying His Majesty's 
Pleasure that the orders of the Commander in Chief of the 
King's Forces in N" America, And Under him of the Major 
Generals it Brigadier Generals, Shall be Supreme in all Cases 
relative to the Operation of the the said Troops & be Obeyed 
Accordingly, Which will Certainly be duly Observed by me. 

It being Impossible My Lord for me to submit to these 
daily Insults, I must again request His Majesty will be 
Graciously Pleasd to Give me Leave to return to England. 

My Lord I Cannot write with Freedom or have Several 
things to say. God Grant Conciliatory Measures may take 
place, And I Conceive there is not an hour to be lost, the 
State of Affairs will not Admit of the least delay. 

I am this Moment Informd that the Congress intend to 
Raise 300 Men. Mr. Habersham is gone to Philadelphia for 
the recovery of his Health and I begin to think a King's 
Governor has little or no business here. 

I have the Honor to be with great Deference 
My Lord Your Lordship's 

most Obliged and Obedient Hble Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Earl of Dartmouth &c &c. 

\ Indorsed] 
E 19th Aug*- 


11 .lui.Y 1775. 

Savanah in Georgia the 11 of July 1775. 
My Lord, 

HaA-ing Wrote Your Lordship very fully by the last Convey- 

♦ p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 236. 

196 I.ETTEliS FltUlVr silt JAMES WJUGHT. 

ance, I have little to add, but that the .ship with the Gun 
Powder being Ai-rived, the Liberty Folks have Seized upon 
the whole amounting to about Six Tons. 

Many Pretty Extraordinary things aif Talkt of as intended 
to be done by the Congress. Amongst otliers to Kaise three 
hundred Men and to Issue Money to Pay and Support them 
&c. of nil which I shall (as it is my duty to do) take care to 
give Your Lordship a True Accoiuit as soon as their Proceed- 
ings are made Public. i 

Pray God Grant a happy and speedy reconciliation. 

I have the Honor to be with perfec^t Esteem, My Lord, 
Your Lordship's 

most ()l)liged and obedient Serv* 

Ja. WltlGHT. 

The Earl of Dartmouth A'c tVc. 

I Iiidarsfd] «. 

Pt 19th Auii'- 


IS Jri.Y 1775. 

No. 54. Savannah in Geoiuua the 18th of July 1775. 

My Loiuj, 

On the l.'Uli instant the Provincial Congress sent me an 
Address of which i\\v Inclosed is a (^>l)V and which I con- 
ceive ('ontains two or three C'haiges against me Viz: that 
I w(nild not allow the Ass<nid)ly to nn^et or sit in order to 
take Measures for the Pedress of Griovaiu^es. 

And that I have Misrepresented the State of the Province 
f(n- that it appears from the Extracts of my letters which 
have been Published that I rather meant to favour the 

1". 1!. (). .Vui, & W, IiKl. vol, 'iUO, 


Designs of the Miuister than to (rive nii Tm])ii)tiMl Account 
of the Keul St)iti'*of things. 

And tliiit I have (riven Prejudicial Information against 
nntny Persons in this Province. 

This A(hh-<^ss My Lord I laid before the Gentlemen of the 
Council and the Extracts of my Letters which have been 
Published were all I'ead Viz : '25 July 74, 13 August 24 August 
18 October A' ttie 18 of Decendier 74 and they were all 
I^nanimous in opinion that there is not any Just or real 
cause oi- Grounds for the said Accusations and that the 
Several Matters gnentioned in the said Letters are (;onsistent 
with Truth and tha.t there is no Misrepresentation Avhatever, 
and for Your Lordship's more particular Information I beg 
leave to refer to the Iiiclosed Minutes of (\)uncil and to 
Observe tha^ the Ileason of the Prorogation in Nov*' was 
because the Situation of Affairs between Great Britain and 
the Golonys were then in a very uncertain state. The Peti- 
tion of the Continental Congress to His Majest}' was not 
then got home, and a New Parlianu\nt to meet m Dec"" and 
being hopefull that the Events of those very Material Cir- 
cumstances would be known towards the End of January it 
was thought advisable to Postpone the Meeting of the 
Assendily till that time, and it was Accordingly Prorogued to 
the 17th of January at Avhich tinie it \\as most ardently 
wished that the Upper and Lower Houses of Assend)ly 
should State their Grievances or sup]iosed Grievances in 
Decent. and Pro]>er Petitions to the ('rown and Parliament, 
and for which purpose some Petitions were given in to the 
House of Assemlily Signed by a great nniny very respectable 
Persons which were treated with Contempt : And as Soon as 
they met a Message was Sent from th«^ I'})per House desiring 
a Conference with the Lower House on those matters, but 
when they met to Confer the Lower House Avould not agree 
to anything, and the Affair dropt and I soon discovered there 
was a Petition from the Provincial Congress ready to Present 
to the House and that a Memlier had it in his Pocket for that 
purpose, and I was well Inform'd that they had got every 
thing prepared ready. Motions and Resolves all in writing 
approving of the Resolutions of the Continental Congress in 


Sejit. ;ui(l Oct'" and that tlicy were to a])])i()ve oi the Proceed- 
ings of the C\)ngreKs here in January and to send Delegates 
to meet in May, all these things I had Information of, and 
the Gentlemen of the Council Avell knew were mean't to be 
pi()p(5sd and no donbt but they Avould have been carried and 
therefore by their Unanimous Opinions and advice I 
Adjourned them fi'om the 10th of February to the 9th of 
May, by which time we Expected to know the Final Deter- 
mination of Parliament relative to American Ali'airs, and 
After this Adjournment some of them gave out that they 
would not meet or do any business in May, and as I really 
wished them to meet and to do business at that time I with 
the advice of the Council Issued a Proclamation calling them 
to meet and do business, and when I meant to take some 
notice of Your Lordship's Letter relative to the Resolutions 
of the House of Commons Arc. ttc. and that they should dis- 
patch some of the most Material Pi'ovincial Business, and 
on the V)tli <^f May some of them met but made no House 
and adjourned to the 10th and on the 10th some met but 
made no House and adjourned to the 11th and on the lltli 
some of them met l)nt made no House and adjourned over 
to Monday the 15th which was a thing they had no right to 
do, and considered as an Insult : Especially after bemg Par- 
ticularly called by Proclamation and being Informed by 
many that they did not intend to make a House at all, I met 
tlie Council upon it, who were unanimously of Opinion fi'om 
what they liad heard, and had actually passed that they did 
not intend to make a House or do business and advised me 
to Prorogue them, which I accordingly did, and Yet they 
Pretend I would not allow the House to sit or take up their 
Grievances as a Legislative Body, or the legal Representa- 
tives of the People, when the Fact is clearly otherwise or as 
is here stated, and although I would not Condescend to take 
any Notice of this Address Yet I think it my Duty to Lay 
the whole before Your Lordship. 

On the 13 instant at night two Gentlemen came here from 
Charles Town sent as I was informed by the Council of 
Safety there and they have Prevail'd on the Congress to let 
them have 5000 weight of the Gun Powder and which they 

LETTERS mon sin .tamp:s wkight. 109 

carrier! away with tlieivi, and I iini Informed that Some of the 
Liliertv Peojile hen', Assisted in Putting on board the Vessell 
tliey came in a brass ti(>l(l Peice and Carriage beh)nging to 
His Majesty, this I did not hear of till Afterwards, Init if 
I had I cmild not have Prevented it. 

I understand the Congi-ess have agreed to send 2000 weight 
of Gun PoAvder into the Indian Country as a Present from 
the Peopk^ aJid it is Particuhirly Agreed that the Indians be 
Acquainted that it is not from the; Ki)^</ or from (jdrcriDntnt 
or fi'om the SniK'tiritouUtiit or from the Tradors l)ut from the 
Pf'oph' ()f the Proi'ivrc and I am mucli Afraid this will raise 
Strange Ideas amongst the Indians and be attended with very 
bad consequences. They have appointed here what they call 
a Council of Safetr and very nearly folhnved the example of 
the Carolinians Except as to Raising an Army, it was pro- 
posed to raise 350 men l)ut after great del)ates that was 
carried in the Negative and this Province having now Join'd 
Avith the others, I am Avell Informed that the Gentlemen who 
came from Carolina Assured the Congress here, that if they 
should on any Account want Assistance they should Ijumedi- 
ately have it to the amount of 1000 men. I am Humbly to 
request that His Majesty will be Graciously jileased to Give 
me leave to return to England in order to Resign the Govern- 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordship's 

most obliged and obedient Servant 

Ja. Wright. 
The Earl of Dartmouth A'c. A^c. t^-c. 

R 10th October. 



2!) .Iri.Y 1775. 

No. 55. Savannah in Georgia the 2V)th of July 1775. 

My Lord, 

Siiice my last of the 18th instant No. 54 tlie Council of 
Safety as they Call themselves, have in a Solenni Maimer 
f(^rl)id the Eector of the Parish to preach any more in the 
Church, and he has been so much threatened that on the 25th 
instant he left the town and went over into Carolina, the 
reason given for this is, because he refused to Preach a Ser- 
mon and observe a Fast which had been directed by the 
Continental Congress, to be observed throughout aU the 
Colonies, and has Reflected on the Conduct of the Americans. 
And My Lord on the 24th instant about 9 OClock at Night 
I heard a very great Huzzaing in the Streets and on Sending 
out found they had seized upon one Hopkins a Pilot and 
were Tarring and Feathering him, and Soon after they 
brought him in a Cart along by my House and such a Horrid 
Spectacle I really never Saw, they made the Man Stand up 
in a Cart with a Candle in his Hand and a great many 
Candles were Carried round the Cart and thus they went 
through most of the Streets in town for upwards of three 

And on Inquiring what he had done, I was Informed 
that he had behaved disrespectfully towards thfe Sons of 
Liberty and Drank some Toasts which gave gi'eat oftence, 
but fof- Your Lordship's more Particular Information in both 
these Matters I inclose a Copy of the Affidavits of the Partys 
and the News Paper and I must at the same time observe 
that I cannot believe this Conduct is Promoted or Approved 
of by the People in General, but only by some very Violent 
ones amongst them and the Mob. Your Lordshij) will be 
the best Judge what is most Proper to be done, but 1 beg 
leave again most heartily to wish that Conciliatory Measures 

* p. R. O. Ani. & W. Iiid. vol. 236. 


may Speedily take place or total Ruin and Destruction will 
soon follow, and America Lost and Gone. 
I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordship's 

most Obhged and most Obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 

P S. 1st of Aug** The Delegates went away for Philadelphia 
yesterday. I forgot to mention that the Committee here 
take upon them to Order Ships and Vessells that arrive to 
Depart again without suffering them to come up to the Town 
and unload. Some they admit, some they Order away Just 
as they please and exactly Copy after Carolina, and are 
making a very Rapid Progress in the execution of their 
Assumed Powers. £10,000 Sterling is to be Issued in Notes 
or Certiffcates and Your Lordship will see the Proceedings 
of the Congress by the Inclosed News Paper, and beg I Leave 
to Repeat that no Correspondence is safe, I dare not Venture 
a Single Letter by the Post to Charles Town, for the Packet 
or to send any to Your Lordship but under Cover as Private 
Letters. No Sloop of War or Cruizer is come yet. 

J. W. 
The Earl of Dartmouth Arc. etc. &. 

R 10th Oct'- 

[In Sir Jas. Wright's (No. 55) of 29th July 1775.]* 

Georgia. The Deposition of John Hopkins of the Town of 
Savannah Mariner taken on Oath the twenty fifth 
Day of July one thousand seven hundred and 
seventy five before the Honourable Anthony 
Stokes Esq''*'- Chief Justice of the Province afore- 
This Deponent being duly sworn on the Holy Evangelists 
of Almiglity God maketh Oath and saith That about nine of 
the Clock in the Evening of the twenty fourth Instant as this 
Leponeut was sittmg at supper with his family there came 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 23G. 

20^ r,F,TTKi;s fhom sth .tamf.s wiuoitt. 

to this Deponent's House a nninl)cr of Persons (some were 
in disguise) and optMied the door. That Jose])h Keynolds of 
Savannah Jiii('khiy(>r, ('apt. McCUuer S: Capt" Bunner at 
Present of Savannah Mariners hiid hohl of this Deponent, 
without sayin<;- anytliint^ to him That as soon as the aforesaid 
People hiid hohl of this Deponent a <i;reat luunber rushed in 
<fe hurried this Deponent out of his house A' led him to the 
out side of the Town, That they C'onsulted to tar & feather 
him but the Majority resolved to Carry hiiri to a more public, 
place. Accordingly they led this Deponent into the middle 
of the S(|uare near to the Dial in Savannah ct striped this 
Deponent of his Jacket A' Shirt and with great reluctance 
left the rest of his xVpparrel on him And then they proceeded 
to tar and feather this Deponent And immediately put this 
Deponent into a Cart S: Carted him up A- down the Streets 
of Savannah for upwards of three Hours in the Above Con- 
dition That during the aforesaid Time they Carted this De- 
ponent to the LiV)erty tree And there SAvore they would hang 
him That the said Bunner said " he was rather fat But He 
would go up the tree & hang this Deprtnent" That the said 
Bunner further said " that unless he would drink " Damnation 
to all Tories <fe Success to American Liberty" he should be 
hung immediately, which request this Deponent was obliged 
to Comply with, that they continued to abuse this Deponent, 
gave him a great Deal of ill Language Ar upbraided him Avith 
his Conduct That some one or other said That if they Could 
lay hold of the Parson they would put liim along side of this 
Deponent in the Cart, That this Deponent also heard said in 
the Mob that Mr. Smith should be next And that they 
intended to Continue on untill they had Tarred ct feathered 
all the Tories or Words to That Effect, That this Deponent 
saAV in the Aforesaid Mob, together with the Persons afore- 
mentioned, Thomas Lee Carpenter John Spencer Carpenter, 
Alexander Pln^enix Merchant Ambrose Wright Planter 
Samuel Wells Mariner Francis Arthur of Savannah Surveyor, 
Oliver Bowen Merchant John McCluer <fe Capt. McCluer 
Joseph Habersham & Francis Harris Gentleman Quintin 
Pooler Merchant Capt" HaAvkins Mariner A- Thomas Hamil- 
ton Butcher A' several others that this Deponent cannot 


recollect That between the Hours of Twelve & One of the 
Clock at Midnight they discharged this Deponent at the 
Vendue House with orders to beg "all America pardon." 
Sworn the Da}- & Year ) John Hopkins. 

Aforesaid j 

Anthony Stokes. 

I desire that a Warrant may Issue against the abovenaraed 
Joseph Reynolds of Savannah Bricklayer & Capt" George 
Bunner Mariner ct against none of the other persons. 

John Horkins. 
A true Copy. Peeston & Pryce. 

I In Sir James Wright's (No. 55) of 29th July 1775.*] 

Georgia ss. 

The Reverend Haddon Smith Rector of the 

Parish of Christ Church being diily sworn 

That on Saturday the Twenty second Day of this Instant 
July about nine of the Clock in the forenoon some Gentle- 
men came to this Deponent's House at the Parsonage. That 
this Deponent being up Staii's in his Chambers sent down 
word immediately to desire the Gentlemen to walk in & he 
would wait upon them. That before this Deponent came 
down Stairs he heard some one of them to say "We cannot 
Walk in" or words to that purport. That this Deponent 
then concluded who they were & went doAvn directly to them. 
That this Deponent saw standing in the Porch of the House 
Peter Tarling of St. John's Parish, Jonathan Cochran of 
Saint Andrews Parish Planters, Edward Teefair of Savannah 
Merchant, George Walton of Savannah Esq"' & Oliver Bowen 
of Savannah Merchant & some others. That the aforesaid 
Peter Tarhng held a written Paper in his hand and read 
from it to this Deponent the following words "Sir fi-om Your 
late Conduct in disobeying the Orders of the CongTess, You 
are deemed an Enemy to America & by Order of the Com- 
mittee We are to inform you that you are to be suffered no 
longer to officiate in this Town" or Words to that Efi'ect, 

* p. R. O. Am. & \V. lud. vol. 236. 


Tliat Mic afoit'SMitl Peter Tiirlin;^ luivciTi^ read tli«^ pa])er 
aboveiaenf' he t()}j;ether \vitli tlie rest of the P«^rs()ns iiinne- 
diately went away witliout }j;iviii^ this Deponent an oppor- 
tunitv to re])ly or ask for the Paper since wliich this Deponent 
liatli not thouf^ht himself safe in doiii;^ his Dnty as Rector. 

Haddon Smith. 

Sworn the '2oth Day ) 
of Jnly 1775. f 


Anthony Stokks. 
A True (^opy 



7 At;gii8T 1775. 
No. 56. 

Savannah in Georgia the 7th of August 1775. 
My Lord, 

It Gives me gi-eat Concern tliat every letter I now write to 
Your Lordship is to Give you accounts of the very illegal, 
Insolent and Dangerous Transactions of the Liberty People 
here. On the 2d Instant a Conplaint was made to the Chief 
Justice against Ebenezer McCarty, Florence Mahoney and 
Wm. Da\'is, and on taking Affidavits against them, it appear- 
ed amongst other Matters that the said McCarty had been 
InUsting men in this Town for one of the Carolina Regiments, 
and on a Warrant being Issued and the Partys being Appre- 
hended, the said McCarty was l)y the Chief Justice Com- 
mitted to Goal as not Bailable ; and on the 3rd Instant a 
Writ of Habeas Cor])us was applied for in behalf of the said 
McCarty, A\hen on lu^aring he was remanded as not Bailable. 
And that Evening a great Number of People Assembled 

* p. K. O. Am. At W. InU. vol. 23«. 

I.ET'J'EllS FROM «11{ JAMES WltlGHT. 205 

together and went to the (loal and forcsed it c^pen and took 
ont the said McCarty who was Immediately Set at Large, 
the Particuhirs of all which Matters will more clearly api)ear 
to Your Lordship by the Inclosed Affidavits. And on the 5th 
inst. he went through the town with a Drum Beating up for 
men ; and passed ('lose by the Chief Justices door, also came 
very near niy house, unparalled Ins(jlen(^e my Lord ! and this 
is the Situation his Majesty's (xovernment is reduced to in 
the Province of Georgia. 

I Omitted to Mention befcjre that they took Possession of 
the Publick Magazine to put the Gun Powder in, and Ap- 
pointed a Guard to Protect it an Officer who they call 
CViptain, and I am told 20 men, and who still (.\)ntinue to 
Guard it Day and Night. 

I must also Acquaint your Lordship that throughout the 
Province every Method has been used to Conipell the People 
to Sign the Association ; and those who Decline, they threaten 
to Proscribe, and for fear of that, and k)sing their Property, 
or having it Destroyed; Great Numbers have bt^en Intimi- 
dated to Sign, and I Suppose by far tiie greater Part of the 
Province have Signed it, indeed it is said there are few in the 
Country who have not. In the Parish of St. Philip I am 
Informed the C^ommittee have Proscribed one Doctor Traill 
for Kefusing to Sign the Association, he is a very Sensible 
Clever Man and in very Good business, but they have ordered 
him to Depart the Province in Eight days, and there is now 
a plan Carrying on to Wrest the Command of the Militia out 
of my Hands, but this Probably will be the Sul)ject of my 
next Letter. 

I have the Honor to be witli Great Deference 
My Lord Your Lordship's 

most ol)liged & obedient Servant 

Ja. Wright. 
The Earl of Dartmouth itc, &c. etc. 

I Indorsed] 
E 10th Oct'- 




16 Auof-ST 1775. 

Savannah in Georgia the IBtli of Auj>*- 1775. 
My LoKi), 

1 had the Honor to receive Your Lordship's Circular letter 
of the '22iid of May AYith an Ac(;ount of the Death of the 
Queen of Denmark, and Inclosing the Gazette Containing the 
Orders for Mourning, Which I have directed to be Observed 
here — And the Account Youi- Lordship is pleased to Give of 
the Health of His Majesty and the rest of the Royal Family, 
must gi'eatly Alleviate the affliction of that Event. 
I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Y^our Lordshi})'s 
most obliged and 

most obedient Hble Servant 

Ja. Wright. 
The Earl of Dartmouth &c. <fec. <fec. 

I Indorsed] 
R 10th Ocf^- 



17 AfursT 1775. 

No. 57. 

Savannah in Georgia the 17th of Aug*- 1775. 

My Lord, 

On the 13 instant I had the Honor to receive the Duplicate 
of your Lordship's letter of the 3d of May No. 20, the Origi- 
nal of which must have been Stop't by the Committee in 
Charles Town, wlu'U they open'd all the letters by the May 

*i>. II. O. Am. \ \\. liul. \(U. TAtJ. 

t 1'. 11. O. Am. & \V. lud. vol. 236. 


Packet, as all (others will, if they can Lay their Hands upon 

If any further applicati(nis are made by Midshipmen who 
may have Acted as Masters of any of the King's .Ships, I 
shall direct them to A^jply iirst to the Lords of the Admiralty 
for a Certificate, as Mentioned in Yoiu" Lordship's letter. 

I Oljserve what your Lordshij) is pleased to Say with 
respect to my Coiuliict in Endeavouring to prevent the Con- 
tagion fi'om Spreading in this Province, and would to God it 
had been in my Power to have done so, l)ut it was not, as 
Youi Lordship will Perceive by my several letters Nos. 48, 
49, 50, 51, ii'I, 58, 54, 55 and 56, and to which I beg leave to 
refer for the Particulars of what has happened here since 
the 4tli of June. And my Lord I am now again constrained 
to write your L(.)rdship a farther Disagreeable Account of the 
Proceedings of the CongTess and Liberty People here. The 
Congress my Lord Determined that no Militia Officers should 
remain but such as Signed the Ass(X'iation, and Directed 
that the Captains of the Militia should order Musters 
throughout the Province, and that any of the officers that 
might refuse to Sign the Association, should not be suffered 
to act any longer, but that the People should Elect others in 
their Places. And on the 8th instant I received an AppHca- 
tion from the Committee of Safety as they Call themselves, 
a Cojjy whereof is Inclosed, on which I ordered the Council 
to be Summoned to meet on the 15th instant when I laid the 
said Application before them with some letters I had received 
from several of the Officers a Copy of which I now Inclose 
your Lordship — these officers belong to the tliree Town or 
Savannah Companys — and for Your Lordship's more Partic- 
lar Information I also Inclose a Copy of the Proceedings in 
Council on this occasion ; and thus your Lordship sees how 
they are going on here, and the Scheme and Attempt to 
Wrest the Command of the Militia out of my Hands, and it 
is said the Committee of Safety are to Give Commissions to 
the People who are to Chose Officers in the Koom of those 
who refuse to Sign the Association, but this my Lord I can- 
not Yet Assert Although I believe it to be true. 

We have received an Account liere that an Armed Yessell 


or two, fitted out from Charles Town Proceeded to the Bar 
of St. An<^ustuie and tht;re met with a Vessell Bound t(^ that 
Port, which had a great Quantity of Gun Powder and King's 
Stores on Board, part of which had been sent on shore but 
that they took out of her 15,000 weight of the Gun Powchn- 
which tliey had Landed Safe at Beaufort Port Royal South 
Carolina, the Conduct of the People here, is most Infamous. 
one Sheftall a Jew is Chairman of the Parochial Committee 
as they call theniselyes and this Fellow Issues Orders to 
Ca])tains of Yessells to depart the King's Port without Land- 
ing any of their Cargoes legally Imported. And fi-esli Insults 
continue to be offered eyery day, and no Sloop of War ar- 
rived yet. 

My Lord I mentioned in my last some means used to com- 
pell People to Sign the Association, and those, with Tarring 
and Feathering and the SHijIil Punishment of Ordering any 
that Refuse, to quit their Habitations on a few days Notice 
are executed without any Hesitation ; and one Mr. Brown a 
Young Gentleman who ai)peared a little Active in opposing 
the Liberty People, has been most Cnielly Treated in the 
Town of Augusta, and he having threatened to get a party 
and take satisfaction, the Offenders Raised a Number of Men 
in the Country, and WTote to Savannah to the Council of 
Safety for Assistance, and a Party of the Grenadier Com- 
pany, and some of the Light Infantry Company who Signed 
the Association, set out from hence to Augusta the ninth 
Instant, without any Ajjplication to, or Authority from me, 
but I am well Informed were ordered to do so by the Council 
of Safety, and its said they by Persuasions and threats, Pre- 
vail'd on a Great Nund)er of People to Join them as they 
went through the Country, and what Outrages or Acts of 
Violence tliey may Conmiit before they return, its difficult 
to say, though as I am just Informed that Mr. Brown has 
retired into C-arolina, Probably nothing may happen, biit 
my Lord are these things to be sufiei'ed in a British Govern- 
ment? I am really tiled my Lord of stating Criniuidl Facts 
and could add more, but that T may not over Burden your 


Lordships Patience I shall Conclude, and have the Honor to 
subscribe myself 

Your Lordship's 
most obliged and obedient Servant 

Ja. Wright. 
R 10th Oof- 


16 September 1775. 

No. 58. Savannah in Georgia the 16tli of Sept^ 1775. 

My Lord, 

Since my last Nos. 54, 55, 56 and 57 by way of Liverpool, 
nothing very material has happened, but the Liberty People 
are still going on in the same way, and in Consequence of 
the Inclosed I am informed that Officers have been Chosen 
by every Company' of Militia in the Province, Some who had 
Commissions have been Elected, and many new ones chosen, 
so that these People having Signed the Association will now 
be considered by the Provincial Congress and the other 
Bodys as under their Authority and Direction and not the 
Kings or mine, in short my Lord the whole Executive Power 
is Assumed by them, and the King's Governor remains little 
Else than Nominally so. I am well Informed that one Kirk- 
land in South Carolina to whom Mr. Brown (mentioned in my 
last) had apphed for Protection, on hearing of the Cruel and 
Inhuman treatment Brown met with at Augusta, Sent to the 
People of that Place, and threatened to Resent that treat- 
ment unless Some of the Ringleaders were Delivered up to 
Justice, on which its said near 200 men in that Neighbour- 
hood are gone into Carolina in Pursuit of Kirkland, and that 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 236. 


these People are in the Pay of the Council of Safety here, 
out of the £1(),()0() Steiliii}^- T wrote Your Lordship befcu-e 
they had resolved to make and Issue, this my Jjord is since 
the affair I mentioned in my former relative to Mr. Brt)wn, 
so that Your Lordship sees the f^reat and Criminal Strides 
they are making in Subversion of LaAv and th<' King's Gov- 
ernment and Establishing one of their own, and this new 
Government Seems to me to Ije on the FoUowing Plan, the 
Provincial C-ongress, a kind of Legislature in the respective 
Provinces, subject to the C(jntroul and Direction of the Con- 
tinental Congress wliic-h is the Supreme Legislature and Gov- 
erning Power, over the whole Continent. 

The ('ouncil of Safety Seems to be the Executive Branch 
in each Colony, Subject to the Provincial Congress, and the 
General and Parochial Committees Dis]>ense Law, and Exer- 
cise the Powers of the Several ('ourts, just as it seems Rhjlif 
in thi'lr oini lufcs, for how far they have any Regard to the 
true Principles of Either Law or Equity; your Lordship will 
Judge from the following case, which Avas determined two or 
three days ago only, Yi/, a Ship amved here from Senegal, 
with a Cargoe of 204 Slaves, the Ca|)tain was immediately 
ordered not to })roceeil to Town, or to Attempt to land any 
of the Negroes witlumt leave of the Committee, and he was 
then Directed to Petition the Parochial (Committee which he 
did, and Alth(mgli he had not only Law, but many Ecpiitable 
and Substantial reasons on his side, yet he was Ordered to 
depart the Port immediately on which he by Petition ap])ealed 
to the General Committee, and they Affirmed the Orders of 
the Parochial Committee, and the Captain is Compelled to 
proceed to Sea just at the E(]uinox, which may be the loss 
of the lives of imnd^ers of them as aac often have very Tem- 
pestuous weather at this Season, and indeed the Yessell and 
Cargoe may Probably be lost, and all Perish, and if not the 
Poor Creatures are so dispirited at the thoughts of l)eing 
carried to s"ea again that they are growing sickly and many 
of them will certamly dye before they can get into another 
Port. The Captam intends for St. Augustine if the weather 
permits and at best supposes the Loss to the owners will be 
near if not quite 3000 Sterling. It seems Strange My Lord 


and I cannot help lamenting that I can get no kind of Intel- 
ligence from General Gage, none since the 29tli of April, and 
many False Reports are Spread here respecting Engagements 
or Pretended Engagements always to the dishonor and 
Defeat of the King's Troops which have the worst Effect 
Possible, with the People, and I remain wholly in the Dark. 
I complained of this to General Gage and also Admiral 
Graves by letters of the 27th of Jnne, which went by His 
Majesties Ship Scorj^ion, but I have received no answers yet, 
nor have I heard any thing of the Sloop of War which Your 
Lordship long ago mentioned to have been ordered here, and 
which I also mentioned to the Admiral, in short my Lord I am 
in a most disagreeable situation. 

Since the Port has been shut up the People in the Back 
Country declare that no Process shall be Executed, as your 
Lordship will see by the Copys of Depositions now Trans- 
mitted and the General Committee sent for all the Attornies 
last Saturday and Recommended it to them not to Issue any 
more Writs or Process and told them if they did not comply, 
that they would call the Provincial Congress to compell them 
to do it, and the Attornies were to give their answer as this 

I have often wished for the Honor of a Conversation with 
Your Lordship, I could have said much that there is no 
writing and Possibly might have given some useful hints. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordship's 

most Obliged and 

most Obedient Servant 

Ja. Wright, 
The Earl of Dartmouth &c. &c. etc. 

\ Indo)•se(^ 
R 22d Nov^' 



33 SEPTEMBER 1775. 

No. 59. Savannah in Georgia the 23rd of Sepf 1775. 

My Lord, 

Oil the 17th uistant a Vessell arrived here from London, 
one Rainier on Board of which was 250 ban-ells of Gun 
Powder, great part of it I am Informed is His Majestys, 
being the Animal Present for the Indians sent out to Mr. 
Stuart the Superintendant, and the rest is the Property of 
Persons Concerned in the Indian Trade, the whole of which 
Immediately on the Ships arrival at Tybee was seized upon 
and taken out by the Liberty People here and brought up to 
town in Great Triuni])li, and is Forcibly kept from Mr. Stuart 
and the owners, who meant to send it into the Indian 
Country — and fi'om several Accounts I have lately received 
I am very Ap])rehensive it will be Impossible to satisfy the 
Creek Indians and keep them cpiiet if they are not speeelily 
supplied as usual. I am Avell inlV)rmed that the C*ouncil of 
Safety as they call themselves, give out that they have 
received an Answer to their Talk sent to the Cherokees, by 
which those Indians declare that they will have nothing to do 
with the Dispute between Great Britain and the Colony s but 
that if they do interfere at all, it shall be in behalf of the 
People here, who they know and not for the White People 
over the Great Water who they know nothing al)out. had the 
Sloop of War Your Lordshi]) mentioned so long ago, been 
sent here then, it would not have been in their power to have 
taken away any of the Gun P(jwder out of any of the Ves- 
sells, but she is not yet come, and I dont hear of a Ship of 
War on the whole Coast to the Southward of Virginia, only 
a Triffling Sloop or two, 

I can only Inform Your Lordship of Facts, which I have 
faithfully done and shall continue to do, as long as its in my 
power, What Remedy these Evils may require, is for the 

* p. R. O. Am. & W, Ind. vol. 236, 



wisdom of my Superiors to determine, l)ut I mnst l^eg leave 
to add, that from tlie situation of Affairs here, no time sh(mld 
be h)st, it is really a Wretched State to l)e left in, and what 
its impossible to submit to much longer, Government totally 
Annihilated, and Assumed by Congresses, Councils and Com- 
mittees, and the greatest Acts of Tyranny, Oppression, Gross 
Insults &c. (fee. etc. commited, and not the least means of 
Protection, Support, or even Personal Safety, and these 
almost Daily Occurences are /oo mw/i my Lord. 

And I must not Omit to Acquaint Your Lordship that we 
have no Goal or Prison of any kind that will Confine a Man 
an hour, unless loaded with Irons, had this Province (happily 
for the People) Continued in a State of Duty and Obedience 
to Government, I am Persuaded the Assend)ly would have 
Provided for Biiilding one. But since tilings have taken a 
Keverse turn it is not now to be Expected, and therefore it 
is submited to Your Lordship whether it may not be Proper 
to Empower me to order one to be Built without Delay, a 
Good and Effectual Goal will certainly lie Necessary, let 
things Terminate as they may, for even if a Conciliatory 
Plan (which is much to be wished for) should finally take 
place, I presume it will not be without Exceptions and that 
it may be thought Expedient to make some Examples. If 
one is Ordered to be Built, I think it Avould be better on 
some Part of the Common than in the Town, but in that 
case, I must Observe, that there is a Law which was Passed 
the 9th of June 1761 by which the Common is appropriated 
to Public uses, and it is declared that it shall not be aliened 
or Granted away, and which Law is still in force, and if a 
Port is ordered to he Built, it must be on some Part of the 

In the Town my Lord there is a Lot by that Law Appro- 
priated for Building a Goal upon. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordship's 

most ObHged and 

most Obedient Servant 

Ja. Wright. 


P. S. Inclosed are some Depositions 
relative to the Taking away 
the Gun Powder out of Maitland's 
Ship, which Could not be got 
Sooner, the Reason is Mentioned. 

\ InrJorsed] 

R 22nd November. 


26 September 1775. 

No. 60. 

Savannah in Georgia the 26tli of Sept^ 1775. 
My Lord, 

At the Request of Mr. Robert Smith I Transmit Your 
Lordship the Inclosed Depositions of Mr. Smith and several 
other Merchants. I have Perused the same, and many things 
therein are consistent with my own knowledge, and those 
that are not alkxjefJier so, I firmly believe to be True. 
I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordship's 

most Obhged & 

most Obedient Servant 

Ja. Wright. 
The Earl of Dartmouth &c. &c. &c. 


R 21st November. 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 236. 




14 OOTOBER 1775. 

No. 61. Savannah in Georgia the 14tli of Ocf 1775. 

My Lord, 

Since uiy last a Party of the Back t'onntry People went 
armed to a small Stockade Fort on the Ceded Lands which 
was Garrisoned by a Party of the Rangers, and Compelled 
the Commanding Officer to deliver it up to them, and they 
then Immediately Sent a Messenger Express to the Council 
of Safety here, to acquaint them what they had done, and 
receive their Directions, and those People Ordered them to 
Dehver up the Fort again to the Officer and return to their 
habitations, and it is this day reported that another Small 
Fort on those Lands, has also been taken from the Rangers 
who Garrisoned it, but this I have not yet received an 
Authentic account of, altho' I suppose it is true. 

and in short my Lord the Poison has Infected the whole 
Province, and neither Law, Government, or Regular Au- 
thority, have any AV eight or are at all attended to. 

On the 25 instant my Lord an Inquiry was made whether 
the Vessell with the Negroes (mentioned in my letter No. 58) 
was Sailed, and she having been Prevented fi'om Sailing by 
contrary winds and bad weather it was hinted by 2 of the 
General Committee that if another Applicati(^n was made, 
Possibly they might l)e Suffered to land and an application 
was accordingly made and the next day the 26th a Permit 
was sent down by the General Committee, to their Officer to 
let the Negroes l)e brought up, and on the 28th they were 
landed. Several had Dyed in the mean time, and many Were 
then unable to Stir, and the Cargo in General I Suppose one 
third less in vahie than when the Vessell arrived, and thus 
Your Lordship sees, how the Kings Port and mens Property 
are in the Absolute power of these People, Whether this 
proceeded from a Motive of Humanity or whether fi'om an 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Inrl. vol. 237. 


Apprehension of the Consequences of being hereafter Called 
to an Account, or what other Reason, I cannot Say. 

Whatever Letters Your Lordship may have thought Proper 
to write to me by the July and August Packets, Still remain 
with Lord Wm. Campbell, on board his Majesty's Sloop 
Tamer, and I Can't Say how much longer they may Continue 
there, for his Lordship Cannot send them to me, nor have 
I any method of Sending for them with Safety. I Presume 
His Majesty's Cruizer which was ordered to this Pro%dnce in 
February last, has been Employed much more for His Majesty s 
Service Elsewhere, than She could have been here in Prevent- 
ing the Gun Powder from being taken away in the manner 
Your Lordship has been Informed of, and Giving other 
Assistance which She might Probably have done. Inclosed 
your Lordship will receive one of the Congress Bills as they 
are Called, there are Many Denominations of them from 
five Pounds Downwards and each Denomination is Signed by 
Different Persons all Members of the Provincial Congi-ess, 
and who in this Instance Your Lordship Sees, Assume the 
whole and Complete Legislative Power of the three Branches. 

I am Informed that by the last Post from Charles Town a 
letter came fi'om the Continental Congress, Inclosing a Talk 
from them to all the Indians upon the Continent, it is Called 
a Peace Talk, Explaining the Nature of the Dispute between 
Great Britain and the Colonies, and desiring the Indians to 
remam quiet, that they want none of their assistance ; and 
directing the Council of Safety here, to appoint Persons to 
go amongst the Indians, and to watch the Superintendant's 
Deputys and if they find any of them Attempting to stir up 
the Indians, to seize upon them and send them to Town, to 
the Council of Safety for the Province, in which such Deputy 
may be apprehended. I have not seen this Talk, but I know 
the Council of Safety & People here, have aheady taken 
upon them to send Several Messages and Talks to the 
Indians, and m Short all Powers are assumed and taken from 
the King's Governors and other Otiicers. 

The General Court was held on the 10th instant when Ten 
of the Jurors refused to be sworn, and some of them behaved 
very Insolently and the next day three more of them also 


refused to be sworn, as Your Lordship will see by the 
Inclosed Copys of the Orders of Court, smd on w^hich occasion 
the Chief Justice I am Informed behaved extremely well and 
spoke in a very Spirited and Proper manner, all the Assistant 
Judges were absent as they frequently are, indeed Mr. Jones 
is extremely ill, and had the others been present their Cast is 
such that the Chief Justice could have expected no Assistance 
fi'om them. 

There was Intention to have Prevented the Court from 
sitting or doing any Business at all, but it did not take effect 
then, and really my Lord there is hardly a shadow of Gov- 
ernment remaining. I wi-ote Your Lordship before in what 
manner the Command of the Militia was Wrested fi'om me, 
they have not yet attempted to obstnict the Court of 
Chancery, but Except that, I have scarce any Power left, but 
Proving Wills and Granting Letters of Administration. 

With Great Deference to Your Lordship surely its Impos- 
sible that these things can be Suffered to Continue, or that 
any Gentleman can Submit to them, and I Presume full and 
Clear Instructions wiU be sent what course to take in every 
respect, to reduce this Province and People to Due Obediance 
to the King's Authority, Law and Government. 
I have the Honor to be 

My Lord, Your Lordship's 
most ObUged and 

most Obedient Humble Servant 

Ja. Wright. 

P. S. My Lord last week Mr. Clement Martin one of the 
Council dyed, so that if Mr. Elliot's Seat is not vacant, there 
is now a Vacancy for Mr. Tattnall if Y'our Lordship ajjproves 
of him. 


R 8 February 1776. 

218 T-T:TTr,n« from str .tamks wrtgiit. 


1 NOVKMHEIJ 1775. 

No. 62. Savannah in Georgia the 1st of Nov'' 1775. 

My Lord, 

My last letter to Yoiir Lordship No. 61, having been sent 
by a Friend by way of Charles Town, and it bemp; Doubtfull 
whether he may be able to get it safely pnt on board the 
Packet or otl^er Vessell, I now Inclose Yonr Lordship a Copy 
of it. Since which things have reniain'd tolerably quiet in 
this Town, but the People in the Back Parts of the Province, 
following the Example of others, are forming Cabals, and 
setting up for themselves ; they give out, that there is a new 
Government now, and that no Applicati(m is to be made to 
me, but to the Council of Safety, and I am Informed that a 
Party of about 30 men, are gone out against an Indian Town 
on the Oak-Mulgee River, they say that those Indians have 
Stoln several Horses from them, and they are gone to obtain 
restitution, or satisfaction, and that if the Indians do not 
give it, or resist, they will kill them : and if any such thing 
should happen, I apprehend that, with the InteiTupticm given 
to the Trade by the last Congress and Committees, will most 
probably Involve us in a War Avith the Indians, so that Your 
Lordship sees we are in a Wofull Plight every way. 

I Inclose your Lordship a Copy of a Talk I lately received 
from the Creek Indians and had one nnich to the same Pur- 
pose from the Cherokees and my letters from Mr. Taitt and 
others all agree that if the Indians are not Immediately sup- 
plied with Anmiunition, and the Trade opened as usual, it 
will be Impossible to restrain them, on which I Judged it 
highly Expedient that the Committee People who are 
Possessed of all the Powder and Ball in the Province should 
know what Accounts I received and sent for 2 of them as 
Private Persons and Acquainted them fully of all my Intelli- 
gence, in the presence of Messrs. Graham and Johnstone 2 

* p. R. O. Am. \- W. Iiid. vol. 2:t7. 


of His Maj*^'" Council, and they said tliey were very Clearly 
of opinion with me, that the Indians ought to be Supplied 
with Ammunition, and the Trade go on as usual, and that 
there is a Necessity for it and I have heard, but Can't say 
with Certainty that it will be so. 

Ten days ago I had an account of the Death of Mr. Hab- 
ersham one of His Maj*^'^ Council and Secretary of this 
Province and I have Appointed Mr. John Hume to be Secre- 
tary, he is a relation of mine, a firm fiiend to Government 
and a Person that Mr. Knox has some knowledge of. I well 
know my Lord that aU Officers in this Province, have always 
been appointed by the Crown, Except the Treasurer, but my 
Lord I hope I may not be thought to mention it from selfish 
views, when I say that I Conceive it will be found Necessary 
to give the Governors more Influence than ever they had, and 
I dont know any way it can be easier and more Effectually 
done, than by permitting them to appoint or recommend 
Gentlemen who are Ei'iends to Government to fill up all 
Offices, as they become Vacant, and I the rather hope your 
Lordship will Consider this as Proceeding from a Zeal for his 
Majesty's Service, when Your Lordship is Pleased to Recollect 
that I have requested his Maj*'"'^ leave to Resign the Govern- 
ment and therefore cannot Expect to continue much longer 
here, and for the Yacancys in the Council, I would beg leave 
to recommend Josiah TattnaU, Sir Patrick Houston (was it 
not for the distance he lives from Savannah) Lachlan 
McGillivray and Charles Wm. Mackinen, these are Gentlemen 
who I think are all Proper Persons to be of the Council. 

The Inclosed Copy of a Dissent I Transmit to your Lord- 
ship at the request of Several of the Gentlemen who have 
Signed it, and who wish to be known to be Friends to Gov- 
ernment, and Good Order. My letters from your Lordship 
by the July and August Packets, and also by the September 
Packet, if she is arrived, still remain with Lord Wm. Camp- 
bell on Board the Sloop of War in RebelHon Road, near 
Charles Town. The new Provincial Congress is to meet here 
on the 16tli inst. and whether any new or violent Resolutions 
may be then Entered into, I cannot Judge, but whatever they 
may be, I shall acquaint Your Lordship therewith as soon as 
they are made Public. 


I have the Honor to ])e with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordshiji's 
most Obhged and 

most Obedient Himi*'^" Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Earl of Dartmouth &c. See. &. 

P. S. 3d of Nov. Last night Mr. Jones one of the Council 
and Treasurer of this Province Dyed, and I intend to appoint 
Lewis Johnston to Succeed him as Treasurer, and hope your 
Lordship Avill have no Objection to his (-ontinuing in that 
Office, he is a worthy Man, a Staunch Friend to Government, 
and has a very numerous Family. Mr. Knox knows him. 

J. W. 
\ Tudor sed] 
E 29th February 1776. 


3 NOVEMBEE 1775. 

Savanah in Georgia the 3rd of Nov. 1775. 
My Lords, 

Since I did my self the Honor to write to your Lordships 
last, Mr. James Habersliam, Mr. Clement Martin and Mr. 
Noble Jones, three of His Majesty's Council of this Province, 
have dyed, and Mr. Grey Elliott being in England on Leave 
of absence, as mentioned m my last, there now remains here 
only James Mackay, James Edward Powell, John Graham, 
Lewis Johnson, James Eead, Henry Yonge, Anthony Stokes 
and James Hume. 

I have the Honor to be with great Truth and Eegard, 
My Lords Your Lordships 
most obliged and obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. S^. 


The Eight Honorable 

Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations. 

Bead March 5, 1776. 



16 Nov. 1775. 

No. 63. Savannah in Georgia the 16th of Nov'"- 1775. 

My Lord, 

Your Lordship's letter of the 5th of July No. 21, 1 did not 
receive till the 7th mst. Lord William Campbell sent it to a 
Friend of mine in Charles Town who had no safe opportunity 
of forwarding it before and it gives me great concern, that 
Your Lordship would so soon after the date of that, receive 
accounts that at length the People here had broke out, and 
adopted many of the same measures that our Neighbours had 
done before and that all my Letters to your Lordship from 
the beginning of June, have been filled with accounts of 
Criminal Facts and Oftences, Committed fi-om time to time 
since then. This, My Lord, I saw Coming on Suddenly, and 
Swiftly, fi-om the Moment the Accounts came of the first 
Skirmish near Boston on the 19th of April. 

I observe what your Lordship is Pleas'd to Mention with 
respect to His Majesty's firm Eesolution that the most vigor- 
ous Efforts Should be made both by Sea and Land, to reduce 
his Eebellious Subjects to Obedience, and of the Squadi-ons 
to be Stationed at the Difi'erent Places Mentioned. But My 
Lord its much to be lamented that these Operations did not 
take Place Sooner, and that a more formidable Force, was 

* p. B. O, Aui. k W. Incl. vol. 237, 


not sent at first, for time has been Given to the Americans to 
unite more firmly, and to take every advantage, and Prepare 
to oppose His Majesty's Forces, and I do not yet hear of a 
King's Sliip to the Southward. — It is gi-eat Goodness in His 
Majesty to order the Commanders of His Ships, to receive 
on Board and Protect, any of his ofticers, who may be com- 
pelled by the Violence of the People, to seek for such an 
Asylum. And which your Lordship knows long before this, 
was nnich wanted, but alas, in Some of the Colonies its too 
late, for all the King's Officers in Charles Town are Prisoners 
Already, and no body knows how soon they may be so here, 
and no Ship seen or heard of yet, although ordered last Feb- 
ruary, and the Officers and Friends of Government look upon 
themselves as deserted and Given up, & they are daily falling 
off, and taking that Course, which they think may afford 
them a Temporary degree of quietude, whereas covdd they 
have had Sufficient Protection and Support things would 
never have gone the Lengths they have, and even still, if 
Proper Succour came. Great Numbers would Face about, but 
they now begin to Despair, as its not in my Power to give 
them any Positive assurance that any such thing can be 
depended uj^on, not having had the Honor of a line from 
your Lordship since that of the 5th of July. 

I omitted to mention in my last My Lord, that a Small 
Vessell fi'om New York was seized by the Custom House 
Officers for Breach of the Laws of Trade, and Condemned 
in the Court of Admiralty, the Register was Lodged in the 
Custom House, and a great number of the Committee People 
After demanding it and beeing refused, went to the Custom 
House and Broke open Several Locks and after Searching a 
good while for it and not finding it, the Officers for their o\\ti 
Safety thought it most Prudent to deliver it up, and it was 
given back to the Master, who Immediately went off with the 
Yessell, there beeing nothing here to Stop her. but for your 
Lordship's more Particular Information I enclose two Affi- 
davits, and have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord 

Your Lordships most Obliged 

and obedient Servant 

Ja. Wright, 


P. S. In my last I acquainted Your Lordsliip with the 
Death of Mr. Habersham, and that I had appointed Mr. 
John Hume Secretary, also with the death of Mr. Jones, and 
that I intended to Appoint Mr. Lewis Johnson Treasurer, 
and which I have since done. I also recommended these 
Gentlemen to your Lordships Favour, and Mentioned the 
Necessity of more Lifiuence being put into the Hands of 
Govern(n"s than heretofore. Mr. Knox knows both these 
Gentl" and can Satisfy any Liquiries your Lordship may be 
Pleased to make. 

and for the Vacanc3's in the Council, I begged Leave to 
recommend Josiali Tattnall, Sir P. Houston (were it not for 
the distance he Uves from Savannah) Lachlan McGillwray, 
and Charles William MacKinen, as Proper Persons. 

[Indoised \ 

E 6th February. 



9 December 1775. 

No. 64. Savannah in Georgia the 9th of Dec""- 1775. 

My Lokd. 

As I mentioned in n former letter the Provincial Congress 
met here on the 16th ult & have Sat every day since. 

The first Material thing that was Published was on the 
30th of Nov'- when with an intention to shut up the Coiu'ts 
of Justice, a Eesolve of which the inclosed is a Copy was 
sent round to all the Attornies at Law, and on Tuesday the 
5tli inst. an Edict a printed Copy of which is Inclosed, was 
served on all the Attornies, and Mr. Hume the Attorney 
General not Paying obedience to the said Mandate, was on 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. lua. vol. 237. 


the Gtli Inst, served Avitli an Order to attend the Congress, a 
Copy whereof is also Inclosed, and on not attending a War- 
rant was Issued agamst him, and he was Apprehended and 
Carried before them, when not acknowledging or submitting 
to their Authority, he was dismissed, and it was some time 
Debated whether he should not be dehvered over to the Mob, 
to be, I Presume, Torn to Peices. however at length as a 
matter of Great Humanity and Tenderness, they condescend- 
ed to order him out of the Province within a Month, a Copy 
of which order Your Lordship will also receive Inclosed. 
And on the 5tli inst. the Chief Justice having declared from 
the Bench, that if any Client complained to the Court, that 
his Attorney delayed his Cause, under Pretence of the Reso- 
lution of the People who Call themselves a Congress, and 
Proved such Complaint he would Strike such Delinquent 
Attorney off the Roll, and Complaint being made to the 
Congress against him, on the 6th inst. he was served with a 
Resolve of the Congress a Copy of which your Lordship has 
also Inclosed, with the Chief Justices letter to me on that 
occasion, and thus your Lordship sees the Distress the Kings 
Officers and friends of Government are drove to in this 
Province, and no Ship of War or any Protection afforded as 
yet, and I am really of opinion my Lord that if no Support 
or Protection conies here very soon, that every officer and 
friend of Government will either be forced out of the Prov- 
ince, or must submit to worse fate, and it is confidently 
reported & I beheve it to be truth, that the Continental Con- 
gress ha» ordered 3000 men to be Immediately Raised, 2000 
to assist the Carolinians against any of his Majesty's Troops, 
when any come there, and 1000 to be sent here ; so that we 
shall be in a fine sitiiation, unless assistance should happily 
come before. 

Your Lordship will Probably have heard that about 5 
weeks ago, a Party was sent by the Liberty People in Charles 
Town, to seize on one Cunyngham an Active Militia Officer 
in the Back Parts of South Carolina, that they actually did 
so, and took him out of his own House, and ('arried him to 
Charles Town, where he was by the Committee committed 
to Close Confinement, without Pen, Ink, Paper, <S:c. and on 


this being known in the Country, a Brother of Cunyngliani's 
raised a Considerable Party of Men and Seized upon about 
1000 weight of Gun Powder and 3000 weight of Bullets 
which was carrpng in some Waggons under an Escort, some 
say as a Present to the Cherokee Indians <t some say to be 
distributed amongst the Back Country Liberty People, how- 
ever upon the Account of this Reaching Charles Town, a 
Coll. Thompson with his Regiment of Rangers in the Caro- 
lina Pay, was sent out, and orders to the Militia Colonels to 
Raise and Draft the Mihtia, and Proceed to take Cunyngham 
and the leaders of his Party, and bring them to Charles 
Town, but before Thompson got there Cunyngham who it is 
said had raised at least 1200 <fe some say 2000 Men, who call 
themselves Royalists, had Marched against and attacked a 
Major Williamson of the Liberty Party in a Fort at Ninety 
Six. It is said the Attack beg*un on Saturday Night the 25 
Ult and Lasted till Tuesday Night following, when William- 
son«was obliged to Surrender. I wall not attempt to say on 
what terms or Conditions, as the Reports ar Various, this 
Cu"cumstance w^ere there any Kings Troops in Front, might 
Prove very Fortunate, and be attended with the best Conse- 
quences. But my Lord as they can have no Eifectual Sujd- 
port, I fear they will at length be overpowered. What Great 
Pity it is that none of his Majesty's Troops are yet arrived 
in South Carolina, for I am clear that there would be a very 
PowerfuU Division in that Province, but I apprehend that 
may be weakened and prevented, before any thing gets there 
to support or cooperate, and here my Lord we are in the 
Same Predicament, with respect to South Carolina, I doubt 
not but your Lordship will be ver}^ circumstantially Informed 
by Lord AVm. Campbell, but as I know^ the Situation his 
Lordship is in, and that Probably he may not have an oppor- 
tunity of Writing or Conveying intelligence, I have Just 
Mentioned the Accounts received here, which Possibly may 
not be Exactly the Case. I have the Honor to be with Per- 
fect Esteem 

My Lord Your Lordships 
most obhged and most obedient humble Servant 

Ja. Wright. 



P. S. lltli Decoiulxu- On Saturday Ni^bt the Provincial 
Congress after settling a Council of Safety and General 
Com''' Broke up. The Parochial C/oni"' Avas fixed before, and 
thus the New Government is Again Estabbsbed. 

The most Material Transactions of the Provincial C^ongress, 
were AVhat I have Mentioned relative to the Courts, and some 
Kegulations of the Militia, but I Can't yet Learn the Partic- 
ulars, as they Endeavour to keep every thing as Secret as 
Possible, and I am Informed the last Resolve, is to Abide by, 
and Enforce Whatever the Continental Congress may agree 
upon or order. The Report of 1000 Men Coming here, Gains 
Credit and its Said they are Expected in January. 

J. W. 
\ Luloysed] 
R 6th February. 


11 I)K<^E\nsKjj 177'). 

No. G5. Savannah in Georgia, the llth'of December 1775. 

My Lord, 

Having already wrote Your Lordship very fully b}^ this 
Conveyance in my letters No. 63 & 64, to which I begg leave 
to refer, I have noAv only to Acquauit your Lordship that two 
days ago, I had the Hcmor to receive the Duplicate of y(mr 
Lordships letter of the Stu'ond of August ( 'overing the Leave 
of Absence which His Majesty has been Most Graciously 
Pleased to grant me, and of which I retain a Gratefull Sense, 
and return Your Lordship my best thanks. I observe your 
Lordship received my Letters of the '25th of May, 9th, 17tli 
«t 20th of June, Avrote Just at the l)eginning of (mr Trans- 
gressions. No Ship of War is y(^t arrived. The Contents of 

* p. K. O. Am, & W. lud, vol, 237, 


your Lordships letter I have not as yet Commuiiicated to any 
Body but Mr. Graham and for Many Reasons we have Con- 
chided to take no Notice of it, for some time, Especially as 
the Originals are not yet come to Hand, but as I had 
Mentioned my having Wrote for leave to return to England, 
I find all the Kings Officers and Friends to Government write 
for my Continuance Amongst them, and I am well Informed 
and have been told by Several of the Liberty People That 
they in General Express great Concern and Uneasiness at 
My Intention of Leaving the Province at Present, at the Same 
time many on both sides think I might be of more Service in 
England than here. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordship's 

most obliged and Obed* Servant 

Ja. Wright. 

The Earl of Dartmouth &c. &c. etc. 
E. 6th February. 


19 December 1775. 

No. 66. Savannah in Georgia the 19th of December 1775. 

My Lord, 

Since my last two of the People who went fi'oni hence as 
Delegates, are returned, and it is Said they have brought 
Blank Commissions fi-om the Continental Congress, to be 
filled up by the Council of Safety here, to Officers for a Regi- 
ment of what they CaU Provincials, which is to be Raised 
for this Province, to Consist of Eight Companys of 75 
Privates — Say 600 Rank and file in a Regiment, and if they 
Cant find men Enough in this Province for those that are to 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 237. 


be here, then tliey are to l)e Corni)leted fi-oiii Nortli Carolina 
and Virginia, and tliree Eegiuients are to be Raised in tlie 
Same way for S" (^arolina, these are the Last Accounts and 
I beHeve Tnie. — and thus your Lordship Sees they are Pre- 
j)arin<2; tlioughout, to Support their I'^surped Powers?, and to 
resist the Kings Troops, When any may be Sent. — and as 
I apprehend that Lord AVm. Campl^ell may not have any 
opp(ntunity of ATriting to your Lordship, I tliink it my Duty 
to Mention this, and also to Acquaint Your Lordship that 
I am Avell Informed fi-om a Gentleman of undoubted Veracity 
and a Friend to Government in S" Carolina, that when their 
Provincial Congress Meets on the first of February next their 
Principal business then Avill be to Form a Constitution and 
to Elect a Governor and all other Officers, but whether this 
is in Virtiie of Orders from the Continental CongTess or not, 
he could not Learn, if it be, I Presume it may be General, 
and even if it be not a General Regulation, Yet if Such a 
thing be done in Carolina, AVhat the (consequence of Such a 
Precedent may be Elsewhere, I will not take upon me to Say. 

In this Province my Lord Ave are more unhappily Cu'cum- 
stanced, than in any other, for there are very few, Men of 
real Abilities, Gentlemen or Men of Pr(jperty in their 

The Parochial Committee are a Parcel of the Lowest 
People Chiefly Carpenters, Shoemakers, Blacksmiths etc with 
a Few at their Head in the General Committee and Council 
of Safety, there are Some better Sort of Men and Some Mer- 
chants and Planters but many of the Inferior Class, and it is 
really Terrible my Lord that Such People Should be Suffered 
to Overturn the Civil Government and most arbitrarily deter- 
mine upon, and Sport with Other Mens Lives Libertys and 

I doubt not but your Lordship will most Sensibly feel the 
Situation we are in, and that we Shall not remain much 
Longer in this Distressfull Condition. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem, 
My Lord, Y'^our Lordships 

most Obliged and Obed* Serv* 
The Earl of DartmoiTth &c. &c. &c, Ja, Wright 


P. S. I must Humbly request that 

this letter may not be published. 
No King's Ship Arrived here yet. 

[ I)i(J()i:se<J] 

E 6th February. 



3 January 177(5. 

Savanah in Georgia the 3d of January 1775. 

My Good Lord, 

Mr. Hume the Attorney General will have the Honor to 
deliver this to your Lordship, he is a Nephew of mine, and a 
Young Man of Great Veracity, also one of His Majesty's 
Council, has been Privy to every Transaction here, and on 
whose Information in every Respect your Lordship may 
intirely rely. Since the return of two of the Delegates it is 
said as soon as their Regiment is raised, they will Levy a 
Tax of £50,000 Sterling on the Inhabitants of this Province, 
it being their Quota of the General Continental Expence 
already hicurred, and that if any refuse to pay their Propor- 
tion they will seize on their Estate and sell them for any 
thing they will fetch, this is Pulilickly Declared and if they are 
Determined to do it, I dont see how it wdll be possible to 
prevent them. 

They Say that now they have gone so far, that neither 
Fortune or Lives are to be regarded, and that they wiU go 
every Length, but still if we had Proper Support and Assist- 
ance, I think Numbers would Join the Kings Standard, but 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. 237. 

230 LEWErS Prom sir jaME!^ wrigRT. 

no Troops, no Money, no Orders, or Instructions and a Wild 
Multitude gathering fast, what can any Man do in such a 
Situation? no Arms, no Ammunition, not so much as a Ship 
of War of any kind and the Neighbouring Province at the 
same time threatning Vengeance against the Friends of Gov- 
ernment and to Send 1000 Men to assist the Liberty People, 
if they want Assistance, all these things My Lord are really 
too inncji. they have also Publickly Declared that every Man 
shall sign the Association or leave the Province, that is 
private Persons, But that no Kings Officer shall be Suffer'd 
to go, they will take care to Prevent any of the in horn stirring. 

Surely My Lord His Majesty's Officers and Dutiful! & 
Loyal Subjects will not be Suffered to remain under such 
Cruel Tyranny and Oppression. Altho' I write this as a 
Private letter, I mean it for Your Lordships Public Informa- 
tion, tho' not to be Published ; but made use of as Your 
Lordship may see fit, and some things I have not Chose to 
Commit to writing but have desired Mr. Hume to Communi- 
cate them. 

I must not omit to Acquaint your Lordship that early in 
July Lord Wm. Campbell sent a Messenger here, to let me 
know he was going to dispatch the Scorpion Sloop of War to 
Boston, and that if I had any letters, he would forward them 
with his own, and I supposing it to be an intire safe oppor- 
tunity, wrote to the General and Admiral, Copys of which I 
sent Your Lordship some time ago. But the Messenger 
proved a Villain, and Carried my Packet to the Committee, 
instead of Lord Wm. and they opened my letters and kept 
them, and wrote others in my name, of a quite different 
Import, this I have but very lately Discovered but is Cer- 
tainly fact. I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem, 

My Lord 

Your Lordships 

most Obliged and 

Obedient Servant 

Ja. Wright. 
The Earl of Dartmouth &c. etc. &c. 


R 14th March. 



3 .Jani'ahy 1776. 

No. 67. Savannah in Georgia the 3(1 of JanuaiT 1776, 

My Lord, 

I wrote jour Lordship fully on the State of Affairs in this 
Province of the l»th llth X- 19th Ult. Nos. 64, ()5 & 66 by a 
Yessell which saild from hence the 24th Ult. the C'ontents of 
all which I now Confirm, the Americans my Lord Elate with 
Success, and having met with what they call no Opposition, 
tho they have been Declared Rebels by Parliament 12 
Months ago, now Say Great Britain Cainiot reduce them, 
and that if their Towns Ac. are Destroyed cV tliey Obliged to 
retire Back, they will tyre out Great Britain ; and She must 
be Ruined with them, that they will be Safe in the Back 
Country, being now sure of the Canadians and all the 
Indians. I Inclose your Lordship some Papers in which you 
will see something of the Proceedings and Sjiirit of the 
People here, but as Mr. Hume the Attorney General mentioned 
in my Letter No. 64 goes in the Vessell I now Write by, 
I have less Occasion to be Particular, as he will be able to 
give your Lordship a Circumstantial Account and to answer 
any Inquiries your Lordship may think Proper to make. 
I have the Honor to be Avith Perfect Esteem, My Lord, Your 

most Obliged and Obedient Servant 

Ja. Wright. 
The Earl of Dartmouth Arc. A-e. &c. 


R 29th Februarv. 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. 237. 



26 Makcii 1776. 

No. 3. On Board His Majesty's Ship Scarborogh 

AT CocKSPUR 26th March 1776. 
My Lord, 

At the request of Mr. Graham, One of the Council of this 
Province, I take the Liberty to acquaint your Lordship That 
by the burning of the Ship Inverness by the Rebels (in order 
as I aprehend to prevent the Ship & Cargo from falling into 
the hands of the Kmgs Officers) he has suffered an exceed- 
ino- oxeat Loss, the particular causes & reasons of this 
Mischief, Mr. Graham has got drawn up at large and authen- 
ticated before a Notary Publick, and also the Value of his 
Effects on board — and has also got proper Certificates fi'om 
the Kmgs Officers who were upon the Service of getting the 
Rice, fi'oni before the Town as mentioned in my last letter — 
In Justice to Mr. Graham I cannot ommit assuring Your Lord- 
ship That he is a most firm friend to Government and has 
suffered gi-eatly fi'oni the Resentment of the Rebels besides 
the above Loss, and has been under the necessity of leaving 
his Family and taking refuge here for six weeks past and is 
now in the greatest difficulty and distress imaginable, And I 
hope for Your Lordships Pardon when I Presume to mention 
Mr. Graham as a Person well deserving Countenance Protec- 
tion and Relief. 

I have the Honor to be, with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most Obed* Hble Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 

The Right Honorable Lord George Germain &c. &c. &c. 

R 11th May. 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 237. 



10 March 1776. 

On Board his Majesty's Ship Scarborough 


Province of Georgia the 10th of March 1776. 
My Lord, 

I did myself the Honor to write to Your Lordship of the 
20th of January No. 68 & of the 27th of February No. 69 
and in my last Inclosed yoiu' Lordship a Copy of a letter 
I wrote fi-om hence on the 13th of Feb'^^' to his Majesty's 
Council at Savannah, to be Published to the Congress & 
People in General, also an Answer sent by the Congress to 
the Gentlemen of the Council, and Copys of letters wrote by 
me to General Clinton on the 21st & 27th of February Con- 
taining as near as in my Power to do, a State of the Situation 
of Affairs m this Province, and to which I beg leave to refer 
your Lordship, and I am now to Acquaint your Lordship 
that Capt. Barkley who Commands the King's Ships here 
Viz : the Scarborough of 20 Guns, Tamer of 16 Guns, Chero- 
kee of 10 Guns, and the Hinchinbrook Schooner of 8 Guns, 
and Major Grant who Commands about Two Hundred of 
Light Infantry & Marines on Board two Transport Ships, 
one of which Mounts 16 Guns Determined to go up to the 
Town, with such Vessells as could be Lightened so as to be 
Carried up, in order to Endeavour to bring away Several 
Merchant Ships which had Deer Skins & Rice on board, and 
which had been detained a great while by the Rebels.— the 
intention of this Manoeuvre Your Lordship will see by a 
Copy of a letter which I wrote to three of the Gentlemen of 
the Council who happened to be down here on the 1st instant ; 
which is now Inclosed with their Answer to it. this Expedi- 
tion My Lord is now over, and they are returned with 14 or 
15 Merchant Ships and Yessells of one sort or other, and 
on Board of which there is about 1600 Barrels of Rice, it 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 237. 


was atteiidtMl with veiy little Loss, I tliiiik on the Side of the 
Kings TroojiK none are hurt : only fonr Sailors wounded A: 3 
of them ve^ry Slightly, and on the part of the Rel)els I believe 
only 1 or 2 Wounded, the Rebels Burn't a Ship, a Brig A' 2 
Small Vessels tV have detained 3 or 4 more Avhich were so 
Situated that they could not be brought away, — and now my 
Lord I find myself under the necessity of giving Your Lord- 
ship a Short Sketch of the distresses this Province has l)een 
Precipitatel}- forced into, by the arrival of the Kings Shi})s A- 
Troops — the first of which came on or about the 16th of 
January, for till th(^n my Lord, tho' Labouring under the 
Tyranny & oppression of C-ongresses S:c. Src. (tc. Yet the 
Lives of the Kings Otlicers & Friends to Government did not 
appear to be in any Immediate Danger, &: they Enjoyed the 
Possession & use of their Property. Y(uir Lordship will 
Judge of the Cruel State & Situation we are reduced to, the 
Rebels Encouraged & Exulting, their Numbers in & about 
Town increased according to the best Information I can Get 
to about 800 men in arms, about 200 of their Regiment or 
Battalion already Inlisted and daily increasing, a Consider- 
able part of my Property seized upon and the Negroes Em- 
ployed in throwing up and making Military works in and 
about the Town, the Kings Officers and fiiends to Govern- 
ment Some seized upon and kept Prisoners and others hiding 
and obliged to desert their familys & Property to Save their 
Lives & Liberties and Some threatened to be Shot whenever 
met with, which distresses my Lord I humbly Conceive would 
not have happened, had no Kings Ships or Troops come here, 
untill their was sufficient to reduce the Rebels at once. Major 
Grant is under the necessity of returning to Boston with the 
Troops under his Command, but C!apt. Barkley has agreed to 
Stay here awhile for our Protection and to keep this Port 
from falling into the Hands of the Rebels till we hear from 
General Clinton, wdiether any assistance is like to be sent 
here by him or not, and which I am Impatieutl}' Expecting. 
The Carolinians have sent 600 of their People to reinforce 
and assist the People here, and who now are putting the 
Town in the best State of Defence and resistance which they 
Possibly can, and I am Persuaded will Oppose any Troops 


which may be sent against, or Attempt to take Possession of 
the Town, and force them from it, and tlie Carolina People 
say that if they are attack't and Drove from Charles Town 
they will come here, and join the People and make a Stand 
in this Province. If General Clinton sends Troops I shall 
think it my Duty to Continue here for some time, l)ut if none 
are to come I dont see how I can Possibly be of any Material 
Service either to His Majesty or the Province. 
I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

Most obhged and Obedient Servant 

Ja. Wright. 
The Earl of Dartmouth &c. &c. &c. 

Duplicate, the Original forwarded 

to the Earl of Dartmouth. Ja. Wright 19th March 76. 

R. 6th June. 


13 March 1776. 

On Board His Majesty's Ship Scarborough 
Duplicate. at Cockspur in the River Savanah in the 

Province of Georgia the 13 of March 1776. 
My Lord, 

This Day I had the Honor to receive Your Lordships Cir- 
cular Letter of the 10th of Novem'" last, Notifying that his 
Majesty has been Graciously Pleased to Appoint your Lord- 
ship to be one of his Principal Secretaries of State & to 
commit to your Lordships care the Dispatch of such business 
as relates to his Majestys Colonies, and Directmg me to 
address My Dispatches in future to your Lordship. 

* p. R. O. Am. k W. Ind. vol. 237. 


I beg 3'onr Lordship will be Pleased to ])eriiiit me to offer 
you my very Sincere Congratulations on tliis Most Dis- 
tinguished Mark of his Majesty's lioyal Favor, and to assure 
your Lordship that I shall Punctually obey, and to the 
utmost of My Power Execute any Conmiands I may receive 
& have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most Obedient Humble Servant 

J A. Wright. 
The Right Honorable 

Lord George Germain <Src. <tc. &c. 

\ Indorsed] 

11 6th June. 

(Dup — Orig' not reced.) 


14 Mahch 1776. 

On Board his Majesty's Ship Scarborough 
Duplicate at Cockspur in the River of Savannah, in the 

Province of Georgia the 14 of March 1776. 
My Lord, 

Yesterday I had the Honor to receive Your Lordships 
Circular Letter of the 23 of Dec. Last, with the Act of Par- 
liament for Prohibiting all Trade & intercourse with the 
Colonies therein Mentioned, and Your Lordship may have 
the firmest relj^ance that I shall to the utmost of my Power 
Promote the Execution of the Same, but alas, what can be 
done in a Province in arms S: Rebellion almost throughout, 
and wdiere they have Drove away their Governor and Many 
Kings Officers, and have now Several others Confined Close 
Prisoners, — and things have gone to such a Length, that 

* p. R. O. Aiu. A: W. lud. vol. 237. 


I cannot noir See any Probability, nor do I expect that any 
acts of benevolence by his Majesty, or the Parliament, will 
l)e Regarded or have any Effect, Untill Accompanied with a 
Sufficient Force to Rediice the Rebels. 

I shall Certainly Give every assistance Sc information I 
Possibly can, to the Commissioner or Commissioners who 
may be Appointed Pursuant to the said Act of Parliament : 
But my Opinion is, that Force only can now Pave the way 
for the Good ends Proposed by the Powers intended to be 
Given to the Commissioners. 

Your Lordship will see the Present State of affairs here 
fi'om the Inclosed Letters addressed to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth <fe which have remained by me some time for want of 
an Opportunity of forwarding them. 

This Ship Proceeds to Day by Way of North Carolina & 
Virginia and I expect an Opportunity wdll offer by way of 
Boston in 3 or 4 Days by which I shall do myself the 
Pleasure to give your Lordship a Further Account of any 
thmg which may Occur. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem My Lord, 
Your Lordships 

most Obed' Hble Servant 

Ja. Wright. 

The Right Honorable Lord George Germain (fee. <fec. <fec. 

R 6th June. 
(Duphcate — Orig' not reced.) 



14 March 177(5. 

No. 1. On Board his Majesty's Ship Scarborough 

Duplicate. at Cockspur in the River Savannah in the 
Province of Georgia the 14tli of March 1776. 
My Lord, 

Your Lordships Letter of the 23rcl of Dec'"- No. 1, I had 
the honor to receive Yesterday by the Duke of Cumberland 
Packet, That fi"om Mr. Pownall of the 7th of November with 
the Sundry Papers Transmitted, is not yet come to hand, 
which gives me much Concern, as I remain Greatly in the 
Dark with respect to the Operations intended and so abso- 
lutely Necessary in the Southern Provinces. Sir Peter Parker 
with the Armament have not yet appeared on this Coast. 

I Observe what your Lordship is Pleased to Mention with 
respect to Mr. Green. 

I had on hearing of Mr. Habersham's Death appointed Mr. 
John Hume to be Secretary, and taken the Liberty to recom- 
mend him to the Earl of Dartmouth, and which Letter I pre- 
sume would come to Your Lordships Hand, but not having 
the happiness to be personally known to your Lordship I 
cannot Presume to Expect your Lordship may Condescend 
to approve of my Recommendation, yet would hope the 
reason mentioned in my letter to Lord Dartmouth might 
have Some Weight with Your Lordship & I will be Answer- 
able for Mr. Humes Loyalty & Good Conduct & 

I have the honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most Obedient Humble Servant 

Ja. Wright. 

The Right Honora])le Lord George Germain (tc. <tc. &:c. 

R 6th June. (Duplicate — Orig' not reced.) 

* V. K, O. hm. Hi. W, lua. vol, 237. 



20 March 1776. 

On Board his Majesty's Ship Scarborough 


Province of Georgia the 20th of March 1776. 

My Lord, 

I have now the houor to Transmit Your Lordship a DujjH- 
cate of a Letter of the 10 inst. the Original of which was 
Address'd to the Earl of Dartmouth, Inclosing a Copy of a 
letter I had Wrote to such of the Gentlemen of the Council 
as had taken Shelter down here, and to Mr. Stuart the Super- 
intendant, who happend to i)ut into this port, in his way to 
meet General Clinton at Cape Fear, and a Copy of wdiich 
with their Answer, and of a Letter I wrote to Capt. Barkley 
& Major Grant, on that Subject. 

I now also inclose Your Lordship CV)pys of My Letters of 
the 13tli & 14th inst. I look upon this Province My Lord, 
to be now totally under the Influence and Direction of the 
Carolina People, wdio have had Possession of the Town of 
Savanah for three Weeks past, and I am well Informed, that 
the armed People in this Province have most of them left the 
Town, and that Part of them have been throwing up Works 
at a Town or Village calld Ebenezer Situated on Savanah 
River about 26 Miles Above the Town of Savanah and the 
Carolina People Give out that if they are drove from their 
own Town they will retire into this Province & join the 
People here in making a Stand of Defence. 

We continue to be in the Greatest distress Possible and on 
the 12th inst. the Council of Safety at Savanah Published an 
Edict against all who had left the Town <fe retired on Board 
any of the Ships for Protection I have not been able to get a 
Copy of this biit two Gentlemen of Veracity who Saw S: Read 
it. Informed me it declared that all such, and those who may 
thereafter leave the Town & go on Board any of the Ships 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind, vol. 237, 


shall be deemed Enemies to the Cause of American Liberty 
& not under the Protection of the Council of Safety but Con- 
sidered as Out Lawed. 

I must Acquaint your Lordship that while the Kings Ships 
<fe Vessels were near the Town of Savanah three of the 
Rebels were seized upon, Viz Ramond Deniere, a Planter, 
one Daniel Roberts dissinting Preacher and a Lieut, in one 
of the Rebel Companys & Joseph Rice who was Employed 
by the Rebels in a Boat kept on Savanah River, in order to 
obtain Intelligence & to Prevent any Private Communication 
Between the Town & the Ships at Cockspur, in the night 
time. — and Immediately on this being known the Rebels 
seized upon James Edward Powell Anthony Stoks and 
Josiah Tattnall three of the Council and upon John Mulloyne 

Lachlan McGillwray A: AVilliam McGillwray Esq'"''- and 

Wardell and Hugh Inglis Masters of Ships, and also Seized 
upon their Ships & Cargoes, and made Strict Search for Mr. 
Graham and several others, who kept out of the way, and 
threatened to send all these Prisoners to C^ambridge in the 
Massachusetts Government, if Demere, Roberts & Rice were 
not set at Liberty, and I must beg leave also to acquaint 
Your Lordship that several Merchants & other Friends to 
Government, who were become very oljnoxious to the Rebels, 
because they would not join them & take arms against their 
King had been obliged to leave Savanah Privately & Seek 
Retuge down here. And upon the Whole, on the request of 
the Gentlemen wdio were in Confinement, it was thought ad- 
visable to agree to Liberate the three Rebels, who are none 
of them men of any Consequence, on the following Terms 
Viz that all the above named Gentlemen Should be Set at 
liberty, and return to their own houses, if they Choose it, on 
their Parole not to have any Connection with the Kings 
Ships or Troops in this Province and that the Safety of their 
Persons & Property should be secured, as far as the Present 
Council of Safety (as they are called) or any Future Council 
of Safety or Congi-ess, may have it in their Power to Protect 
them, with Liberty to such of them as may choose it, to go 
on Board tlie Ships at Cockspur & take their Apparel Pro- 
visions & any thing Else that they may think Necessary for 


their Voyage, if they are disposed to leave tlie Province, also 
upon Condition that any of the Gentlemen now down here, 
who are reputed to be Friends to Government & have not 
taken up Arms, Shall be Intitled to the same Conditions as 
are stipulated for the Gentlemen now in confinement, and 
have full Liberty to return to tlieu' Eespective homes if they 
choose so to do. 

The above terms were agreed to, Except as to Some part 
of those who had Retired to Cockspur. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

Most Obedient Humble Servant 

Ja. Wright. 

P. S. 26tli March. Yesterday an Attempt was made on 
Tybee Island, Where the Eebels Expected to find me on 
Shore, with several Oflicers and Gentlemen, but happily none 
were on Shore from the Ships, but four or five Gentlemen 
belonging to the Towai, who happened to be there, they took, 
and carried away — Some Marines were also on Shore Cutting 
wood & a Ship carpenter was there, one of which was killed 
& three AVounded so, that its thought they cannot recover, 
and they Burnt three Dwelling houses, the party is said to 
have concisted of 100 Men well armed and mostly Rifiemen, 
Dressed and painted like Indians, and it is Positively assert- 
ed that some Indians were with them. 

Things My Lord are growing worse every hour and I fear 
assistance is at a great Distance yet. the man that was killed 
they Scalp't. 

J. w. 

B 6th June. 




27 March 177(1. 

* On Board his Majesty's Ship Scarborough 
No. 4. AT CocKsruR IN Savanah Eiver in THE Prov- 

ince OF Georgia the 27th day of March 1776. 
My Lord, 

At the Earnest request of Messrs. Jackson <S: McLean, I 
have taken the Liberty to inclose Your Lordship a Copy of 
theii* Letter and Memorial to nie, and in Common justice to 
those Gentlemen, I can not Omit acquainting Your Lord Ship, 
that they have always been & now are, firm Friends to Gov- 
ernment, that they have Certainly been very Great Sufferers, 
and that I really beheve the Contents of their Memorial ; as 
far as relates to themselves, to be strictly true, as to the 
other persons, it may not be so proper for me to say. 

I must also beg Leave to observe to Your Lordship, that I 
Conceive it will be necessary, and for his Majesty's Service, 
that some trade be Carried on with the Indians, for nothing 
but that, and Presents, can Influence them, the Observation 
in the Memorial with respect to which, is Certaiidy Just, and 
whoever can do this, in the Greatest extent, I apprehend will 
stand fairest to prevail on the Indians. 

I have the Honor to be, with great deference 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most Obedient 

Humble Servant 

Ja. Wright. 

The Eight Honorable Lord George Germain Arc. &c. &c. 

I Iii(J(>r.s('<l\ 
E Gth June. 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 237, 



26 April 1776. 

No. 5. Halifax the 26tli of April 1776. 

My Lord, 

On the 21st Instant, I Arrived here in his Majesty's Sliip 
Scarborough where I had the honor to receive a Duphcate of 
a Circular Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth of the 28th 
of October 1775, also his Lordship's Circular Letter of the 
8th of November 75, also a Duplicate of Mr. Pownall's Letter 
of the 7th of November 75, inclosing Copys of Letters from 
his Lordship to Major General Howe of the 22nd of October 
and to Governor Martin of the 27th of October & 7th of 
November and to Lord Wm. Campliell of the 7th of Novem- 
ber 75 which several Letters fully disclose to me the inten- 
tion of the Armament proposed against the four Southern 
Colonies, but My Lord I am much afi-aid that Sir Peter 
Parker & the Ships under his Command are not yet arrived 
at North Carolina, at Least we have not heard that they are. 

I have already Acquainted Your Lordship with the Occa- 
sion of My Leaving Savanah & Inclosed Copys of Several 
Letters that passed between me & the Council & Captain 
Barkley & Major Grant at Cockspur also of a Letter I wrote 
to General Clinton, from which Your Lordship would see the 
state and situation of affairs in Georgia & South Carolina — 
When I left Savanah from many Accounts I had received my 
fuU Expectation was that the Kings Ships (k Troops which 
were then arrived at Tybee, were come to our rehef and 
assistance, and that I should have returned to Savanah in 48 
Hours after I left it, but I have already given your Lordship 
an account of their Errand S: my Grievous disappointment. 
it was then Concluded that the Ships in their way to Boston 
shoud call off the Entrance of Cape Fear River, that I might 
have a Conversation with General Clinton & either stay there 
or proceed to Boston according to the Plan he might have 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. 237. 


(leteriiiined u})()ii. But Avlien we came near that Inlet, the 
Aveatlier was not favourable & Difiicultjs arose. & I then 
found my Self under the Necessity of writing a Letter to 
General Clinton a Coi)y of which I now Inclose, and the St. 
Lawrence Schooner was sent to cape fear with it, & with 
orders fi'om Captain Barkley to wait till Sir Peter Parker 
Arrived, for an answer & then proceed to Boston with it. 
And when we arrived off Cape Codd, the Entrance into Bos- 
ton Bay, we met with his Majesty's Ship Milford Capt. Burr, 
who Informed us that General Howe had Evacuated Boston 
& that the whole army &, the Admiral etc. were all gone for 
Halifax, and to which place we were then under the Necessity 
of Proceeding. 

And as I now find from General Howe, that it is wholly 
uncertain whether any Troops will go to Georgia or not, I 
have determined to wait some time in hopes of hearing fi'om 
General Clinton, and if he should ^^'Yite me that he intends 
any Operations against Georgia, I shall then return there, 
but if any accident should prevent my hearing fi'om him in a 
Reasonable time or if he Acquaints me that no Operations 
are meant to be carried on against that Province, I shall then 
(under his Maj*^'*^ leave of absence) Proceed to England as I 
cannot in that case return to Georgia with safety, & if there 
cou'd not be of any kind of use to his Maj. Service or the 
Province & I am very happy to find General Howes & other 
opinions coincide with my own in this Particular. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem, 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most obliged and obedient Servant 


K 6th June. 



8 Of'T. 1T77. 

Somerset Street Sth October 1777. 
My Lord, 

Having very lately received letters of the 2fitli July from 
St. Augustine, I take the liberty of communicating to your 
Lordship, such intelligence as they contain, which comes 
from different hands, but the principal is fi'om Mr. Wm. 
Brown late acting Comptroller and Searcher at the Port of 
Savannah in Georgia, a person whose veracity is unquestion- 
able, and is in substance as follows : — 

" Soon after the Skirmish at Nassau, four hundred Recruits 
for the Georgia Battallions arrived at Savannah from North 
Carolina & Virginia, but a report prevailing there,. that they 
were soon to be employed in another attempt against East 
Florida, one half of them desei'ted and the rest were sta- 
tion'd at Fort Barrington, where the Small Pox & Measles 
carried off a great many — 

" On the appearance of some Cruizers off Tyby the Sun- 
bury Galleys were ordered to Cockspur with all the Cannon 
that could be spared from that Quarter — 

"i\.bout a hundred of the Upper Creeks were lately at 
Augusta, and enterd into a kind of Treaty with the Rebels, 
and recovered back seven of their People who were Prisoners 
at Savannah. 

"All Communication l>etween Florida & Georgia is entirely 
cutt off, and some days ago a Gang of Lidians came into 
Augustine with a Scalp but not known whether Friend or 

" They hope something is intended against South Carolina 
and Georgia next Winter and lament its not being done 
sooner — 

" Lachlan Mcintosh (the Rebel General in Georgia) is in 
confinement for killing Gwinnett — George Mcintosh (a great 
Rebel) being informed there was an intention to send him to 
the Northward to be tried for selling Provisions for the use 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. 237. 


of the Garrison at St. Augustine has absconded and a Party 
of Sc^ldiers are living at free Quarters on liis Phxntation. 

"William Mcintosh (a great Promoter of the liebellifm) 
with his Negi'oes had got over the River Altamaha (supposed 
(^n his way to Florida) but was pursued and overtaken and 
his Negroes all carried back, he esca})e(l himself, but lias not 
been heard of since, and its supposed was either in the 
Woods or had fallen into the hands of the Indians. 

" The Carolinians taking the advantage of the disputes in 
Georgia, the Death of Gwinnett, and the disgi-ace of the 
Mclntoshes, who all violently opposed the former Attempt to 
unite Georgia to Carolina, mean to revive the matter, and to 
send General Moultrie to enforce it, if they cant otherwise 
accomplish it — 

"Robert Baillie (a warm Friend of Government) is in con- 
finement at Savannah 

"Advertisements are put up throughout Georgia requiring 
aU Aljsentees to return and Appear within six Months, and 
ordering all Persons to take tlie New Sfofc Onf/is within that 
time, and those who refuse it, are to depart the Prorivcc d* 
Ameriva, and in default in either case, their Pro]>erty to be 
confiscated, and one Gentleman writes, that he should not 
be at all surprized to hear of a Revolt in Georgia. 

"A Privateer supposed to be the C-omet of Charles Town 
lately chased a Vessell into St. Augustine k appear'd again 
yesterday k accounts from Georgia mention that a Privateer 
from Sunburry of Ten Guns, lately took five Prizes, two of 
which were carried safe in — 

" Sulhvan's Island is now so strongly fortified that nothing 
under a Seventy Gun ship can lye before it — 

The above I beheve to be in general true and thought it 
necessary that Your Lordship should be acquainted there- 
with — and My Lord from the divisions and distracted State 
of the People and Things in Georgia, it seems the most favor- 
able opportunity of reducing that Province to his Maj*-^'^ 
Obedience — Your Lordship will be pleased to remember that 
when the Attempt was made in January last to prevail on the 
Georgians to agree to an Union with Carolina, and that the 
two Pro\inces should in future be considered as one State as 


they call it Mr. Diayton threw out, that it was in the Power 
of Carolina to cimipt'l Georgia to submit — on which if they 
had not immediately decamped, he and his Colleagues would 
have been Tarred & Feather'd — and many of the Pi-incipal 
Inhabitants then declared that if force was used by Caro- 
lina — they would send to Cloy. Tonyn for assistance (fe submit 
to Great Britain rather than to the Proyince of Carolina — 
and now your Lordship sees that the Carolinians taking the 
advantage of the weakness of the Georgians occasioned by 
their Divisions, are renewing that scheme and with an inten- 
tion to carry their Point by Force. 

From all which there seems to be a Probability that the 
People in general may be disposed to return to their Alle- 
giance, especially if they had any Assistance and a proper 
person to apply to — -and having had a fidl conversation with 
Mr. Graham on this subject, he is very -willing to return to 
America in order to be in the way to obtain siTch intelligence 
as can be depended upon of the true state of afltairs in 
Georgia, and if he goes first to Penzacola & horn thence to 
St. Augustine he will by that means have an Opj^ortunity 
of seeing Mr. Stuart and of having a full and clear state of 
the disposition of the Indians and of knowing what assist- 
ance is to be expected fi"om him and what number of them 
or others he may have it in his Power to Lead or send into 
Georgia or South Carolina if necessary. 

And if it should unfortunately happen that Sir Wm. Howe 
cannot send a sufficient force next Winter to reduce So. Car- 
olina and Georgia, yet if there should be a disposition in the 
Inhabitants of Georgia in general to shake off the Tyranny 
of the Kebel Powers and submit to His Maj. authority in 
such case a small Force added to what may be spared from 
the Garrison of St. Augustine and raised within the Province 
of Georgia — together with such Indians and others as Mr. 
Stuart may be able to carry or send — there is great reason 
to Conclude that the Province of Georgia might be recovered 
fi-om the Rebels — and reduced to His Maj*''^ obedience — But 
in order to hold it against So. Carolina — it wiU be necessary 
that a Twenty Gun Ship or a Frigate be station'd at Cock- 
spur near Tyby — Two Sloops of War in Savannah River and 


one at Siiiibury — And as some works must be constructed at 
Savannah an Engineer and some Cannon & Ordnance Stores 
ttc small arms, Amnninition &c. for such of the Inhabitants 
as may be willing to arm in support of Government and their 
Liberties — and also such as may be raised there will be 
necessary to be furnished — and if these Matters are approved 
oif, I would also propose to go out myself and join in the 
ITndertaking having i)roper Instnictions and authorities given 
me for that purpose. 

I beg leave to congratulate Your Lordship on the very 
agreeable accounts received yesterday which lay a foundation 
for expecting great and decisive Events, and what I cannot 
doubt but Your Lordship will very soon have a Contirma- 
tion of 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 

My Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged and olx'dicnt Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 

I Iitilorsvd] 

R same day. 


G .Ian'uaky 1779. 

Somerset Street 6tli of January 1779. 
My Lord, 

I have taken the Liberty to Inclose Your Lordship a 
Memorial fi-om myself and Some other Gentlemen who Hum- 
l)ly hope Your Lordship will be Pleased to Approve of it, and 
to give the Necessary Orders for the Protection of their 
Property, and Relief in the Premises. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordshii)s 
most Obliged 

and Obedient Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 

The Right Honorable Lord George Germain &c kc &c 

* p. R. O. Am. & VV. lud. vol. 237. 


[In Sir James Wright's of 6tli January 1779.] 

To the Eight Honorable Lord George Germain His 
Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for North America, &c. 

The Memorial of Sir James Wright, Bart. Governor of the 
Province of Georgia and several other Gentlemen late In- 
habitants of that Province and others who have Property 


That several of Your Memorialists who were Officers of 
the Crown in the Province aforesaid on account of their Zeal 
for the Supj)ort of His Majesty's Authority & Government 
there, and for the active part they took in Opposition to the 
Rebellion, when it first broke out, rendered themselves 
obnoxious to the Rebels, and have smce at different times 
been under the Necessity of quitting that Province and 
leaving their Property which is very Considerable behind 
them at the Mercy of the Rebels. 

That in March last the Rebel Powers there pass'd a Bill of 
Attainder against Your Memorialists and many others by 
which they are adjudged Guilty of High Treason against the 
State of Georgia m adhering (as they call itj to and giving 
Aid and Comfort to their Enemies His Majesty and His Loyal 

That Your Memorialists are subjected to the Pains of 
Death if they return to that Province and all their Lands 
Negi'o's and Estates were by the said Law Confiscated and 
declared forfeited to the use of the State of Georgia and 
were Ordered to be sold in October last. 

That Your Memorialists understand a Body of His Maj- 
estys Troops are sent to the Province of Georgia aforesaid 
in Order to reduce the Rebels there to His Majesty's Obedi- 
ence which gives them the gi'eatest satisfaction, as they have 
not the least doubt of the success of His Majesty's Arms 
against that Province ; nor but that the same being subdued 
and held will prove an Asylum for such of His Majesty's 
Subjects in the Adjacent Provinces as still retain their 
Loyalty, and that when it is clearly known Georgia is to be 


liekl, Siu'li Numbers will resort thereto and join His Majesty's 
Standard as will greatly Facilitate the Keduction of the 
Province of South Carolina, a matter it is Humbly Conceived 
of the utmost importance to Great Britain and towards 
Crashing the S]urit of the Kebellion in General in America. 
That Your Memorialists Apprehend on His Majesty's 
Troops taking Possession of Georgia, great Numbers of 
Negro's, as well belonging to Your Memorialists as to the 
Kebels, will endeavour to join the King's Troops in Exi)ecta- 
tion of being declared and made fi'ee and of getting off the 
Province in the Shipping ; this Your Memoriahsts have the 
greatest reason to believe will be the case, because in March 
1776 when Your Memorialist Sir James Wright and some 
other of Y''our Memorialists, had taken refuge on board his 
Majesty's Ship Scarbro' at Cockspur in Georgia there came 
there at different times betwixt two and three hundred 
NegToes who sayd "they were come for the King" and that 
when the King's Ship Transports and several Merchant Ships 
which were then there sail'd from thence all the said Negi-oes 
dispersed themselves on board the Transports and Merchant 
Ships and Avere carryd away in the same and totally lost to 
their 0\\aiers. 

Wlierefore Your Memorialists (being very great Sufferers 
as Your Lordship well knows) Hum1)ly pray that directions 
may be sent to the Officers commanding His Majesty's Troops 
and Navy in the Province of Georgia that all such Negi'oes 
as belong to any of them or to other known Friends to Gov- 
ernment, which may go over to the Army or on Board any of 
the Ships ; may be taken care of for the use and l)enefit of the 
several Owners, and that they may on I'cquest be delivered 
back to their Lawful Attorneys, and that Orders may be 
given to the Masters of Transport Sliij^s if any such Negroes 
should go on Board their Vessells, that they shall not con- 
ceal, detain or attempt to carry them away but deliver them 
up to the Attorneys of the Owners of the said Negroes And 
Your Memorialsts further hope, as they have already suft'ered 
extremely by the Rebels that directions may also be given to 
the Commanding Officer, to prevent as farr as possible, any 
injury or damage being done by the Army to any of their 



All which is Humbly Submitted to Your Lordship's Con- 

Ja. Wright, 
JosiAH Tattnall, John Graham, 

Anthony Stokes, 
James Hume, 
Jam. E. Powell. 



Governor — Sir James Wright Baronet — London. 
Lieutenant Governor — John Graham Esq'' — London. 
James Mackay Esq. South Carolina. 
James Edward PoweU Esq. London, 
Grey ElUot Esq London, 
i Lewis Johnson Esq. Georgia. 

' John Stuart Esq. (Superintendant) East Florida. 
Anthony Stokes Esq. London. 
James Hume Esq. London. 
Josiah Tattnall Esq. London. 
Secretary & Register of Grants — James Thompson Esq. 

Receiver General^ — Sir Patrick Houston — Georgia. 
King's Treasurer, Lewis Johnson Esq. Georgia. 
Treasurer for the Ceded Lands — John Graham Esq. 

Clerk of the Council — ^ Alexander Wylly Esq, St. Augustine. 
Messenger — Robert Botten, Georgia. 

Door Keeper Grey, Georgia, 

Clerk of the Commons House of Assembly — William 
Stephens, South Carolina, a Rebel. 

Surveyor General, Phillip Yonge Esq'" Supposed to be in 
St. Augustine. 

* p. R. O. Am. ii W. Ind. vol. 237. 


Deinity Auditor — Grey Elliot Esq. London. 

Chief Jnstit'e — Anthony Stokes, London. 

Assistant Judges — All dead except James Deveaux who is 
in Georgia and I believe a Kebel. 

Attorney General — Charles Pryce Senior Esq. Parsons 
Green near London. 

Protempore James Hume Esq. London. 

Sen'' Joint Clerk of the Crown and Pleas — Dead. 

Jun*" Joint Clerk of the Crown and Pleas — Charles Pryce 
Jun'" Esq. Went to Georgia last year. 

Master in Chancery vacant. 

Register in Chancery — Charles Pryce jun'"- 

Judge of the Court of Vice Admiralty — James Edward 
Powell Esq. London. 

Register vacant. 

Marshal — James Whitfield in Georgia a Rebel. 

Collector of Savanah — Alexander Thompson Esq — Edin- 

Comptroller and Searcher^William Browne Es(]. St. 

Collector of Sunbury — James Kitching Esq. Haverfordwest 
Pembroke str. 

Naval Officer — Stephen Haven a youth supposed to be in 

Comptroller of Sunbury — Isaac Antrobus — Residence un- 

Commissary — George Baillie Esq. trading between Georgia 
and the Bahamas. 

Lidian Interpreter — Moses Nunes — Georgia. 

Governor's Secretary for making out Licences to Indian 
Traders— George Spencer — a Rebel. 

Harbour Master for Savanah — George Finch — lately at 

Captain of the Scout Boat — C'apt. Lightenstone, Pilot to 
Commodore Parker. 

Captain of the Ecn-t at Cockspur- James Edward Powell- 
Esq. London. 



I api)i-oliend nil of tliein, except Mr. Hume, Mr. Henry 
Yonge -Mid Mr. Robinson have taken the Oaths to the Con- 

The Names of several wlio have been driven from Georgia 
and do not hold any Office there. 

John Mullryne Esq'*^ Providence in the Bahamas. 

George Barry Esq*"® Do 

Henry Yonge jun^' Esq'' Saint Augustine. 

Phillip Moore Esq"" do 

Mr. Panton do 

Mr. Moss do 

Mr. Wood do 

Mr. Jenkins — London. 

William McGillivray Esq, a Captain in the Army on half 
Pay — London. 

Mr. Kiucard — London. 

Mr. Clark, London. 

Mr. Inglis, Scotland. 

Mr. James Johnston — West Indies. 

Mr. Joseph Parley Antigua. 

John Simpson Esq — London. 

Captain Lyford (formerly Pilot at Tybee) St. Augustine. 

Names of some Gentlemen in Georgia who are supposed to 
be East Friends to Government 
Doctor John Irwin 
Doctor Trail 
Mr. William Telfair 
Mr. James Mossman 
Mr. George Jamieson 
Mr. Robert Ried. 



31 July 1779. 

No. 1. Savanah in Georgia the 31st of July 1779. 

My Lord, 

I arriv'd here the 14th Inst, but Lieut. Col. Prevost who 
had an Appointment from the Kings Commissioners as Lieut. 
Gov' being out of Town EstabHshing a Post near Pryans 
Cow Pen about 20 Miles from Savanah I omitted to Resume 
the Government till Monday the 20 after his return to town, 
and altho I did not find the Province by any means in that 
State of Security which I expected yet as an Opinion Pre- 
vail'd that on the Establishment of that kind of Civil Gov- 
ernment which was done by Col. Campbell in March last. 
The Province and People had been restord to the Kings 
Peace & Considered themselves to be so in every respect, & 
that the restraining Act was totally set aside and disregarded 
— I say My Lord finding things thus Circumstanced I judgd 
it Proper to Publish the Kings Commissioners Proclamation 
which I had been intrusted with, in Confirmation of what 
had been done before, & in order to prevent any disputes or 

But My Lord I am sorry to be under the Necessity of 
delaying to Issue Writs of Election for some time for by the 
Expedition into S" Carolina the Possession S: hold of this 
Province has been very much interruptd weaken'd & reduc'd 
& I am inform'd by several sensible & Good Men here was in 
great danger of being totally lost, but on the Propriety of 
the Expedition & the Consequences attending it I shall not 
Presume to give any Oi)inion & as a Considerable Part of the 
Army is now Eeturn'd here I hope we are in a State of 
Safety and shall seize the very first Moment that offers for 
Issuing AVrits of Election with any degi-ee of Propriety, as 
untill that is done our Efforts to re-establish Solid Govern- 

* v. R. O. Ajii. i W. lud. vol. 237. 


ment & good order I Conceive can be but Fable. I f(jund a 
Body of about 70 Creek Indians here, who had been with 
the Army in Carolina, they did not seem to be well Pleas'd 
but I tlmik they will now go away Pretty well satisfied and 
have told me that if they are wanted at any other time, they 
will Come on notice, but as I understand the Indians are 
Considerd as in the Military Line or department I shall not 
Presume to say more than that I think those People might 
be Employ' d to great advantage. 

Inclosd is a Memorial of the Inhabitants on the Exposd 
State of Sav. River, with Gen. Prevosts <fe Sir James Wallaces 
Letters to me thereon also an Address from a No. of the 
Principal Inhabitants of Sav. with my Answer to it, but Not- 
withstanding which I find several of the Leading Rebels are 
very busy in keeping up the Exj^iriug Flame of Rebellion & 
that there are yet Many here who if they had an Opportunity 
would adhere to the Independant Scheme. I shall look with 
the utmost Anxiety and Impatience for the Troops from New 
York and hope they will be in our Neighborhood early in 
October, for till then, as the Troops that were here are so 
much Scatterd about, I shall not Consider this Province as 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most Obhged & Obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wkight. 
The Right Hon''^^ Lord George Germain 

His Maj. Principal Secretary of State for N" America Arc. 

&c. &c. 

\I7uJ0rscd I 

R. Sept. 23d. By Col. Prevost. 

Duplicate. Orig^ not rec*^- 



31 July 1779. 

No. 2. Sav. in Georgia the 31st of July 1779. 

My Lord, 

Your Lordship may Possibly Reineuiber that I had the 
Honor of a Short Conversation with you Relative to the 
Negi'oes who might Come into this Province or be brought in 
and my Lord t)n my Aiiival I found vast numbers of Negroes 
here, I am Informd & believe I may venture to say some or 
several Thousands. I found a great number had been Captur'd 
by the King's Army and br(mght in, that the Indians had 
Captur'd in Carolina & brought here upwards of 140. That 
several People had been Commissiond or Authorisd to Act as 
Volunteers without any pay or Emolument but that of Plun- 
der, who had taken up great Numbers & that a vast Many 
had Come over of themselves and I was Continually haz'd <fe 
Perplexd with Complaints & Claims for Negroes, at length 
I rec*^ a Petition in behalf of some Merchants in London on 
which I determined to endeavour to put the Matter on the 
best footing I could think of, for His Majesty's service <fe the 
Benefit of all Parties Concernd and after two Meetings & 
Consultations with the Council on this veiy Confusd & Per- 
plexd business it was resolved as Your Lordship will see by 
the Inclosd Copy of the Miinites & resolutions of myself in 
Council & to which I have the Honor to refer. How far 
these Volunteer Plundering Partys may have been really 
usefull for Intelligence or otherwise I will not take upon me 
to say but Clear I am that nothing but the Utmost Necessity 
& Utility wiU justify a Measure which Subjects aU People 
indiscriminately to the Rapine of a set of Banditti. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most Oblig'd & Obed' Serv*^ 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Honble Lord George Germain, 

Sec. of State for N° America &c <fec. 

* p. R. O. Am. & W, Ind. vol. 237. 


R. Sept. 23d. 

By Col. Prevost. 
Duplicate Orig^ not rec'^' 


1 August 1779. 


No. 3. Savanah in Georgia 1st of August 1779. 

My Lord, 

Yesterday a Party of Indians Amounting to 120 with 35 
White Men under the direction of Mr. David Holmes Ap- 
pointed by Governor Chester a Commissioner on the death 
of Mr. Stuart came to Town & as things are Circumstanced 
here at Present I think some Part of those People may be 
very usefully Employed tiU the Ai-rival of the Troops fi'om 
the Northward, & intend to have a conversation with the 
General upon the subject. 

If they were under my C-ommand or direction I should not 
hesitate a moment, but what the Generals Opinion may be I 
cant tell, as I know from Avliat he has told me, that he don't 
like Indians. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged & obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 

P. S. 3d August. The General has agreed to keep tt Em- 

* p. B. O, Am. & W. lud. vol. 237. 



ploy suc-h of the Indians as are willing to stay & he Em- 

The Eight Honorable Lord George Germain — 

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State 
for North America &c. &c. &c. 

[Indorsed \ 
R Sept. 23d. 
Duplicate Orig' not rec"^^- 


J) August 1779. 

No. 4. Savanah in Georgia, the 9th of August 1779. 

My Lord, 

The more I am able to See into the True State of Affau's 
here, the more I am Convinced of the Wretched Situation 
the Province is in tV how nearly it was being totally lost, 
while the Army was carrying on their oj)erations in South 
Carolina & now my Lord the Rebels who went fi'om hence 
into Carolina on the arrival of Colonel Campbell, with other 
Rebels of Carolina & this Province, are Possess'd of the 
Country at & about Augusta & all above it, and I have the 
Honor to Inclose your Lordship the Information I received 
fioni three Back Country People by which it appears that 
almost the whole Settlements down to Briar Creek are Broke 
up or the Inhabitants skulking about to avoid the Rebel 
Partys — and that the Rebels have Collected upwards of ()00 
men & are going to Establish a Post with them Some where 
in St. Georges Parish. 

I doubt not My Lord however l)ut this Province wiU Soon 
Raise it's head ct become more Populous & Opulent than 
ever — I have ordered an Exact Return of the Avhole Militia, 
but have not yot received it, altho' from the best Information 
I have been able to come at, I really believe they will not 

* p. U. O, Am, & W, lud, vol, aa?. 


Exceed 400 men in the Whole Province & Probably 300 
would not Appear under Arms. 

On the 4tli inst came to me Thomas Moore lately belong- 
ing to a Privateer from St. Augustine but who had been 
taken & carried to Charles Town & made his Escape from 
thence, and of him I got the Inclosed Information. 

also at the same time John & Alexander Henry from S" 
Carolina were brought to me & I now Inclose the Informa- 
tion I got from them, all which I sent to Major General 
Prevost with a letter to him on the subject. 

and with Eespect to the Indians My Lord, the General 
on a Conversation I had with him very readily agreed to 
Employ them. & on the 3d Instant I had a Talk with them 
at the Generals House, When they all agreed to Stay & go 
on any Duty or Service that might be required of them, and 
I think they have given in the Names of the Indians & the 
Towns they belong to. of about 100 who will Stay & Join the 
Army in Such Way as the General ma}^ think Proper, but I 
am Sorry to say that after the Immence Expence to Gov- 
ernni* on Account of the Indians, they do not Seem to me to 
be so hearty in the Cause & so Warmly attached as I Ex- 
pected, altho' Possibly I may be Mistaken. I also Inclose a 
Copy of Dooley's Proclamation as he Calls it. I Presume 
Another Consequence of the Expedition to Carolina, and My 
Lord the State & Condition of that Province appears to me 
to be such that its only Necessary to send from 4 to 5000 
Troops and a few Ships to reduce it & Si'' I. W^aUace who is 
fully Possessed of the Situation of Affairs here & in Carolina 
is Just Saild for New York where I believe he Means to State 
every thing Clearly & to Forward the Movement, to which 
Purpose I have also Wrote to Sir H. Clinton by him. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 

My Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged and obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Eight Hon^^'« Lord George Germain 

His Maj*^'' Principal Secretary of State 

for N° America &c. &c. &c. 

[Indorse(^] K Sept. 23d. 

Duplicate Orig^ not rec'^- 



5 Nov. 1779. 

No. 8. Savannah in Geokcua the 5 of Nov. 1771). 

My Lord, 

Since I had the lioiior of writing to Your Lcn'dship last by 
the Cork Victuiillers Ave have met with a very unexpected 
alarming and serious scene, Especially in this part of the 
word, for no Man could have thought or lieheved that a 
French Fleet of 25 Sail of the Line with at least 9 Frigates 
and a number of other Vessells would have come on the 
Coast of Georgia in the month of September and Landed 
from 4 to 5000 Trooi)s to besiege the Town of Savannah, but 
My Lord amazing as this is, it is certahily Fact, for on the 
3d of September an account came to Savanna that 5 Large 
ships were in the ofhng & the next morning advice came that 
they were French Ships, and I concluded that they had been 
drove here by distress, however on the 7th a letter was wrote 
by Captain Henry Commander of His Majesty's Ship Fowey 
that 42 sail of French Ships appeared off Tybee Bar and on 
the 8th 5 of them very Large Ships came in over the Bar, on 
which the F<^wey and Rose Ships of War were obliged to 
retreat ct come uj) the River, and on the 12th several of the 
French Fleet Avent in at Ossabaw and at Night began to land 
their Troops at BcAvlie and on the 15th the C*ount D'Estaing 
sent a Summons to General Prevost to SiUTender the Town 
and Province to the King of France on which some Messages 
& Letters passed, and on the 17th the Truce ended in De- 
claring that it was the Unanimous opinion & Resolution of 
the Civil and Military that the Town should be Defended, 
this my Lord made me very happy as I had some stromj 
Reasons to apprehend & fear the Contrary. The particulars 
of the Negotiation Your Lordship will receive from General 
Prevost, and from this time Hostilities began and both sides 
were very active in raising Redoubts and Batteries <fe Open- 

1'. U. I). Aui. v\; \V, Iii.l. vol, 237. 


ing Trenches A'C. liv. and now my Lord give nie leave to 
mention the great abiUty and Exertions of Captain Moncrief 
the Chief Engineer avIio A\as Indefatiga])]e day & Niglit and 
wliose Eminent Sei vices contril)uted vastly to our defence 
and safety, and on the 8d of October at half after 11 at 
Night the French began t(j Bondiard the Town and at the 
Firmg of the Morning Gun on Monday the 4tli they began a 
most Furious Cannonade, which continued more or less till 
Saturday the 9tli Avlien just before Break of day an attack 
was made by the united Armys of the French ct Rel^els, and 
we have it from very good authority that the flow^er of both 
armys to the amount of 2500 French and 1500 Rebels, came 
agamst us. The Conflict was sharp, and lasted for about an 
hour & a half and we were well informed by French Officers 
who were wounded and taken, and also by some who came 
with Flags & by deserters and others, that they lost 700 
killed and wounded, and some accounts mentioned 1000 
among which are 63 officers — D'Estaing wounded in the 
thigh and arm Polaski on the Hip with a grape shot and 
since dead and the Rebels its said had killed and wounded 
500, amongst them Charles Price, astonishing to think we 
had only 7 killed & 14 wounded but for a more Cii'cumstan- 
tial Account of the Siege, Attack &c. ttc. I beg leave to refer 
Your Lordship to the Inclosed diary, and which altho not m 
the Military Language or Style, I will be answerable is as 
Just tfe True an account of the wdiole matter as will be trans- 
mitted from any hand whatever, and I have it my Lord fi'om 
some of my Friends who had an opportunity of knowing the 
condition of the French Fleet when they were ready to de- 
part fi'om our Coast, that the Ships were nuicli out of repair 
& the Men exceedmgly sickly on Board the Sagittaire the 
Crew of which amounted to 500, they Buried with the Scurvy 
and other disorders but chiefly the Scurvy at least 2, 3, & 4 
every day one day with another, and this for a month, and 
several officers who came there from the other ships said it 
was the same throughout and I was Informed fi'om the same 
Authority that D'Estaing was return to Brest immediately 
with 11 ships. 4 to go to Cheasapeak for provision and fi'om 
thence to the Cape, 2 Frigates and the Cape Troops, say 1200 


Meu to fto to Charles Town S: the rest Avith La Motte Piquet 
to Martiin(iue, tliis Destination Avas k'arnt jet possibly may 
not be the fact, 

I have the Honor to be Avith Perfect Esteem 
M}- Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged (k Obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 

The Right Hon^'^'' Lord George Germain 

His Maj. Princijial Secretary of State (tc. S:o. S:c. 

E Dec"-- 21. By Capt. ShaAV. 
Duplicate— Orig' not received. 

[Inclosed m Gov. Sir Jas. Wright's Letter of 5 Nov. 1779.] 

On Friday the 3d Sept. Capt. Henry of His Maj*-^'^ Ship 
FoAve}- call'd on me and told me he had heard fi'om Tybee, 
that they Avere 5 large ships in the Offing Avhich A\^ere imagin'd 
might be the Roebuck AAdth some Cork Victuallers. 

On Saturday the 4th he call'd on me again & SheAv'd a 
letter from Capt. BroAvn of the Rose, A\dio AA^rote that he had 
sent a Lieut, to reconnoitre the Ships, aa'Iio reported them to 
be French & -we then suppos'd they might have been drove 
this AA^ay by a Gale of Wind — A\'hich seem'd in some measure 
to be confirm'd — because on Monday the 6th Accounts Avere 
bro* up that the Ships had disappear'd. 

But at day break on Wednesday the 8tli I received a letter 
fi-om Gen^ Prevost acquainting me that at 4 O' Clock that 
Morning he had received a letter from Capt. Henry inform- 
ing him that there Avere 42 Sail of French Ships of War in 
Sight, most of AAdiich appeared to be large Ships, on Avhicli 
Ave concluded that a serious Attack A\'as intended against this 
Province; We had been rejjairing the Old Redoubts and 
raising NeAV Works — -Expecting an Attack by the Rebels, but 
on these Accounts of a French Fleet being on the Coast, the 
greatest Exertions Avere made by Capt. Moncrief Chief En- 
gineer and 400 to 500 Negroes A\'ere inmiediately ordered in 
by the Gov'" and Council and set to Avork — And in the Avliole 


there were 13 good re(loul)ts raised round the Town in differ- 
ent phices and 15 Gun Batttuies were raised also in different 
phxces l)etween the Iledoubts — the whole of these Batteries 
contain'd 80 Pieces of Canon, 18, 9 & 6 pounders — The Bat- 
teries were mann'd by the Sailors of the Fowey, Kose and 
Keppel <fe by Saihn-s A' Volunteers l^elonging to Transports 
and other Shii)s in the River. 

Besides which there were several 6 and 4 Pounders prop- 
erly placed without Batteries, also five field pieces. 

We soon received an Account from Capt. Henry that the 
French Fleet consisted of 25 sail of the Line and 9 Frigates, 
besides other Vessels. 

On the 8th Sept. Five Frigates got over Tybee Bar, and 
soon after the Fowey, Rose, Keppel, Savainiah & the Galleys 
were obliged to retire up the River. 

On Sunday the 12th at night the French began to land 
Troops at Bewley 14 miles from Town And on Wednesday 
the 15th a letter came fi'oni Count De Estaing contaming a 
General Summons to surrendei- the Town & Province to the 
King of France, he boasted in this letter of his formidable 
Armament by Sea and Land What he had done with them 
at Granada &c. mentioned how much L*^ Macartney had 
suffered by not Capitidating, and that it was totally in vain 
to think of opposing or resisting his Force — And warn'd 
General Prevost of the Consequences attending a Storm, 
hintmg that he sliou'd consider him as personally answerable 
for the lives of the people &c. 

The Answer to this was that the General he had a better 
opinion of him & of the British Aruiy which he had the 
honour to command, than to expect they wou'd surrender the 
Town etc. on a General Sunnnons, without knowing on what 
terms or conditions — That he had communicated the above 
letter to the Civil Governor — And if the Count had any terms 
to offer, desired they might be made. 

To which the Count replied, that it was the part of the 
Besieged to propose Terms and not that of the Besiegers. 

The Answer to this was that it was a matter of gi"eat Con- 
sequence and there were many different Interests to be 
adjusted and settled, and therefore desired 24 hours to con- 
sider of it. 


This went oil Thursday the lOth iiiul tlie Coimt iifjjreed to 
wait for an Answer till the tiring of the Evening CJnn on 
Friday the 17th. 

In the Afternoon a Council of War was held in the General 
Tent, consisting of the field Officers (the Gov*" and Lient. 
Gov. being present) to consider of an Answer to be sent to 
the Count De Estaing when it was the unanimous opinion of 
the whole that the Town should be defended it that this 
Answer or Notice should be returned to Count De Estaing. 

On which Hostilities commenced — » 

On the 17th 18th tt 19th Col. Maitland and all the Troops 
fi'om Beaufort got here but with the greatest difficulty and 
risque, Excepting the Ai-tiUery Men of the Hessian Corps, 
Hessian Convalescents and about 170 of the 71st. The 
yigUant Man of War, three Galleys and 3 Transports with 
all the Ai'tillery Stores Baggage &c. were left at CaUibogie. 

The whole of tbe Troops which arrived with Col. Maitland 
amounted to about 800 Men. 

Two of the French Frigates with two Galleys advanced up 
the River to 4 Mile Point and on the 29tli Sept. one of them 
got up to & Anchored at the Mouth of the Back Biver and 
the two Galleys at the point of Yonges Iseland of March 
and at diflerent times they fired many Shot into the To\\ti 2-1 
& 12 Pounders. 

The French were employed in bringing Canon &c. &c. &c. 
from Bewley till the 24th, In the night of which, they began 
to break gi'ound, near our lines and next day we saw 2 pieces 
of Canon mounted. 

A party of light Infantry were Order'd out under the Com- 
mand of Major Graham consisting of about 90 men in Order 
to draw the French out of their Lines, who to the number of 
300 came out & were di'ove from their Works but were then 
Supported by a Column of French Troops from 500 to 600 
from the Woods behind their Works, which Obliged the hght 
Infantry to return. The french were much Galled by our 
Canon and the fire of the Musquetry & lost as we were in- 
formed 84 Killed & about 100 Wounded. 

The hght Infantry lost Lieut. McPherson & 7 private Kill'd 
<fe 13 wounded. 


From tlie 24tli the frencli were extending their lines & 
Works ct raised three large Batteries and were bringing 
Canon & Mortars <Src. from Bewley, Thunderbolt & Castons 

On the 2d of Oct''- The Frigate & Kebel Galleys kept a 
constant tire on the Town ct Camp fi'om 11 a m to 1 P M^ 
many shot reach'd thro' the Town to Zubley's Meeting fi-om 
the Galleys & from the Frigate went quite across the Camp 
to the Barracks. 

Sunday 3d Oct''- At half after 11 at Night the French 
open'd a Bond) Battery of 9 Mortars <t continued throwing 
SheUs till One OClock in the Morning— 123 Shells were 
thrown into every part of the Town, but without doing any 
Material Damage. 

Monday 4th Oct*- Just as the Morning Gun was fired — the 
Enemy began a most furious and incessade Canonade from 
three Batteries mounting in the whole 32 Guns of 18, 12, 9 & 
6 Pounders, besides a Constant fire from the Frigate of 14 
Guns 12 pounders, And of 2 Guns 24 Pounders from the 
two Kebel Galleys — as also a Bombardment of Shells — how- 
ever only the Dau*" of a Mrs. Thomson, and a Mr. Pollard 
Assist* Barrack Master were killed, during which a constant 
Fire was kept up, by our Batteries, on the Enemy's works & 
Shells thrown from 5 small Cohorns. 

Tuesda}^ 5th Canonading & Bombardment continued — Day 
& Night. 

Wednesday 6th the same- — This night a Woman her 
Mother & Child & a Niece were kill'd by a Shell in the 
Middle of the Town, also three Negi'oes — Mrs. Lloyds house 
was set on fire by a Carcase which they now began to throw. 
Thursday 7th The Canonade & Bombardment continued — 
several Carcases were thrown — Another House was burnt, 
most of the Houses in Town were much damaged by the 
Shot, but no body kill'd either in Town or Camp. 

Friday 8th Bombardment & Canonade continued much 
damage continued to be done to the Houses — Capt. Simpson 
kiU'd by a Grape Shot in Major Wrights Redoubt at the 
Trustees Gardens — In the Coiu'se of this Night a very heavy 
Canonade fi'om the Enemy. 


Saturday 9tli Esjx^ciaUy fi-om 12 at ni<;lit als(i a B(>inl)ar(l- 
ment which ct)ntimiod till the tiring of the Morning Gun at 
Day break & ininiediatel}- an Attack was made by the French 
«fe Rebels on the Ebenezer redoubt & Battery by the Spring 
and on the redoubt by Col. Maitlands Tent, on the Right of 
our line, C^oniuianded by Col. Maitland; the Enemy that 
made the Attack were the flower of the French Troops Vir- 
ginia & So. Carolina Continentals & So. Carolina Militia — 
Supposed to be 2500 fi-ench & 1500 Rebels. 

Count De Estaing Commanded himself and Gen' Lincohi 
as second in Command. 

The Attack was made with gi-eat Spirit on the part of the 
French — the Morning was favourable for them being Dark & 
Foggy. The Attack continued lA hour when the Enemy were 
beat back & retreated with great precipitation Our Troops 
who alone opposed them were 

^? P^^'JP^r*" T r ^ !- In the Ebenezer Redoubt. 
64 S" Carolma Loyahsts j 

Commanded by Tawes of the Dragoons who bravely fell in 

defending it. 

90 of Col. Hamilton's N° Carolina Loyalists &] j ,. 

56 Georgia Militia [ ^'' ^^'^ 

Redoubt where Col. Maitland was & 

70 Granadiers of the Royal Americans who were Ordered to 

support the Redoubts, and bravely charg'd the Enemy with 

their Bayonets. 

Exclusive of the above the Spring Battery of 6 Guns mann'd 

by 31 Sailers Commanded by Mr. Manly & Steel did very 

great execution & much contributed to the repulse of the 

Enemy — None of the other Troops on the right of our line 

were at all engaged, or had occasion to fire a single musquet— 

these consisted of the 1st Battalion of 71st the Hessian reg* 

Wezenbeckens & Browns Rangers. 

On the left of our Line a Feint was made by the Rebel 
Troops — 500 under Command of Gen' Williamson — on Major 
Wrights redoubt by the Trustees Gardens & 700 under Com- 
mand of Col. Sleyer on Col. Crugers Redoubt in Tatnels 
j^oad — The Rebels were beat off & lost 50 kiU'd & wounded 
at this end of our line— Amongst the first Charles Pryce. 

LfifTEKS From «ift jaMKS WRiGHfi 267 

After the retreat of the French & Rebels on the nj^ht of 
our hne 270 men chiefly French were found dead — 81 of 
whom were m the Ditch and on the parapet of the Ebenezer 
Redoubt & 93 more within the Abattis — A French <fe Rebel 
Standard were once fixed on the parapet of this redouT)t, the 
French carried off theirs, but the Rebel Standard was taken 
by us. Since the Attack we find by Deserters, French 
Officers and others that the French lost in kill'd & wounded 
not less than 700 some say 1000 & of the first 03 Officers by 
their own Acco*- Amongst the Wounded Count De Estaing 
Received a Musquet Shot in his Ai-ni & another in his Thigh, 
Count Polaski a AVound in the Hip by a Grape Shot ct since 
dead — And the Rebels by the best information we cou'd get 
had kill'd & wounded about 500 & it is astonishing to think 
that in this Attack We had only Capt. Tawes & 7 private 
Kill'd and 14 Wounded. 

N B. Our whole force, Regulars, Militia, Sailers & Volun- 
teers did not amount to above 2350 men fit for Duty. 

A Flag was soon sent by the French & Rebels desiring a 
Truce for the Burial of the Dead, & receiving the Wounded, 
which was agTeed to till 2 o'clock & then extended till Dark. 

During this Night a slight Canonading on both sides & 
many french & Rebel Deserters came in. 

Sunda}' 10th Several Flags passed and Truces agreed to, 
for the above and other purposes, a Slight Canonading during 
the night & many Deserters come in. 

Monday 11th No Canonading or Bombardment on the part 
of the Enemy. Deserters coming in who Inform'd that they 
were sending their Sick & Wounded & heavy Canon on board 
their Ships — The Rebel Mihtia w^ere daily going ofl" in 

Tuesday 12th Shght Canonading on each side in the night, 
l)ut not a Gun fired in the day — the Enemy seem'd now to 
fire fi"om two pieces of Canon only. 

Wednesday 13th The same. 

Thursday 14th The same. 

Friday 15tli The same and We were now Inform'd that all 
the Carolina Militia were gone. 

Saturda}' IGtli The same The Enemy'had removed all their 
Cannon but two. 



Sunday 17th The saiDe and We were Inforni'd that the 
french biaclv S: Mullatoe Bri^^axh^ liad March'd to Col. Miill- 
rynes — to Einl)aik. 

^Monday 18th This Evening & Night aU the French & 
Rebel Troops left their Cani])s S: lines which were next day 
& a few days following all destroyed. 

Tuesday 19th Were inform'd the French had taken post 2 
miles fi-oni Town at the Cross Road leading to Brewtons <fe 
that the Rebels were crossing the River with all Expedition, 
at the two Sisters and Zubly's Ferry. 

20th & 21st Leam'd that all the French had Embark'd at 
Caston's Bluff in about 100 Boats & had gone to Tybee to 
embark in their Men of War lying there. 

From the 21st the Winds hanging to the Eastward, the 
French Frigate cou'd not move from five fathom hole Cartels 
during this time coming up with prisoners. 

Ja. Wright. 


6. Nov. 1779. 

No. 9. Savannah in Georgia the 6th of Nov"- 1779. 

My Lord, 

I wish it were in my Power to give jonr Lordship an 
agreeable or satisfactory account of the Situation of affairs 
in General in this Province & that any Progress was made 
towards carrying the Measures Recommended to me on my 
Departure from England into Execution. But m my former 
letters I very particularly mentioned the Reason why it was 
Impossible to call an Assembly at that time and how far this 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. 237. 


Province had been Suft'erd to Relapse into Rebellion again, 
and those who were well atfecited to be Harassed and Ruined 
by Rebels from Carolina and Villains in the Back Country 
here, who Joined them for the sake of Plunder. I also wrote 
your Lordship how Nearly this Province was being lost again 
and the very great Distress that the King's Loyal Subjects 
were reduced to, and all this I conceive owing to or 
Occasioned by the Expedition into Soiith Carolina, which 
left this Province Naked and Defenceless. Whereas had a 
Post been Established at Augusta I have every Reason to 
Think that the Whole Province would have been in Peace 
and quietness and that good and Loyal Inhabitants would 
have flocked in from other Pro\inces. this My Lord is a Short 
Sketch of the State and Condition I found it in, and which 
I Repeat least my former letters might not get safe, and Since 
that your Lordship knows things have been Growing worse, 
for as I wrote before the Rebels were Collecting their Mdiole 
force fi'om South Carolina, North Carolina and Virgmia, and 
also the Rebels fi-om and in this Province in order to attack 
Savannah before any reinforcements should come fi-om New 
York of all which I acquainted your Lordship, and this 
brought it down to the Invasion by the French and of that 
and the Issue I have now given your Lordship a full account 
in my letter No. 8. I am now My Lord taking every Step in 
the Power of the Civil Department to Check the Spirit of 
Rebelhon by Compelling all those who I think might or ought 
to have come in and Joined in the defence of the Town, but 
did not, to give a very Circumstantial Account of their Con- 
duct During the Siege, and have Directed that those of the 
Lower Class who do not appear Materially Culpable shall be 
obliged to give Security for their good behaviour for 12 
months themselves in XlOO Sterl^ and 2 Sureties in X50 
each, also to take the Oaths of Allegiance &c. &c. and to 
Subscribe the Test a Copy whereof is Inclosed, and any who 
appear to have offended Capitally, I have ordered to be Com- 
mitted, and if sufficient evidence can be had against them 
I am determined they shall be prosecuted for High Treason^ 
but my Lord in the situation we are now, the Civil Govern- 
ment Your Lordship will see must be very Feeble and ^"iU 


remain so, till I can call an assembly, this is a Point I have 
Considered and hope it may be done, and that the time is not 
very distant when I may Issue writs for that Purpose. 
I Transmit your Lordship herewith the Minutes of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Governor in Council. Since the Siege, a 
Body of 150 Horse wou'd I think give full Protection to the 
Settlements in General and be Sufficient to Rout any Party 
of Rebels that may Attempt to Disturb us, for those who do 
the Mischief are Generally on Horseback, and before any 
Detachment of Foot can get near them are gone off. 150 
Horse wou'd be more serviceable than 500 Foot. There is 
not above 50 who are called Light Dragoons and I dont hear 
that any more are intended to be Raised. Your Lordship 
may rely on it that every thing in my Power shall be done to 
Promote His Majesty's Service and that I have most anxiously 
in view the Several matters recommended to me. 
I have the Honor to he with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged & Obedient Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Hon''''' Lord George Germain 

His Maj. Principal Secretary of America for America &c 
&c &c. 

[ Indorsed^ 
R 21st Dec-"- 

By Capt. Shaw. 



9 November 1779. 

No. 10. Savanah in Georgia the 9th of Nov-" 1779. 

My Lord, 

The Ship not Sailing so soon as was Expected I have the 
Honor of writing another Line to Your Lordship and the 
more I think of our very great Success, the more I see it as 

* p. R. O. Am. «; W. Iml. vol. 237. 


a Providential thing, and a matter of the utmost Imi)()rtance. 
the Southern Parts of N° America I conceive are now in 
Your Lordships Power whereas had the French got Footing 
here, I fear they wou'd have been lost, the Stroke is Severely 
Felt by the Kebels & thek Distress Inmiense, and if Kepeated 
accounts are to be Credited I think the Spirit of KebelHon is 
on the declme in South Carohna Since the Late Defeat here 
And I doubt not but the Country \nll be an Easy Conquest. 
But we hear they are Strengthening their Works at Charles 
Town, and Laying in 9 months Provision. Since my Last my 
Lord I have Carefully Examined Several People Avho have 
come in fi'oni the Back Country within a few- Miles of Augusta, 
who tell me there are not Many Kebels there, or anywhere 
Else together, but only a few Straggling Partys who still go 
about Plundering what they can find and distressing the 
Loyal Lihabitants, and those at Augusta are Fortifying them- 
selves, but as I have every Eeason to Expect some Creek 
Indians will soon be down amongst them, I hope they will be 
Pvouted 'ere long, a Party of Horse wou'd Effectually Scour 
the Province, Drive away the Remainder of the Rebels, and 
with a few Estabhshed Posts Give Peace and Security to all 
the well affected here, and Such as may Choose to come in 
and Settle, either this or the Reduction of Carohna will do, 
And when I can Call an Assembly which I hope will be as 
soon as the Reinforcement comes to enter Carohna, then 
Government will Soon Strengthen and Raise its Head ; I have 
mentioned many things my Lord with Respect to the State of 
the Province, and some which I think Necessary, to Mr. 
Knox which wou'd have Spun out my Letter to Your Lord- 
ship to too Great a Length and trust that he will Lay before 
Your Lordship all such Matters as he may Judge Material or 
Worth Your Lordships notice. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most Obhged & Obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Hon^^® Lord George Germain 

His Maj^J^ Principal Secretary of State &c. &c. <S:c. 

[ Li(h)i\sc(f\ 

R 22na Dec'- 



20 January 1780. 

No. 11. Savannah in Georgia the 20tli of Jan'' 1780. 

My Lord, 

The hist time I had the Honor to write to Your Lordship 
was on the 9th of Nov"^ by Captain Shaw who was Sent 
Express with the Account of the defeat of the French and 
Rebel Forces before the Town of Savannah, Copies of which 
I also Sent by way of New York and not having anything 
more, or very Material, or any good Conveyance, I have not 
wrote Your Lordship Since. But on the 29th of December 
I wrote to Mr. Knox in which I mentioned Several Matters, 
and desired him to Communicate Such of them to Your Lord- 
ship as he might think proper or Worth yoiu- Notice, and 
I have now the very great Pleasure to acquaint Your Lordsliip 
that on the 17th Instant a Transcript Ship arrived, one of the 
Fleet from New York, and by which we have an Account that 
upwards of 7000 Troops are coming. The Winds have been 
very unfavourable for several days Past, and only a Horse 
Sloop has got in Since, and some Gentlemen who are come 
to Town say that they Parted with the Fleet in a Hard Gale 
of Wind 4 days after they left New York, which was I think 
the 20 of December, but I hope as the Wind is now Northerly 
and getting to the Eastward, 2 or 3 days more will bring them 
all safe in. 

The Court of Sessions my Lord Ended to day, three 
persons were Tried and found Giiilty of Misdemeanours for 
Treasonable Practices, Yiz — William Carey, Israel Bird and 
Wilham Maxwell and 2 others withdrew their Pleas and Con- 
fessed the Indictments, Viz. James Davis and Thomas 
Netherclift, Mud 8 more Indictments for Misdemeanours stand 
over to be Tried at the next Court, and I hope Such Examples 
will be made by the Judgments and Sentences which may be 
Passed against those People who are Found Giiilty, and those 

* p. R. O. Am, & W. Ind, vol. 237, 


who have Confessed the Inchctmeiits, and who are Lyable to 
Fine and Imprisonment &c. as will have a good Effect, and 
tend much to Strengthen and Support Government, which I 
assure your Lordship at Present Stands in Great Need of it. 
Peter Henry Morel was Tried for High Treason and Acquitted 
and Eobert Mauls Trial for High Treason, Stands over till 
June Court and as soon as the Troops begin their Operations, 
I shall Issue Writs of Election and hope when I get an 
Assembly I shall be able to Execute, His Majesty's Com- 
mands, and my Instructions to accompHsh which, and every 
matter that I may Judge to be for His Majesty's Service, 
I Shall Exert to the Utmost of my Power. There are now a 
Party of Cherokee Indians here 230 Men and 18 or 20 
Women and Children, I have been Present at 2 of their 
Talks, Copy's of which General Prevost tells me he Shall 
Transmit to your Lordship, those People Express the 
Strongest Kesentment against the Eebels, and say they never 
will be reconciled to them, and if they are Properly Treated 
and Managed I think may be very usefuU on the Expedition 
into Carohna, but Indians Seem to be despised and thought 
of no Consequence. I have not had the Honor to receive a 
Line from your Lordship Since I left England and am most 
anxiously wishing to hear of the Success of His Majesty's 
Fleet against the Combined Fleets of France and Spain, 
which Pray God Grant. 

I have the Honor to be with the most Perfect Esteem, 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most ObUged & Obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Eight Honorable Lord George Germain 

His Maj^y '^ Principal Secretary of State for America &c 

&c &c, 

E May 13. 
By the Lord Hyde Packet. 
Duplicate Grig' not rec*^- 




10 Febiu:aky 1780. 

No. 12. Savannah in Geokgia the lOtli of Feh^ 1780. 

My Lord, 

Your Lordsliiijs Letter of the 9tli of July last No. 3 1 had 
the Honor to receive on the 2d Instant, and which is the first 
that has come to Hand Since my Arrival. I am afraid Your 
Lordships Information of the Rebel Force in South Carolina 
being much Diminished was not Avell Founded. It gave me 
Concern to find that Sjiain has thrown her Weight into the 
Scale of our Enemies, l)ut my Lord I am very hopefuU tliis 
Event may be Productive of Unanimity and Rouse the True 
English Spirit, and that Great Britain will Soon Rise 
Triumphant over all her Enemies, Foreign and Domestic. I 
have Great Satisfaction in hearuig that the War in America 
is an object not lost Sight of, and that None of the Troops 
are to be withdrawn, and I Trust I shall Soon have it in 
my Power to Congratulate your Lordshi}) on the Success of 
His Majesty's Arms in South Carolina, and which I am Still 
of Oi)ini()n Altho' late, will Give a Sickening Stab to the 
Rebellion, and encourage Great Numbers to Stand forth in 
Support of His Majesty's Measures, and in the defence of 
their Liberties and Property's. But my Lord a Reinforce- 
ment of the Naval Force on the Continent of North America 
Seems absolutely Necessary or these Provinces will be held 
by a Weak, Doubtfull Tenure. With Respect to the deserted 
Property, it Certainly was at first of Consideral)le Value, that 
is, the Lands, Stock and Produce, upon the Plantations. The 
Negroes were in General carried away by the Rebel Owners 
into South Carolina, and by one means or other I fear the 
Stock and Produce will not amount to much, and my Lord 
where there are no Negroes to Cultivate and Plant tliere is 
no Occasion for Managers. I have hitherto taken every Step 
and done every thing I could, to take care of that kind of 
Property, as Soon as the Siege was over. General Prevost 

* p. R. O. Am. v^i W. Ind. vol. 2^7. 


Ordered the Barrack Master to take Possession of all the 
Houses in Savanna which were Deemed Rebel Property and 
get them Repaired for Winter Quarters for the Officers and 
Soldiers, who Still Occupy them and most of them have been 
Since Attached for English and other debts, and so were 
many of the Plantations. Immediately on the receipt of 
Your Lordship letter I renewed an order I had before made, 
for the board of Claims to lay before me a full and very Par- 
ticular account of all their Proceedings Relative to the 
deserted Estates and Property and as soon as I receive it 
will Transmit it to Your Lordship, from which I presume the 
State of those Matters will Clearly Appear, and in the mean- 
time I shall Certainly do every thing in my Power and Give 
every Possible assistance to His Maj*^'^ Loyal and Persecuted 
Subjects. Colonel Brown who has been Honoured with the 
Appointment of Superintendant of the Creeke and Cherokee 
Indians, is now in Savanna, and I have had Several Conver- 
sations with him about those People. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most Obliged & Obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Hon^'" Lord George Germain 

His Maj*-^"'* Principal Secretary of State for America &c 

&c &c. 

R May 13. 
By the Lord Hyde Packet. 


18 February 1780. 

No. 13. Savannah in Georgia the 18th of February 1780. 

My Lord, 

I have now the Honor to acquaint Your Lordship that Sir 

* p. R. O. Am. Jt W. lud. vol. 237. 


Henry Clinton and I believe all the Fleet Except 2 or 3 have 
at Length got Safe here. Sir Henry left Savanna on Tues- 
day the 8tli and on the 14 Instant we had an Account that he 
had Landed most of the Troops at North Edisto in South 
Carolina, on Friday the 11th that is about 35 Miles from 
Charles Town but they have 2 Rivers to C^ross viz Stono, and 
at Ashley Ferry, he has a Noble Army with liim and the 
Greatest Harmony Prevails 1)etween them and the Navy 
throughout the Whole, so that we have every thing to Expect 
fi'om them but the Carolinians having had so long Notice (as 
the Fleet left New York the 26tli of Decendjer) they have 
Greatly increased and Strengthened their Works at Charles 
Town and have got 8 or 10 French and Eebel Frigates there, 
and it is Reported that Generals Lee and Waine have got 
there Avith a Reinforcement fi'om the Nortlnvard of 1500, if 
so, I fear Many Brave Men May Fall Notwithstanding which 
I doubt not but Your Lordship will receive very Agreeable 
Accounts of the Success of that Expedition. Some Troops 
were Landed here, and I belive about the Same Number 
Carried Awa^^, so that I Suppose Sir Henry has as many with 
him, as he brought from New York, and General Paterson is 
now Preparing and on the Pcmit of Marching uj) this Country 
towards Augusta, with a very Good Ai-my for the Purpose in 
Yiew, and I thmk next week to Issue Writs of Election here. 
WiUiam Maxwell was Fined £300 SterHng, Israel Bird £200, 
James Davis £100 and Thomas Netherclift £20, and they all 
Found Security to Keep the Peace and be of Good behaviour 
for 3 years, and I am in Great hopes that these Proceedings 
will have a very Good Effect. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most Obliged and Obed' Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Hon''''' Lord George Germain 

His Maj'^^'* Principal Secretary of State for America <fcc. 

<fec. <tc. 

I Ivdor-sed] 

R May 13. 

By the Lord Hyde Packet 
\da Jamaica. 



13 MAUcri 1780. 

No. 1-4. Savannah in Georgia the 18tli of March 1780. 

My Lord, 

On the 8th Instant and not before, I had the Honor to 
receive the Triphcate of Your Lordships Cu'cnlar Letter of 
the 17th of June last. With the Several Inclosures, neither 
the Original, or Duplicate, came to Hand. I also Received 
by the Same Conveyance, your Lordships Circular letter of 
the 8tli of July Inclosing a Printed Copy of His Majesty's 
Most Gracious Speech to His Parliament at the Conclusion 
of the Session on the 3rd of July last. 

But I have not yet received from the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty, any Authorities for Granting letters of 
Marque against the Ships &c. of the King of Spain and His 
Subjects. Your Lordship may depend that I have Given all 
the Encouragement I could to Promote those Services, and 
to that End have assured the Owners of Such Ships as bear 
letters of Marque against the French King and His Subjects, 
that His Majesty will consider them as having a Just Claim 
to the King's Share of all Spanish Ships and Property which 
they may make Prize of. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most Obliged and Obed* Ser* 

Ja. Wright. 
R 18tli June. 

The Right Hon'^^*^ Lord George Germain 

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State 
for America &c. <fec. &c. 

* p. U. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 297 



13 >[arch 1780. 

No. 15. Savannah in Georgia tlie 18tli of Mareli 1780. 

My Lord, 

The Original of your Lordships letter No. 3, I had the 
Honor to receive on the 8th Instant, The duplicate of which 
I had received on the 2d of Feb'"-^' and Answered on the 10th 
of that Month, and to which I beg leave to refer. On Com- 
paring those letters my Lord, I Observe the following in the 
Original which is not in the Duplicate Yiz "And that upon 
no Pretence any Fresh Charge is brought upon the Revenue 
of this Country" and whatever other Governors may have 
done, I don't Recollect that I ever drew on Government for 
one .shUling. we have no Gaol and there are Some other 
Matters which seem very Expedient and which I had thought 
of Venturing to Undertake, and draw for. but as I have re- 
ceived such a Peretiifory Injunvtum to the Contrary, they 
must not be done, and I Certainly shall not attempt to Lay 
any Fresh Charge on the Revenue of Great Britain, imless 
fi-om the most Urgent Necessity. The Commissioners have 
not yet Finished the State of their Accounts and Transac- 
tions and made their Report Relative to the deserted Planta- 
tions &c, which I shall Transmit to your Lordship the first 
Opportunity after I get them, but I understand very httle of 
the Produce &c. Remains. 

I have the honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most Obliged and Obed* Servant 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Hon^^*' Lord George Germain 

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State 
for America etc. <fec. &c. 

R 18th June. 

* p. R. 0. Am. & W. lad. vol. 237. 



24 March 1780. 
No. 16. Savannah in Georgia the 24tli of March 17S(). 

My Lord, 

Since I had the Honor of wiitmg to your Lordship last, I 
liave Received a Proclamation Issued by His Excellency Sir 
Henry Clinton a Printed Copy of which I now Inclose — a 
Proclamation my Lord which I am much afraid will not be 
Attended with any Good Consequences to His Majesty's 
Service or this Province. I think I have well known the 
Spirit of the Leaders in Rebellion in South C-arolina, as I 
have frequently had the Honor of Acquainting Your Lord- 
ship whilst I was in England, and Your Lordship has too 
often Experienced the Contempt with which the Truly Great 
and Generous overtures of His Most Gracious Majesty have 
been received and Treated by the Rebel Powers, What then 
my Lord is to be Expected from a Repetition of Such offers? 

I hope my Lord, it will not be thought Officious in me to 
Trouble your Lordship with a letter on this Subject — For 
Whilst His Majesty is Graciously Pleased to Intrust me with 
the Charge of His Province of Georgia I shall Exert to the 
Utmost of my Power to Promote the King's Service and the 
Welfare of the People, to restore Good Order and Govern- 
ment here (if it be or as far as may be Possible) and of 
Course to take Notice of Such Measures as are most like to 
Obstruct or Prevent it. I have always my Lord from time 
to time Since my Arrival Given your Lordship a Faithful 
Account of the State of aft'airs here, the Distresses of the 
People fi-om the General Plunder of Foes and Friends has 
been Great, has been Intollerable. We had happily and 
most Providentially Escaped a danger and Force almost 
Sufficient to have Swallowed us up. and on the Arrival of 
His Maj*y'^ Troops from New York, I then Look't upon 
Peace and Good order and Government in this Province as 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 237, 


C-ertain aiul at Hand l)iit how was I mistaken, the ilrst 
damp was the Alteration of the Konte of the Army, whicli 
had been Clearly Settled here, Should l)e from hence to 
Augusta. Imt the Change left the Province so much Exposed 
and Disconserted nie to that Degree, that with the Advice of 
His Majesty's Council, I Postponed Issuing the Writs of 
Election for some time. I do not mean to Censure the Meas- 
ure of altering the Route for it might be very Proper and 
Right. I will not say otherwise — But Immediately on the 
Back of this comes the Proclamation without any Restriction 
or Limitation and without any Exception of any Persons 
Whatever, and under which it is my fear that every Rebel 
who has Fled this Province and Committed Crimes of the 
Blackest dye may come Back and Claim Pardon and Protec- 
tion, and if that is the Case my Lord, it will be Scarce 
Possible for any Kings Officer to Remain here with any 
tolerable Satisfaction — the Moment I Received it I ordered 
the Coimcil to be Summoned and Laid the Proclamation 
before them, and my Lord it was then Determined to Issue 
the Writs of Election, for if these People Return, Many of 
them will have Influence Enough to get themselves Elected 
Members of Assembly. And what then my Lord is to be 
Expected. So that I have at all Events, and at all Hazards 
ordered the Writs to be Prepared and shall Sign them to 
morrow. And as I see the Consequences of this Proclama- 
tion may be of the Utmost Importance. I mean to write 
Sir Henry Clinton a letter upon it, and for that Purpose 
Shall State my Ideas to the Council on Monday next. 
I have the Honor to be, with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged* <fe obed Serv' 

Ja. Wright. 

The Right Hon^'^ Lord George Germain 
His Maj'y'^ Principal Secretary of State 
for America &c. &c. &c. 

P. S. 28th March, 

Yesterday I again Laid Sir Henry Clinton's 
Proclamation before the Council and made my Remarks 


thereon, when it was the Unanimous Opinion that I shonld 
Write a Letter to His Excellency on the Subject, and which 
I have done, and now have the Honor to inclose Your Lord- 
ship a Copy thereof. 

K 16th July. 


4 Apru. 1780. 

No. 17. Savannah in Georgia the 4th April 1780. 

My Lord, 

On the 29tli Ultimo I had the Honor to receive Your Lord- 
ships letter of the 29th of October No. 4. the Representa- 
tions I formerly made Y^our Lordship with respect to the 
distressed sitiiation of His Majestys Loyal Subjects in this 
Province by a Series of Unfortunate Circumstances and 
Events has Encreased instead of Lessened, and at this day 
we are in a Truly Grievous Situation, and Continually Har- 
assed and Plundered by Partys of Rebels, and all this I 
Conceive for want of a Post at Augusta, on the 29th ultimo 
a Party of Rebel Horse to the Amount of (its said) 300 Col- 
lected at and about Augusta and in the adjacent Parts in 
South Carolina, came to my Plantations at Ogechee and 
Burn't and Destroyed 7 of my Barns &c. &g. with Rice, and 
did me other Damage to the Amount of at Least 8000X 
Sterling, they also Burn't and destroyed Mr. James Buttlers 
Barn <fec. <fcc. at about 2 miles distance fi-om mine, they shot 
4 of my Negroes Dead and wounded 3 more, one of which 
its thought will dye. and how many they have carried off 
with them, its not yet in my power to say with Certainty, 
these Plantations my Lord are on the South Side of Ogechee 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 237. 


Kiver, begin about 15 miles from Savannah, and Extend 
about 8 miles fiu-tlier. And I must own I camiot help Im- 
puting all the Losses, Distresses and Deplorable Situation 
this Province is at Present in, to the Expedition into South 
Carolina this time twelvemonths, and now my Lord we can 
Get no assistance from the Military as Your Lordship will in 
Part see by the Inclosed Minute of Council. 

most Fortimately Count DEstaings Expedition has only 
Occasioned a Delay in the Arrival of Sir Henry Chnton with 
His Majestys Troops here, he is now before Charles Town, 
and we are very Anxiously Expecting to hear of his Success 
there. I am very (Had the Plan formed with Respect to the 
care and Management of the Refugee NegToes and Deserted 
Property, has been Approved by His Majesty. But by the 
Conduct of the Army, Invasion, and Siege, those intentions 
have been almost Wholly Frustrated, but for the Particulars 
I must beg leave to Refer Your Lordship to the Report of 
the Commissioners. 

Your Lordship may Rely on it that every Means in my 
Power shall l)e used to Promote His Majestys Royal inten- 
tions and to Comply with His Commands — we are now in a 
very Disagreeable Situation and I don't know any thing that 
can Give us Peace and Security but a Post at Augusta, and 
a Body of at least 150 well Appointed Horse. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged and obed* Serv* 

J A. "Wright. 
The Right Hon''"'' Lord George Germain 

His Maj*'^'" Principal Secretary of State 
for America &c. &e. Arc. 

R 16th July. 



6 April 1780. 

No. 18. Savannah in Georgia the 6tli of April 1780. 

My Lord, 

Yesterday I had the Honor & very Great Satisfaction to 
Receive the Duphcate of your Lordships letter of the 19th 
of January Number 5 and it makes me Perfectly Happy, to 
find my Conduct Approved of by His Majesty. 

I did on the Occasion of the Siege, as I hope I shall on 
every other, Endeavour to Discharge my Duty to the King, 
as a Truly Loyal &: affectionate Subject. & the Trust Reposed 
in me, with Proper Firmness & integrity. I have Acquainted 
the Lieutenant Governor that His Majesty is fully Satisfied 
with his Zeal & Services. ' 

Sir Henry Clinton is now before Charles Town and Admiral 
Arbuthnot with I think 12 Ships is within the Bar & 1 Trust 
we Shall Soon have good Account fi-om them. When I hope 
Peace & Good Government will be Restored to this Province 
to Accomphsh which, I shall Exert myself to the Utmost in 
every way Possible. 

The Election for the Town of Savanah begam yesterday & 
I believe will End Agreeably, & that the four Members will 
be Mr. Robertson the Attorney General, Mr. Simpson the 
Clerk of the Court, Mr. Mossman a Planter <fe Mr. Farley an 

And when we can Meet, I am very hopefuU to be able to 
Accomplish Several things for His Majesty's Ser\dce, and 
Shall Particularly Attend to the Several Objects Pointed out 
in your Lordships letter of the 31st of March 1779, and to 
all those Mentioned in the Letter I have now had the Honor 
to Receive, and I assure Your Lordship we have Great 
Occasion for the Interposition of the legislature. I have 
already Given your Lordship an Account of our Proceedings 
on the Criminal Prosecutions. 

* p. R. O. Ain. & W. Ind. vol. 237. 


Your Lordsln})K Opinion & directions with Respect to tlie 
Captured & 'Rein^ee Negroes is Exactly the same with my 
OAvn, })nt that Property which was at first very Considerable, 
I understand is now Dwindled away to very little. The Com- 
missioners have not yet made their Report, hut Promise me 
it to day if Possible, & which I shall Immediately Transmit. 

I thank your Lordship for being Pleased to Point out the 
Method which the Kings Loyal Subjects Should Pursue with 
respect to the Damage they have Sustained by the Execution 
of the Measures Judged Necessary for the defence of the 
Province & I shall Acquaint the Partys with it, & which I 
Presume will be Duely Attended to. 

Your Lordships Reasons against Allowing the Militia any 
Pay are Forcible, and I hope we Shall not have Occasion to 
Call upon them again for Services of that kind. 

Sir Henry Chnton has lately Authorised Mr. Graham the 
Lieutenant Governor to Act as a kind of Commissary for the 
Loyal Refugees & by that Means I hope such Persons as 
may Appear to me to be Proper Objects will be allowed 

Your Lordships Goodness in Proposing to Recommend it 
to Parliament to add the sume of <£500() to the Estimate of 
this year for Defi-aying the very Necessary Extraordinary & 
unavoidable Expences in the Sup])ort <% Carrying on the 
affairs of Government, and for Building a Goal &c. is I 
assure you most Acceptable to us, for we were in the Greatest 
Difficulty with Respect to those matters, and on a Supposi- 
tion that the Dutys Arising & Payal)le to the Crown in 
America, were Given up by His Majesty & to be Appropri- 
ated to Public uses, we had already Expended to the amount 
of aliout £450 Sterl. and should have been obliged to Apply 
those & the Fines to Such uses as Could not Possibly have 
been Avoided. & receiving your Lordships Information on 
this Point has Relieved us fi-oni the Greatest Perplexity. 

Your Lordships Approbation of the Utility of a Corps of 
Horse for Scouring the Woods & Covering the Frontiers of 
the Province Gives me gi-eat Pleasiire, as we Certainly have 
the most Pressing Occasion for that kind of assistance, as 
your Lordship will See by Some of my letters. I shall Ini- 


mediately Write to Sir Henry Clinton upon the subject, but 
I am much afraid when he made his Kequisition, he did not 
mean them for the Protection of this Province, which I am 
Extremely Sorry to Say, I think has not been Sufficiently 
attended to. being much hurried m Point of time, as I am 
anxious to Dispatch the Packet to Sir H. Clinton, I Kely 
on Your Lordships Goothiess to Excuse any Errors or Omis- 
sions which may appear. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most Obliged and 

Obed* Hble Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 

The Eight Hon'''^' Lord George Germain 

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State 
For America &c. &c. &c. 

\ IiuJor.sed] 
II 10th July. 


17 May 1780. 

No. 19. Savannah in Georgia the 17th of May 1780. 

My Lord, 

Many Articles of Expence Unavoidably Attending the 
Execution of the Civil Government we had Kecourse to the 
Money Arising by Duties Payable to His Majesty m this 
Province, on a Supposition that His Majesty has been Gra- 
ciously Pleased to Give them up for the use of the Respective 
Colonys Wherein they are Paid. But ha\ing some doubt 
therein, I laid the Matter before the Council and I have now 
the Honor to Inclose your Lordship a Copy of their Report 

* p. R. 0. Ma. & W. I«d. vol. 237. 


Aiid my Lord I must beg leave to Observe that this Prov- 
ince has been so much Distressed by the Rebellion, by 
Plundering Party's and otherwise, and all the Back Country 
bemg broke up, and most of the Inhabitants dispersed and 
Gone and the Numl)er of Negi'oes Greatly diminished, so that 
our Produce at Present is little or nothing and cannot be 
increased for some time to come, therefore my Lord, If the 
Construction Contended for or Supposed by the Council can 
be admitted it will encourage the Distressed Inhabitants and 
Enable us to C-arry into Execution many Necessary Pubhc 
Matters but my Lord if we are Mistaken and have Appro- 
priated Part of the duty Money without Right or Authority, 
I Presume it can easily be Replaced out of the X5000. 

I have the Honor to be with the most Perfect Esteem, My 
Lord, Your Lordships 

most Obliged & Obed* Ser* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Hon^'^' Lord George Germain 

His Maj*-^'** Principal Secretary of State &c. &c. &c. 

R 16th July. 


6 April 1780. 

Savanah in Georgia the 6th of April 1780. 
My Lord, 

Yesterday I had the Honor to Receive your Lordships 
letter of the 21st of January. With Respect to the Office of 
Clerk of the Council being Annexed to that of Secretary, 
AVhicli your Lordship was Pleased to mention to me the last 
time I had the Honour to See you in London and assure 

* p. R. O. Am. A; W. luil. vol. 237, ~^ ~~ 


your Lordship I did not forget it, but on the 4th of Nov"" 
Avrote jour Lordship as Follows. — 

Hay"- in Geokgia 4th Nov'' 1779. 
My Lord, 

Your Lordshif) Desired I AYould GiYe you Some Account 
of the Office of Clerk of the Council in this Province. This 
Office my Lord was Originally included in the Secretarys 
Patent, but how that came to be done, or how far it is Proper 
it should be so, is submitted to your Lordship. Mr. Wylly 
is Clerk of the Council by my Appointment in 1770. 

There is a Great Deal of Writing & Attendance required & 
Mr. Wylly Assures me, it is not now Worth £50 Sterl p ann 
Avhicli is something to a Man on the S})ot who does the 
Business himself but Nothing to a Gent in England, ayIio is 
to Pay a Deputy for Executing it. But I must Acquaint 
your Lordship he Says when Lands were Petitioned for & 
Granted once in every month as usual, the Office was then 
worth about £250 '^ ann. but Exclusive of that, which was 
forbid in 1773 or 4, it is not worth above £50 at most & there 
is no Sallary — and if the Land Office was open again there 
is very little Land to Grant, unless it be the Ceded Lands. 

I once took the Liberty to Mention to Your Lordship how 
Necessary it is to Strengthen the Hands of Government 
Especially at this time, for my Lord how is it to be Expected 
that Gentlemen in the House of Assembly or Elsewhere will 
si)end their time Sc take Pains & Trouble to serve Govern- 
ment without Some Encouragement or Views of Advantage, 
and if the Governor is Stript of the Power of giving little 
Offices which fall Vacant, to usefidl People, he will have very 
little Influence & get very little Assistance, and my Lord I 
can with Great Truth say, that the King's authority and 
Powers of Government are very Weak at present & requii'e 
every degree of Influence & all Possible Exertions. I have 
the Honor to be <fec. 

Ja. Wright. Copy how 
this Miscarried I Can't Conceive. 
Your Lordship may be assured I shall as your desire put Mr. 
Thompson in Possession of that Office & thank Your Lord- 
ship for the Mark of Respect Shewn me on that occasion. 


His Majestys Great Goodiuiss in expressing His Royal 
Api)robatioii of my Couduct in the manner jour Lordship is 
Pleased to Mention & the Honorable Testimony your Lord- 
slii]) is Pleased to give of yours likewise, are very Flattering. 

M}- King & Country my Lord have every Right to my best 
Services & shall have them to the utmost of my Power & 
Abilities and I thought myself happy in being here at the 
time of the Siege, For I Clearly SaAV that if this Province 
then fell, America was Lost and this I declared on every 
occasion A- urged the Necessity of every Exertion Possible to 
Defend the Place. 

Your Lordship may confide that I shall endeavour to dis- 
charge the Trust Reposed in me with Firmness, Vigilance & 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most Oblig'd & Obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 

The Right Hon^'*' Lord George Germain <fcc. &c. &c. 

R 16th July. 


20 May 1780. 

No. '20. Savannah in Georgia the 2()th of May 1780. 

My Loud, 

Inclosed are Copys of the Letters and Reports made, to me 
by the Board of Police, and by the Commissioners of Claims, 
from which Your Lordship will See how the affairs of the 
Deserted Estates and Refugee Negroes have been Managed 
and Conducted fi'om time to time, and to which I must beg 

y. l\, O. Am. .V W. Tiul. vol. 237, 


leave to refer Your Lordship, as an Answer to Part of Your 
Lordsliips letter No. 3 — there are Many Negroes Still Strag- 
gling about the Country Some of which I Presume may be 
Apprehended and the Lands and Plantations and Houses in 
Town, will be taken care of & Secured, the Latter Still 
remain in the Possession of the Army, and many of them 
being much Shattered during the Siege and Attached for 
Debts Due, I dont Imagine the Net Produce will amount to 
any thing Considerable. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most obhged & Obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
R 16th July. 
(4 Inclosures.) 

The Eight Honourable Lord George Germain 

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State 
for America &c. &c. &c. 



[In Sir Jas. Wright's (No. 20) of 20 May 17S0.] 

The Commissioners of the Board of Claims having signified 
to us, that Your Excellency had Given them Orders to lay 
before you a State of their Proceedings respecting the Estates 
of Absentees & that it would be necessary that we should 
also furnish you with a State of the transactions of the board 
of Police relative to those Estates, that came under their 
charge, we now take the liberty to inform Your Excellency of 
the steps taken by that Board to carry into execution the 
important trust committed to them. 

* p. B. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 237. 


200 LETTEllS FltOM Sill JAMES ^VllIGHT. 

On the 13tli of January 1779 & soon after the reduction of 
this Phice by the Army under Lieut. Cok)nel Arch'' Campbell, 
He thought proper to appoint a Board of Pohce under the 
direction of Lewis Johnston as Sui)erintendant <fe James 
Mossman S: William Telfair as Assistants. Amongst many 
other InstriTctions, well calculated for conducting the business 
of that Board, One (& the most important) was to take under 
their care & management the Plantations & other Effects of 
all Absentees, whether Loyal Subjects or Rebells, who had 
not lawfull Attorneys in the Provmce which was at that time 
an object of great importance from the nundter of valuable 
Plantations under that Predicament & from the Great Value 
of Negroes, Crops <fe Stocks upon numy of them, which in 
times of such confusion & licentiousness, were in Great 
danger of being Plunder'd A: destrojed — Li consequence of 
this Instruction, the Board immediately pubUshed an Order 
for all Persons having under their care the Plantations of 
Absentees, or that were in Possession of any of theii' Effects, 
forthwith to a make a Return of the same upon oath. The 
Board then proceeded to appoint Overseers for those Planta- 
tions who were directed to em})loy the Negroes belonging to 
them in planting provisions, to take care of the Stock tt Crop 
on them & not to permit any thing under their charge to be 
removed or taken away, without an Order from the Board, 
Except such Stock & Provisions as might be wanted for the 
Army m that case to prevent delay, they were directed, that 
upon application being made to them by any Person havmg 
authority from the General or Cinnmander in Chief, to deliver 
immediately what was wanted S: to take a receipt for the 
same — This Preciaution was intended, not only as a Check on 
such People as nught be enn)]oyed to collect Provisions for 
the Army l)ut also to ascertain the value of wliat should be 
supplied from the Estates of loyal subjects, as the Board 
conceived they had a right to expect payment especially as 
many of the owners of such Plantations had been Banished 
from this Counti-y by the late Rebel Rulers S: all of them 
had been sufferers on account of their Loyalty. 

Lieut. C'oloncl Cam])l)ell also dii'ectiul the Board to employ 
some men of Character S: Al)ililies to visit the Plantations of 


Absentees tliat were in Eebellion in Order Carefully to 
examine into the state of improvement they were in, the 
quantity of Land they contained the number of Negroes & 
the Stock Eice and other Provisions upon them & to return 
an exact account of the same to the Board. Such Gentle- 
men were accordingly & the report they made (as far as they 
proceeded in this business) is now before Your Excellency. 

Such were the Steps taken by the Board of Police to carry 
their Instructions into execution relative to this business & 
which if the directions they gave had been complied with, or 
had they been supported in inforcing them, they presume to 
say that one of the Principal Views in instituting that Board 
would have been answered & thereby Property to a very con- 
siderable amount preserved which was soon irrecoverably 
lost. It is proper to observe that as the Board of Pohce was 
appointed by the Commander in Chief of the Military De- 
partment (there being no Civil Government) & consequently 
derived all their powers fi-om him, it was not Practicable for 
them to execute the Trust committed to them, further than 
they met with his concurrence & support. Whilst Lieut. 
Colonel Campbell had the Chief Command (which was for a 
very short time) they had every assistance they could expect, 
but when he was superceded, in place of meeting with that 
countenance & support mthout which they could not carry 
on the business of the Office eflfectually, they experienced 
nothing but discouragement & neglect. 

Soon after General Prevost's arrival one Benjamin Springer 
a man of a very indifferent Character was employed to Collect 
Provisions for the Army. The Board soon had many Com- 
plaints lodg'd with them against this man, by the Overseers 
they had employed to take care of the Plantations under 
their direction, as well as by many of the Inhabitants. As 
the Board did not then know, under what authority he acted, 
they summoned him before them, when he attended, he 
showed very ample powers from the General, to collect Pro- 
visions for the use of the Army. He was told that the Board 
not not mean in the least to Obstruct him in this business, 
but as it was necessary in order to ascertain the property he 
might take into his Possession, that Keceipts should be given 


for it, tliey therefore expected & required him to give such 
receipts for the Stock or Provisions he had from any Planta- 
tion under tlieir cliarge A: that as to the Cattle collected in 
the Woods, the marks <fe brands were to be taken <k returned 
to them that the Owners might be ascertained. These 
directions of the Board Springer promised punctually to 
comply with, Notwithstanding this, many complaints were 
made agauist tliis man & the People employed under him of 
theii" Plundering the Plantations of Stock, Provisions & many 
Articles of Household Fiirniture & of their refusing to give 
receipts for what they carried away — Those Complaints most 
of them were upon oath, were fi"om time to time laid before 
the General, but so far were the unhappy sufierers by those 
depredations from receiving redress, that in place of proper 
steps bemg taken for putting a stop to them, that either no 
notice were taken of them, or if any answer was vouchsafed, 
the Complaints were stiled Malicious Persecutions of a very 
usefull man and tendmg to obstruct his Majesties Service. 

Besides the Depredations committed by Springer & his 
Accomplices, a number of loose disorderly People were em- 
ployed by the Commissary to hunt up Cattle for which they 
were allowed five shillings per head. In consequence of 
which they drove off indiscriminately all the Cattle that came 
in tlieir way, without regarding marks or brands or whether 
they were the property of Rebells or Loyal Subjects, by 
which means many of the Inliabitants were illegally deprived 
of their Property & the Stock of Cattle at that time very 
numerous, almost totally destroyed. 

Grievous as those proceedings were, had every thmg col- 
lected in this irregadar manner been really appropriated to 
the use of the Army, it wt)uld have been less blameable. But 
as it is certain that many of the Ai'ticles taken by those 
People could not come under the head of Provisions for the 
Ai'niy & that Great quantities of Stock and Provisions were 
carried into East Florida, so there is no doubt it was done by 
those men & converted to their own i)rivate use & benefit. 
The Plunder (k Destruction of Property by those shamefull 
Proceedings was very great nor was it confined to stock & 
provisions as a considerable number of Negroes were from 


time to time clandestinely sliipp'd or canied off. For the 
reasons before given it was out of the power of the Board to 
put a stop to those cruel and oppressive practices, had the}' 
been properly supported it is beyond a doubt that Property 
to a very large Amount would have been preserved which is 
now totally lost. 

Things were in this State when the Board of Police was 
dissolved on the Establishment of Civil Government the 4th 
March 1779. We have the Honor to be with much respect 
Your Excellencies most obed* & Hum^'^'' Serv'^ 

Lewis Johnston, 
Signed James Mossman, 

Wm. Telfair. 
Returns made to the Board of Police soon after its Estab- 
lishment, of the Negroes, Stock & Provisions on the Estates 
under the care of that Board. N B. This is not included in 
the Report made by the Gentlemen who were employed to 
examine into the State of the Plantations to the South of 
Great Ogechee 
925 Negi'oes 
1337 Head of Stock of all 

kinds upon the Plantations 
1178 Barrels of Clean Rice 
14489 Bushells rough Rice 
5730 Bushells Corn & Potatoes 
105 Stacks Rice in straw. 

His Excellency 

Sir James Wright Bart. 



[In Sir Jas. Wright's (No. 20) of 20th May 1780.] 

Commissioners of Claims Office 
Savannah 24 April 1780. 

In Obedience to Your Excellency's Commands requiring us 
as Commissioners of Claims to report to you the state of 
such Property whether real or Personal in this Province, 
which belonged to refugees or Absentees from Georgia & 
which was intended to have been put under our directions & 
management, We begg leave to represent as follows — 

That so early as the 15 March last year being soon after 
we had received our Powers and Instructions, We Embraced 
the opportunity of meeting together in order to regulate our 
Board ct Proceed on the business of Our Office. That we 
had just formed some resolutions towards carrying on the 
business with Effect when Complaints were lodged with us, 
of a Person of bad fame of the Name of Springer, who had 
committed very great waste & destruction on many well 
settled Estates &: Plantations in this Country it in Particular 
that this Man with his Associates had Pillaged, Plunder'd & 
Carried off a Considerable Property in Eice, Cattle & other 
moveable Effects all under the Cloak and Pretext of furnish- 
ing suj^plies for the Army, but which there was every reason 
to believe a very considerable part had been made away with 
& appropriated in another and to uses of which the Army 
had had no advantage whatever. That having carefully 
examined into these complaints & finding they were but too 
well founded & that besides the Eice, Cattle etc. as above set 
forth there had been a number of Negroes, Plate, Household 
furniture & other valuable Effects all carried off in hke man- 
ner under the description of Eebell property. We Conceived 
it to be our indispensable duty to prevent such abuses for the 
future. That in order to remedy these unwarrantable Pro- 
ceedings as much as we were able, in the then weak state of 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 237. 


tlie Civil Govermneiit, We desired Springer's .ittendaiice at 
our Board and having read to liini tlie Complaints tt Deposi- 
tions that had been lodged against him, We represented the 
danger he had already brought himself into by his Past 
transactit)ns, bnt as he produced to us an authority in writing 
from the Acting Quarter Master General, we thought it best 
to avoid any altercations and prevent disputes with the Army 
to caution him Springer as well as others of whom we had 
like Conn)laints to be exceedingly circumsi)ect & carefull in 
future, for that matters were now put on a more regular 
footing than they had been. That all the deserted Property 
of the Province, Negroes, Cattle, Stock of all kinds S: whether 
belonging to Persons in Rebellion against the King or to His 
Majesties Loyal Subjects al)sent from the Province were put 
under our charge and direction and that We were determined 
to punish Delinquents & Prevent in future that wanton waste 
& destruction which had but too generall}- Prevailed. 

That altlio we had been at the utmost pains to avoid & 
prevent the most distant appearance of a misunderstanding 
between the Civil and Military Line, Yet the Precautions that 
we recommended to the above named Springer were disre- 
garded by him and the matter taken up in our Opinion, m a 
most improper and injudicious manner by Lieut. Colonel 
Prevost, who had before acted as Quarter Master General of 
the Army and at this time had the appointment of Lieut. 
Governor of the Province, for instead of checking this man 
from acting in the unruly ct unwarrantable manner he had 
done and which we apju-ehend would most effectually have 
put a stop to an evil so justl}- <fc so generally complained of, 
he openly & wannly E -ipoused his Cause & that in defiance 
of the Civil Government newly established & the authority 
vested in us for executing the Office & Trust of Commis- 
sioners of Claims. That several attempts were very earl}- 
made to discountenance & even to supersede this Appoint- 
ment, We were threatened with the denunciation of Martial 
Law if we persisted in the execution of our duty, which We 
were told would Obstruct & Counter Act the Opperations of 
the Army, this was done l)y the Lieut. Governor himself sig- 
nified by a letter said to be fi'Om the General and which was 


read to us by the Lieut, (lovernor in a very unusual manner. 
Allarnied at this nienac*^ AVe (h'sired to know in wliat manner 
we were to act for if Jealousy had taken place before we had 
even began upon any effectual business, We apprehended it 
would not be in our power to do justice to the appointment, 
to this we were answered that with respect to the Property to 
the King's Loyal Subjects, Absentees fi-om the Pro^ance, 
there would be no inteiTuption to our Acting, but as to Rebel! 
Proy)erty it was thought it could not be better taken care of 
than by the Army who had the best right to it. That it was 
in vain for us to represent as we did from time to time, the 
Great Injury to Individuals as well as the immense waste 
and Destruction brought upon the Province at large while 
such men as Springer, McGirth, and a Great number of that 
stamp were suffered and we. fear encouraged to enter Houses 
and Plantations at their discretion, to live at fi'ee quarter 
wherever they pleased and carry off Negroes, Cattle, Horses 
and Property of all kinds under the Idea that all was fi-ee 
Plunder. In a word instead of being able to lay before 
Your Excellency an account of Property recovered from the 
Estates that were intended to have been put under our care 
& management or saved from the General & Universal "Waste 
every where committed. We shall not when our accounts are 
made up be able to defray the Common Expences of the 
Persons necessarily employed as Overseers & others acting 
in different Parts of the Province. 

Signed Martin Jollie, 

R. Kelsall. 
His Excellency 

Sir James AVright Bart. 



[In Sir James Wright's (No. 20) of 20tli May 1780. | 

Commissioners of Claims Office 
Savannah 29tli April 1780. 

When we received Your Excellencjs orders to la}- before 
you the proceedings of our Board, we should have immedi- 
ately paid obedience thereto, but as by much the greatest 
part of the property, the care of which was the object of our 
Commission, had been made away with, wasted and destroyed 
before we had entered into Office, we Judged it necessary 
previous to laying our Transactions before Your Excellency, 
that the Board of Police and former Board of Claims should 
state to you what they had respectively done for securing the 
property of Rebells and others absent from the Province, so 
that Your Excellency might have at one view, the proceedings 
of the three Boards and from thence be better able to judge 
of the Causes that have in a great measure rendered all 
attempts to save that property abortive. By the first Com- 
mission we had the Honor to receive from Your Excellency, 
we were impowred to take under our care and management 
all Rebell Property in the Province, as well as that of other 
Absentees not having lawful! Attorneys here, and we were 
directed to Rent the Houses, Plantations and Negroes coming 
under the above description. The first step we took after 
entering upon the business of the Office, was to notify to the 
Publick, by an advertizement in the Gazette, our Appoint- 
ment and the several matters that came under our Charge 
and Management, requiring all persons haveing in their, 
possession or under their care any of the Property above 
described to make a return of the same to our Board: we 
allso appointed men of character to insj^ect the state and 
condition of the Plantations to the Southward of Great 
Ogeechee River and to endeavour '\9y every means hi their 
power to secure the Property that remained in that part of 
the Province from bemg totally plundered and destroyed. 

* p. K. O. Aiu. & W. Ind. vol. 237. 


Your Excellency having agreed with us in opinion that no 
eftectual method could ho taken for retaining the Negroes 
that might be collected which come under our management 
and who were dispersed all over the Country, untill a AVork- 
house could be built for securing them in till they could be 
otherwise disposed of, we accordingly engaged a jierson and 
agreed Avith him to build a ])roper House for the ])urpose. 
The Season of the year l)eing too far advanced \vv found it 
inn)ractical)le to rent (nit the Vacant Plantaticms for that year 
for the pur])ose of planting but as many of His Majesty's 
Loyal Subjects and Refugees from other Provinces were 
possessed with Negroes the}' wished to employ, we gi'anted 
Licenses to such persons to make Staves and Naval Stores 
upon Lands that were deemed Eebell Property on condition 
of their paying Tg '^ Cent on the value of their commodities, 
at the markett price of Savannah. 

As there were a gi'eat number of Houses in the Town of 
Savannah that were deemed Rebell property, the renting out 
of these Houses w^ould have constituted a fund of considera- 
ble value. We therefore proceeded to take an Account of 
them in order to rent out such as was not in the immediate 
possession of the Officers of the Army Commissaries and 
others, for although from the tenour of our first Commission 
it appeared to be Your Excellencys intention that all the 
Houses in Savannah that were Rebell property should be 
rented out by us, and the moneys ariseing from them to be 
appropriated for the Pubhck use of the Province untill His 
Majesty's pleasure could be known yet such has been the 
Spirit of Jealousy, amongst some of the Military against the 
civil estabHshment and such has been the E-epacity for 
Plunder that we plainly foresaw, few or none of the many 
Houses in Savannah could be rented out by us, wdthout 
comeing to an open Rupture Avith the Army an Event we 
have ever most studiously endeavoured to avoid — -Some 
doubts haveing arose soon after our appointment, respecting 
the extent of our poweijs & the mode of carrying them into 
execution we stated them in Queries to Your Excellency 
which you were pleased to refer to the Attorney General a 
Copy of tlicse Queries together with his Answers to them, 

Letters i^Roivt sir james wright. 2§9 

we now beg leave to lay l)efore your Excellency, as it appears 
clearly from his opinion that without a legislative sanction 
such difficulties may and must occurr, as will reduce our 
Powers & authority to a mere shadow and render fraitless 
every good purpose of the apjDointment : As this oi)inion was 
soon verefyed by Facts, we think ourselves sufficiently war- 
rented in stating this want of proper authority as one of the 
principal causes of our haveing failed in Canying the benifi- 
cial purposes of our Commission into execution to the extent 
that was intended and expected fi-om it. 

Such was the steps taken by us on our entering into Office 
and which we flattered ourselves would have answered the 
ends of our Appointment as far as our limited & defective 
powers would admitt ; biit unhappily for this Country, the 
ariival of the fi-ench and rebell forces, the Siege of Savannah 
and the Enemy being so long in possession of every thing 
without our Lines, amongst many other ruinous consequences 
very materially aftected that property which was the object 
of our Commission a great part of it haveing been carried off, 
at that time, by the Enemy and since by the dayly incui-sions 
of plundering parties of the Eebells whose Rage & Mallice is 
become so great as to commit the most wicked and wanton 
depredations, almost within sight of the Lines, When to 
this melancholy detail we add the very great number of 
Attachments that have been laid upon the Estates of j^ersons 
now in Rebellion — the rebell Houses in Savannah being 
entirely given up to the use of the Army : and the greatest 
part of the Negroes that fled or were brought into this 
Province, as well as many of those belonging to persons 
formerly of this Country, but now in Rebellion being 
employed & embodied as Pioneers of the Army and in the 
publick Works, besides a very considerable number taken 
possession of, by the Commissaries, Quarter Master General, 
their Deputies and other Military Departments as also many 
Officers and even Soldiers of the Ai*my : we say when all 
these matters are considered, it must evidently appear that 
we have nothing now remaining under our charge or manage- 
ment except the Lands and the very few improvements on 


tlieiii has escaped the general waste and devastation that 
has overspread this wliole Ooinitry. 

Le'svis Johnston, 
(Signed) Martin Joijje, 

Pv. Kki.sai.l. 

His Excellency 

Sii' James Wright Bait. 



[In Sir James Wright's (No. 20) of 20 May 1780.] 

Seal of I To the King's Most Excellent Majesty The 
Courts of cieorgia.) Humlile Address of the Judges Grand 

Jury, and several other Inhabitants of 
the Province of Georgia. 

May it please Your Majesty, 

We Your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal Subjects, the 
Judges, Grand Jury and several other inhabitants of this your 
Province of Georgia met at Your Majesty's Court of Oyer and 
Terminer and General Goal Delivery liolden for this Pro\ince 
embrace this Opportunity to testify our attachment to Your 
Majesty's Person and Government, and to return you our most 
gratefid Thanks for sending a Body of Your Forces here, which 
relieved this Colony from such a Scene of Tyranny, Fraud 
and Cruelty ; as would have disgi-aced any Asiatic Country. 

We also beg leave to make our most dutiful Acknowledge- 
ments to Your Majesty for declaring this Province to be at 
Your Peace and for Ke-establishing a Civil Government here, 
by which Means we enjoy the Blessings of Law and Liberty, 
whilst the Colonies in Rebellion against Your Majesty gi-oan 
under Tyranny and Oppression. 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 237. 


We cannot pass over in silence the Deliverance afforded 
this Province by the interposition of Almighty God, when it 
was invaded by a Force of French and Rebels much superior 
to that which the Garrison consisted of, We attribute this 
Deliverance under God, to the bravery of the Troops and 
Seamen in Your Majesty's Service, and of the Militia, the 
Sailors in the Merchants Service and others who voluntarily 
went into the Lines and manifested by their conduct how well 
Men Avill fight, when engaged in a good cause. 

We forbear to enumerate to a Prince of Your Majesty's 
Humanity, the many Instances of Oppression that were 
exercised by the French and Rebels towards such of Your 
Majesty's Subjects that fell into their Hands, as they knew to 
be well affected to Your Government, many of whom were 
stripped of their Cloathing and Sustenance, nay even of the 
Beds they lay on, and are now pining under Distress and 
Poverty, nor shall we repeat the Bloody Menaces that were 
uttered by the Enemy, as well French as Rebels, when they 
thought themselves sure of taking the Town of Savannah, 
least it should excite a sjiirit of Resentment in our Fellow 
Subjects, contrary to the Dictates of that Blessed ReKgion 
which we profess. 

We beg Leave to assure Your Majesty that w^e shall 
always use our utmost Endeavours to promote an Attachment 
to Your Person and Government and the Welfare of the 
British Empire : And we shall not fail to put up our Prayers 
to Almighty God that He will pour down His Blessings upon 
Your Majesty, Your Royal Consort and Your numerous 
Offspring that He will give You a long and happy Reign and 
that Your Posterity may sway the Sceptre of the British 
Empire till Time is no more. 
Anthony Stokes, Martin Jollie, 

Chief Justice; Assistant Judge; 

James Robertson, John Simpson, 

Attorney General; Prothonotary and Clerk 

of the Crown ; 

John Murray, Alex** Wylly, 

Foreman of the Jury ; R. W. Powell, 



Pat"" Crookshanks, 
Thomas Tallemache, 
John Henderson, 
Alex" McGown, 
John Milner, 
Ja. Buchanan, 

John Gates, 
Dennis Myhony, 
Sinclair Walters, 
D. ZuBLY, Junior, 
Jas. Herriot, 
Isaac Baillon, 
Smith Clarendon, 
Wm. Watt, 

Wm. Jones, 

Attorney at LaAV ; 
Wm. Stewart, 

Attorney at Law ; 
Th. Gibbons, 

Attorney at Law; 
Sam^ Farley, 

Attorney at Law ; 
Day" Montaigut, 

J. P.; 
Henry Shoolbred, 
Joseph Farley, 

Provost Marshal; 
Pinkethman Hawkins, 

Acting Provost Marshal ; 
George Cuthbert, 

Prothonotary's Clerk ; 
Nath^ Polhill, 

Justice of Peace for St. 

Matthew's Parish ; 
Charles McDon.vld, 

Justice of Peace for St. 

Andrew's Parish ; 
Matthew Lyle, 

Owen Owens, 

John Daniel Hammerer, 


James Stevens, 
James Butler, 

Grand Jurors ; 

Frederick Fahm, 
John Better, 
Herman Herson, 
Nicholas Hanner, 
John Heisler, 
Jacob Theiss, 
Philip Snider, 
Petty Jurors ; 

James Humphreys, 

Sexton ; 
Jas. Dowie, 
Peter Blythe, 

Planter ; 

Bod. McIntosh, 
David McCredee, 
John McIver, 
Charles Shaw^, 
bobt. porteous, 
John Irvine, 

Practitioner in Physic 

and Surgery; 
Peter Dean, 
Geo. Jollie, 
Bazil Cowper, 

Christopher Frederic Treib- 

Minister of the Lutheran 

Congregation at Ebene- 

Geo. D'erbage, 

Deputy Secretary of the 


Major Militia Parish St. Province ; 

George ; E. Kelsall, 

T. ZuBLY, D. D., KicHAiiD Davis, 

and Minister of a Con- Clerk to the Judges and 

gi-egation of English <fe Cryer. 

German Protestants at 

Savannah ; 

A true Copy 


Geo. D'erbage, 

Depy Secy- 



20 May 1780. 

No. 21. Savannah in Georgia the 20th of May 1780. 

My Lord, 

I have the satisfaction to acquaint Your Lordship that 
Notwithstanding the wretched State the Province is Just now 
in, and Partys of Eebels Coming from Carolina and Plunder- 
ing, and Carrying off the Inhabitants within 5 or 6 Miles of 
the Town, Yet we managed so as to get all the Writs of 
Election Executed in every Parish and District Except in St. 
Paul's where Augusta is, and on the 9th instant we met and 
opened the Session, and now Inclose your Lordship Copys 
of what Passed on that Occasion and which I lioi)e may be 
Approved of. 

I think my Lord there is a good Assembly, and I hope I 
may be able to Carry into Execution Some Matters which I 
Presume it is wished may be done. But my Lord much still 
Depends on the Eeduction of South Carolina after which all 
Proper Exertions will be used. 

* p. R. O. An». & W. Uul. vol. '237. 


We are now waiting with the utmost anxiet}^ to hear (jf 
that Event. 3 months and an half Since the Tro(jps h^ft 
Savana and Charles Town (for ought we know) still in the 
Hands of the Rebels. 

But to lle})eat Neglects and distresses &c. Occasioned 
thereby is Irksome, therefore I shall only add that Your 
Lordship may Rely on it, every thing in my Power shall be 
done for His Majesty's Service. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged & obed' Serv* 

Ja. "Wright. 
The Right Hon^''' Lord Geofge Germain 
His Maj*^'" Principal Secretary of State 
For America &c. &c. <fec. 

R IGth June. 


25 Mat 1780. 

No. 22. Savannah in Georgia the 25th of May 1780. 

My Lord, 

Yesterday Colonel Clarke Arrived here from Charles Town 
to take the Command of the Troops on the Departure of 
General Prevost, which is fixt for the 28tli instant And I have 
now the Honor to congratulate Your Lordshij) on the Sur- 
render of Charles Town to the Commander in Chief of His 
Majestys Forces. The Terms I will not Presume to say any 
thing about. I have had a very full Conversation with 
Colonel Clark and he seems disposed to do every thing in his 
Power for His Majestys Service and the Protection of this 

♦ p. R. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. 237. 


I find l)y him that two (<()iisi(Uu-al)ki Bodys of Troo])s are 
Gone np the Conntry in CaroHiia, whi(;li I tliinj^ its very- 
Probable will brinff the matter to a Point there, as I am 
firmly Persuaded Great Numbers are (lis])()sed t(^ Pieturn t(» 
their Allegiance but they have still doubts, Pears and appie- 
hensions, that the army will soon go to the Northward, and 
Avithout sufiicient Protection they may Fall a Sacrifice. 

I have Advised Colonel Clark, and he has determined to 
Send up a Body of Men to Augusta, he thinks 300 Sufficient, 
but I much wish it was twice the Number, biit as the Trom- 
back llegiment of Hessians is ordered to Charles Town, inore 
can't be s})ared. and let me entreat Your Lordshij) to Enforce 
the Establishing a Corps of at least 150 Horse for the Partic- 
ular Services and Protection of this Province, it is the only 
thing that can give us Peace and Security here, while there 
is any Remains of Rebellion and such a Corps of Horse will 
be of more Service than GOO Foot. Last Sunday Night a 
Party of Rebel Plunderers came within seven miles of the 
Town and Carried off' some Prisoners and about 20 Negroes. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged A:, obed^ Serv' 

Ja. AYllIGHT. 
The Right Hon''^' Lord George Gerniaui 

His Maj^-^ "^ Princii)al Secretary of State &c. &c &c. 

I Indorsed I 
R Kith July. 



iJ June 1780. 

No. 2o. Savanah in Geokgia the Dth of June 1780. 

My Lokd, 

I have now the Honor and very Great Satisfaction to 

* p. R. 0. Am. & W. lud. vol. 237. 



;u'(|u;iiiit your Lordship, that I have received Letters from 
Some (leiitlemeii at Au^ista Giving me an Account that 
General \\'illiams()n with the ltel)el Forces had all left that 
Phice on the 29th Ult" and tliat the Inhabitants at and al)()\e 
Augusta who have Stood out and remained in llebellion, have 
had Several Meetings to Consult what was most Proper for 
them to do, and in what Manner to Apply to me, to Solicit 
Peace, or obtain Sonu' kind of Pardon or Terms — and that 
after they have Settled and agreed upon this amongst them- 
selves three Persons will be deputed and sent to me with 
their Submission and recpiest. this my Lord I give full 
Credit to, but as they are not yet come, I can't say in what 
Light it may appear. However when I receive it, I shall 
Endeavour to do that which I think best for His Majesty's 
service, and the General Good of the Province and People, 
my Accounts also mention that the Inhabitants in the Back 
Country in South Carolina, are Preparing Petitions to Sir 
Henry CHnton with the Same Views, so that I am very lioi)e- 
full my Lord Peace will soon be Re-established in these 
Provinces and Doubt not but (as I have always said) the 
Keduction of them will Give a Mortal Stab to the llebellion. 
For an Account of the Attack at Cambden, I have Inclosed 
one of our Gazettes which Contains the Comnmnder,in Chiefs 
Orders Notifying that aflair, this Stroke I think Avill have a 
Prodigious Good Effect, and if once the Country People have 
Si)irit Enough to Seize on their Late Leaders and deliver 
them u}), liebellion Avill soon take its Flight. 
I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most obliged and obedient Servant 

Ja. AVkight. 

The Right Hon'"'"' Lord George Germain 
His Maj*^*" Prhicii)al Secretary of State 
for America etc. &c. &c. 

R 17th Oct'-' 



17 Ji'LY 1780. 

No. 24. Savanah in Georgia 17tli July ITMO. 

My Loi!D, 

On the 1st Instant, I assented to a Bill Intitled an Act to 
dis(|iialify it render incapal)le the several Persons therein 
after named, from holding or exercising cUij OlHce of Trust, 
Honor or Profit in the Province of Georgia for a certain time 
tV for other purposes therein mention'd. This Bill my Lord 
I judged ver}' necessary for His Majesty's Service as some 
kind of punishment to Delinquents & check to Rebellion and 
indeed for the sui)port of Go'sernment & the peace S: quiet 
of the Inhabitants — For b}' it They were not only disabled 
as in the Title, but they are disqualified from serving on Jur}S 
from setting as Members of the Assendjly & are disarm'd & 
oblig'd to take the State Oaths & a new Test, also to lind 
security for their good behaviour &c. and I am hopefull it 
will answer many good purposes & when such a strong dis- 
position appear'd to general pardon, forgiveness (t oblivion, I 
thought it the more necessary that something of this kind 
should be done & doul)t not but His Majesty will be graci- 
ously pleas'd to ajjprove it. 

At the time I assented to a Bill Intitled an Act for the 
Relief of such of His Majesty's Loyal Subjects as are Iidiab- 
itants of the Province of Georgia or have any ProjiertA' or 
intercourse therein. It was thought very necessary my Lord 
to pass a Law of this kind for altho' all the pretended Laws 
& Proceedings of the Rebels were absolutely null and void 
yet it will very much quiet & satisfy the minds of the People 
to declare them by Law to be so, & we had an exceeding good 
Precedent S: Exanq)le in the Statute of the 1st Will <S: Mary 
Session 2d Chap. 9 after the Rebellion in Ireland. 

And on the 10th Instant I assented to the following Bills, 
Viz: An Act for the Limitation of Actions Sz for avoiding: 

* p. R. O. Am. \- W. Ind. vnl. 237. 

308 IJ-'/l'TEllS V\H)M sill JAMES WRIGHT. 

Suits at Law and to rc))cal an Act heretofore made for that 
]nir])ose A: for othcu' ])ur|)OHes thereinafter mentioned. 

An Act to exphun, amend & reduce into tme x\ct of Assem- 
bly the several Laws now in being relating to the ascertaining 
the Qualifications of Jui'ors S: for establishing the Method of 
]>alloting A' Summoning of Jurors in the Province of Georgia. 

An Act to ex])lain ct amend A' make the more effectual an 
Act pass'd the Dtli day of June 17(51 Intitled an Act for sub- 
jecting tt making liable to attachment the Estate Real A: Per- 
sonal of absent Debtors in the Custody A' power of any 
Person or Persons within this Province A' for other purposes 
therein mentioned. These three Acts my Lord were pro])os'd 
to me by the Chi^f Justice A' on a conversation Avith him A' 
looking into the former Laws I saw that the alterations and 
amendments propos'd would be very usefull A' reaUy seemVl 
necessary & they a\ ere accordingly framed by the Attorney 
General A: Lawyers in the House of Assembly. 

An Act for the regulation of Auctions — Laying a duty on 
Goods, Wares & Merchandize Sold at Auction & for empow- 
ering the Governor or Commander in Chief for the time 
l)eing to Licence the Auctioneers. 

Selling Goods by Public Auction my Lord became so 
general that it Avas found to be attended with many incon- 
veniences both Pul)lic and Private. The Inhabitants who 
are Shopkeepers complain'd that every thing was sold at 
Auction, that they got little or no custom A: could not suj)- 
])ort their Families that they were liable to all Personal 
Dutys A' Taxes A'c. etc. whereas Transient Pei'sons A' others 
Avho were not liable to Personal Public Service or to pay any 
Taxes A^c. undersold them without contributing an}' thing 
towards the sui)i)ort of Government &c. wherefore for the 
reasons set forth in the Act, it was thought advisable A:, pro- 
])er to i)revent such fretpient Sales by Auction, by compelling 
the Auctioneers to take out a License A' l>y laying a duty on 
the Goods sold. 

An Act for the relief of such of His Majesty's Loyal Sub- 
jects as have any lieal or Personal Property in the Province 
of Georgia and whose Title Deeds, Bonds, Notes, Grants of 
Lands and other Evidences, Vouchers Ar, Writings have been 


either lost, destroyed or carried oft' dnrino- the time herein- 
after mentioned. 

As man}' Tioyal Snbjects liave lost their Title Deeds or had 
tliem destroyed one way (^r another dnrinf;- tin' Rebellicm, it 
was thonfrht very necessary S: ]iroper to ^i\e them all possi- 
ble relief tt assistance with respect to the same <t in this we 
had the Example of the British Parliament by the Statnte of 
the 20th of George the 2d after the Rebellion in Scotland. 

An Act to explain, amend tt rednce into one Act the several 
Laws m^w in being relative to the Town A' Common of 8a- 
vanah & for other pnrposes therein mention'd. 

This my Lord was look'd npon as a very necessary- Law 
for keeping clean S^ in good order the Town <{' Comnnm, & 
scmie defects having been discover'd in the former Laws, this 
was fram'd fi'om the most material parts of the former Laws. 
An Act to contimie the several Laws therein mentioned. A 
Continnation Law was absolntely necessary as a great many 
very good and nsefnll Laws wonld have expired Avith the 
Sessicms of Assembly. 

Upon the whole my Lord these Laws were consider'd as 
nsefnll and necessary <t I have order'd Copies to be made 
ont to transmit to yonr Lordship ct hope on examination 
none of them will be fonnd exceptionable. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Yonr Lordships 

most obliged tt obed* Serv* 

Ja. AYright. 
The Eight Honoral)le Lord George Germain 

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State A'c. etc. itc. 


R 11th Oct^- 1780. 

810 lRttKrs fbom sit^ JAMES wnrc.HT. 



10 .Iiiv 17S0. 

No. 25. Savanah in Geohgia, tlie lOtli of July 17S0. 

My Lord, 

In my letter of the 17tli iiistunt No. 24 I have Given your 
Lordshiji <in Account of the Several Bills assented to by me 
during the Session of Assembly, there was one or two more, 
which I had in View, but the Weather was Excessively hot c^' 
the Gentlemen grew tired of Attending to business tt I 
thought it most Pnident to let 'em alone till our next meet- 
ing. I have received Petitions fi-om Several Districts in the 
Back Clountry to be received & Restored to His Maj^^'" Peace 
A: Protection and have now the Honour to Inclose your 
Lordship a Copy of one of them & of the written answer 
Given thereto, but the Inhabitants on the Ceded Lands 
where I am well Informed there is now at least from 7 to 
800 Eftective Men, altho' willing to Submit have kept back a 
little on a Report that the King's Troops were to quit Au- 
gusta, which made them not Choose to Deliver up their 
Arms and I was once Apprehensive that a Body of Troops 
must have been sent there to Reduce them to Obedience ct 
disarm them, Yet by my last Accounts from thence I am very 
hopefull they will give up their arms quietly. But however 
the People in this Province & Cai'olina may seem to be 
Sincere in their Return to their Allegiance, they must be 
watched \nth great attention for some time. 

I have wrote very fully to Lord Cornwallis with Respect to 
the Situation of Afiairs in this Province & given his Lordship 
my humble Opinion what Posts ct Force I apprehend will be 
necessary to Establish here, at least for some time, viz : at 
Augusta 250, at Dartmouth in the Ceded Lands 100, at Sun- 
bury 50, a Corps of Horse to scour the Country & as a 
Moving Army 150. at Savanah I did not Mention any Num- 
ber but Submitted the whole to his Lordships Superior Judg- 
ment, tho' I presume at Savannah not less than 400, In the 
whole 800 Foot & 150 Horse and with this Force I think 

* p. U. O. Ai*. \ \V. linl. vul. -SM 


riel)ellion ciuuiot Rear its Head af^aiii in Ge(ir<j,ia and the 
Inhabitants will ])egin to turn their thou^'hts to Industry A- 
the Province will Soon Resettle A' Flourish aj^ain, when the 
Number may be Reduced. 

I Trust yoiu' Lordship Will l)e of Opinion that this Force 
is or will be Necessary at least till the Rel^ellion is Sulidued 
in the Northern Colonies or until Peace T;ikes place, for my 
Lord where Rel)ellion has taken such deep root as it has 
l)een Suffered to do here, I fear Nothing but Punishment 
or Force can Secure (xovernment against it for some time. 

Punishment Seems quite out of the Question as your Lord- 
ship Sees by the Capitulation A- Proclamations S: all our most 
Violent Rebels I am Well Informed are Preparing to Return 
here, indeed Several are come already, and the Nest of 
Oliverians in St. John's Parish will most of them be here as 
Soon as their Crops are Reapt in S" Carolina, Judge then my 
Lord what a Situation things will be in here, if we have not 
the Force I have Mentioned. — no Examples made — no Suf- 
ferings or losses, as to Property by the Rebels, Imt a kind of 
Small Temporary loss, and now Sitting down again with all 
their Property Lands (t NegToes, and Seeing those who had 
Integrity & Spirit Enough to Adhere to their Loyalty Mostly 
Ruined, For your Lordship may Give me full Credit when I 
(ifiserf that the Friends of Government as they are Called, the 
Good, True and Faithfull Subjects, are tlie only People who 
have Suftered ct lost their Property, and what Effect this may 
have is Sulimitted to your Lordship. 

Your Lordship may rest assured that every thing which it 
is Possi])le for me to do, for His Majesty's Service, Will be 
done, and when I have the Honor to Receive Lord Corn- 
wallis's Determination on my letter Relative to the Support 
tt Military assistance Which I Conceive may be Necessary in 
this most YaluaV)le Province, I shall acquaint your Lordship 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most ol)liged and obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Hon'''' Lord George Ge\-main 

His Maj'>''* Principal Secretary of State cVc. S:c. Ac. 

[LahrsfiJj R 11th Ocf. 



17 Aro. ITSd. 

No. 20. Savanah in Georgia the 17tli of Au^' 1780. 

My Eord, 

As I think it my Duty to Acquaint Yonr Lordship witli 
every Transaction here, in which His Majest^-'s Seryice is, or 
may be Concerned or Aft'ected, I therefore beg- leave to Men- 
tion that on the tith of June hist, Mr. John Gh-n the hite 
Reliel Chief Justice of this Province, Mr. James Houstown 
a Suro-eon or Doctor in the Rebel Continental Service & Mr. 
John Sutclifte all Noted Rebels came to Savanah, which I 
was Immediately Acquainted with S: that they were going 
about the Town, as if they had Never committed any the 
least Offence whatever, and AVithout Calling ui)on me or 
CoP Clarke the Commanding Officer of the Kings Troops 
here, this my Lord I thought rather too much to Suffer or 
Submit to — Wherefore I directed the Gentlemen of the 
Council to be Summoned & laid the matter before them, who 
advised that it Should be Stated ct Sent to the Attorney 
General to Report his Opinion thereupon, and which he 
Accordingly did on'the 10th of June a Copy of which is now 


And on that Report being laid before the Council, it was 
their Advice that the Attorney General Should V)e directed to 
do what is Necessary it Proper to be done in Such Cases, and 
he Applied to the Chief Justice for a AVarrant against Mr. 
Glen it the others for High Treason tt they were Appre- 
hended, on which Mr. Glen Gave in a Petition a Copy 
whereof is Inclosed & on that being Laid before the Council 
on the 14th they were of Opinion that he Should be Per- 
mitted to take the Oaths ct return to his Allegiance, but that 
the matter of Pardon did not Lye with me it the Clerk of the 
Council was Ordered to write to Mr. Glen a Copy of which 
is also Inclosed. 

* 1*. B. O. Am. & W. Iiiil. vol. 'JUT. 

t.P/ri'Ers FROM STR JAMES WHTrilTT. Bl3 

The other Person Sutt-hffe also Petitioned tfe lie S: Mr. Glen 
were Admitted to Bail A- afterwards took the State Oaths &ic. 
But Mr. Hoiistown being- Haughty & Obstinate Continued in 
Confinement tt on the 21st of June Avrote a letter to Col. 
Clarke the Military Commanding Officer here, a Copy where- 
of is also Inclosed & on Col. Clarke's Sending that letter to 
me, I Immediately Referred it to the Attorney General to 
Answer the Allegations & make his Eeport to me which he 
did on the 22d c^ a Copy whereof is also Inclosed, and thus 
my Lord the matter rested till the 14th of July when Mr. 
Houstown Consented to Give me Bail for his Appearance, on 
the Attorney General agreeing that no Advantage Should be 
taken of Mr. Houstowns not Appearing in Case of being 
under any Military Restraint or Difficulty on account of his 
Parole &c and my Lord Lieut. CoP Clarke having Trans- 
mitted me Houstown's letter & the Attorney General's Re- 
port thereon to Lord Cornwallis, his Lordship Referred the 
Same to Mr. James Simpson (I Presume as Attorney General) 
who on the (5th of July wrote me a letter a Copy of which is 
Inclosed. This letter altlio' wrote the 6tli I did not Receive 
'till the 22d at Night and Soon after Sent it to the Attorney 
General Mr. Robertson to Answer, a Copy of which Your 
Lordship has also Inclosed, and thus I have Stated the whole 
Proceedings Relative to Mr. Glen A: the Others, for your 
Lordships Information and will not Doubt that the Steps 
taken in Support of His Majesty's Civil Government here & 
to Check ct Punish Treason & Rebellion will be Apprc^ved of. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most Obliged and Obed* Ser* 

Ja. Wright. 

The Right Hon'''*" Lord George Germain 

His Maj'^ ** Principal Secretary of State Arc. Ac. A:c. 

R 11th October. 



20 Ai'orsT ITHO. 

No. 27. Sayanati in Georgia the 2{)tli of August 1780. 

My Lord, 

Ou tlio lOtli of July in my letter Number 25, I meutioued 
to your Lordship what I had wrote to Lord CoruwalHs with 
Respect to tlie Number of His Majesty's Ti'oops which I 
judged might be Necessary to Post or Station in this Pro-Yince 
for its Defence S: Security against Rebelhon ik I then wrote 
tliat when I had the Honor to Receive his Lordships AnsAver 
I should Acquaint your Lordship thereMath, and now Inclose 
a C^opy or Extract of Lord Cornwallis's lettei- to me of the 
18th of July in Answer to Mine of the od : also a (V>py of 
my Reply to that letter and in a letter I wrote his Lordship 
on the 9th of July I took Occasion to say "I Trust Your 
Lordship will not weaken the Military Force here too soon, 
or too much. For altho the Flame of Rebellion is Pretty 
Avell Extinguished at Present, yet it may Revive and break 
out again if we are not very Circumspect." 

His Lordship also wrote me of the 24th of J\i\y "That the 
Propriety of a Post at Sunbury will of ('ourse be Refer'd to 
Lieut. Colonel Clarke to whom his Lordship liad given the 
Command of the Troops in Georgia A' East Florida, and the 
care of the Ceded Lands & Dartmouth to that of the Com- 
manding Officer at Ninety Six." 

And my Lord I don't Expect that even the Fifty Horse 
men will be Estal)lished, altho' my Self & the Council are 
dearly of Opinion that it is Extremely Necessarj^ because 
the Posts between Savanah and Augusta are at 140 Miles 
distance, and Nothing to Protect the Loyal Inhal)itants or to 
Check any Party of Rebels, who may get in between and 

* p. R. U. Am. & \V. Iiid. vol. 237. 


because this Country is now Infested with Partys of Robbers 
on Horse back, there is one McKay who has a Party Some 
say of 12 & others Say twenty, with which lie Pol)S on the 
Highway between this ct Augusta & goes Frequently to the 
Banks of Savanah River and has Stop't Robbed and Plun- 
dered Several Boats. — and my Lord there is another Set of 
Villains, the Remains of McGirt & his Gang, who go armed 
on Horse back about the Country, Twenty of them or 
upwards together and Steal & Carry off Great Numbers of 
Cattle into East Florida. I have Several Informations lodged 
that within three Months Past they have Carried aAvay 
upwards of a Thousand Head of Cattle, and this they do at 
Noon day, and the Poor Inhabitants Can't help themselves 
or Prevent it, and the Civil Power cannot come at them, for 
what can the Provost Marshall ct a few Constables do against 
upwards of Twenty Horse men well Mounted & Armed, And 
as things are now Circumstanced and the Country almost 
broke up there is no Possiliility of Raising the Posse C-omi- 
tatus. The Chief Justices AVarrants have been long out 
against McGirt & his Gang, but they Stand in CJontempt & 
Defiance of that & all Law & Government. 

The Troops at Savanah my Lord I think are in all about 
500 and at Augusta now, only about 240 and which I believe 
are the whole of His Majesty's Forces at Present in the 
Province of Georgia. But your Lordship will be Precisely 
Informed by the Returns, — and when any of these or any 
others may be sent either to Sunbury or Dartmouth I Can't 
Say but I understand that if there should be Reason to 
Apprehend an Attack upon East Florida, in Such Case the 
Garrison at St. Augustine is to be Remforced fi-om hence and 
I must say that I think this Province is already too soon ct 
too much weakened. 

I find we have only 15 Nine Pounders, 4 Six Pounders and 
1 four Pounder all Mounted on Ship Carriages late the Guns 
of His Majesty's Ship Rose — 2 Pieces of Brass Six Pound 
Ordnance 5 four Pounders & 2 three Pounders, two of which 
are only fit t(^ take the Field- -and 3 Twenty four Pounders 
not mounted. 

•H^) i.nTEHs ft:om >^m .tamest wrttciiiT. 

I tliiiik it my (Inty to let Your Lordship kiunv as noar as I 
can th(^ wliole Streiij^tli of this Provinre. 

I have tlie Honor to ])e witli Perfect Esteem 
My Tjoid, ^'onr Lordsliips 

most Ol.h'-vd A- Oh.MVServ' 

Ja. WliKJHT. 

The Piio-ht Hoii'>'" L(n-d Georo-e Germain 

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State etc. Ac. A^c, 

I Ill(ll)fS('(l I 

li 15th N()vend)er. 



18 Sept. 17H0. 

No. 28. Savanah in Geougia 18th Sepf 1780. 

My Lord, 

Yesterday I Receiv'd Advice from Angnsta acqnaintinp; me 
that a great Number of the Inhabitants on the Ceded Lands 
together with some from South C-arolina had come to Augusta 
<m the 14th Inst, k attack'd Col. Brown A' that tliey had 
defeated him k He was oblig'd to retire into a Small Stockade 
Fort there— There was at Augusta about 450 Creek Indians 
& I believe Col. Brown has about 200 of his own Corps. It 
appears to me that the Attack was so sudden that Col. BroAvn 
had not time to send off an Ex})ress Sz no Accounts are as 
yet come from him — and it is fear'd and not doubted that 
Augusta has fallen into the hands of the Rebels. The 
Temptation was certainly too great unless there had been a 
stronger force there. I am wt'll inform'd that the Goods 
Intended as Presents to the Indians was at least of X4000 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. 2:!7. 


Sterl" value- -Prime (lost, which it is sujipos'd must have 
laUeii into the Hands of the Rebels Sc the whole sucli sort 
of Goods as the Back Country Peo])le esteem most — It is 
inipossible to say as yet what the consecjuences of this 
unfortunate Affair uniy be 1 inclose for your Lordshi})s 
further infornnition a Copy of a Letter I have this day wrote 
to Colonel Balfour on the subject ct have tlu^ Hon(n' to be 
with Perfect Esteem 

My Lord, Your Lordshi})s 

most obliged (t obed^ Serv*^ 

J A. WltlGHT. 
The Eight Ilon'''^ Lord Geo. Germain, 

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State &c, A'c. <S^c. 

K 11th Dec^- 


18 iSei'Tembek 1780. 

No. 29. Savanah in Georgia the 18th of Sep'' 1780. 

My Lord, 

I had the Honor to Eeceive the Duplicate (^f your Lord- 
shi})s letter of the 7th of June No. 6. The Suspence your 
Lordship was in with Eesjiect to the O])erations at Charles 
Town would Soon be relieved after that letter was Avrote. 

I was nnide Acquainted with the Armament whicli left 
Brest the 2d of May and its now Said they got safe into 
Boston, but of this your Lt)rdslii]) Avill have been Certainly 
Advised. AVe have had no Accounts from the West Indies 
for Some time. AVhat was done during the Sessions of 
Assembly, I have fully Acquainted Your Lordship with, in 
my letter of the 17th of July No. 24 and to which I beg leave 

* p. K. O. Am. & W. lud. vol, 237. 


t(i Refer. 1 also Ac-((uaiiit('(l your Lordship fully of the Pro- 
ceedings at the Court of kSessioiis A' who were Found Guilty, 
of what Ofiences tt what Fines had been Let on them by the 

I niuc'li Avith my Lord that it was in my Power to Encour- 
age tt Reward the Loyalists, but I wrote your Lordship Long 
Since that nothing would Arise from the Deserted Estates tfc 
Sent Your Lordship Three ('o})ys of the Iie})ort of the (Com- 
missioners of Claims as the best A: only Answer in my Pow(;r 
to give your Lordshi}) to your letter on that Subject. 

Your Lordshi]) may rely on my utmost Endeavours to 
Promote everything which I think may tend to His Majesty's 
Service and to Reestablish Government <*t Harmony. 

I beg your Lordshi}) will be So Good as to Excuse the hast 
in Avhich this Letter is wrote having only Part of a day to 
Answer all your Lordships letters which I rec^^ yesterday and 
if not Dispatclu^d to day the OpiJortunity will be lost. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordshii)s 

most ol)liged tt obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wkight. 
The Right Hon'''*' Lord George Germain 

His Maj*-^'* Principal Secretary of State &c. <fec. &c. 

1 l)i<1()riic(l\ 
R. 14th Dec-^- 



18 8ei't. 1780. 

No. 80. Savanah in Geohgia the 18th of Sei)t'' 1780. 

My Loiii), 

I had the honor to receive ycnir Lordship's letter the 7th of 
July No. 7 yesterday. The Event my Lord of the surrender 

* p. U. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. 237. 


of Charles Town & its Depcndancics, also of the Naval Force 
there was certanilj glorious tt important. I had before that 
issued the Writs of Election as your Lordshi]) would see by 
my Letters on that subject. The reduction of S" Carolina 
my Lord certainly afforded us great seciirity Init we had 
danger again at our doors which my Lord Cornwallis's defeat 
of General Gates S: his Army & Col. Tarleton's defeat of 
Sumpter a few days afterwards warded off from us — And 
your Lordship will see by my Letter of this day No. 28, that 
Ave are not even now in a state of security tt I nuist again 
repeat that I think we have been too soon & too much 
weaken'd. Your Lordship will l)e the best Judge how far it 
may be sound i)olicy, to leave a Conquer'd or in })art Con- 
quer'd Country without sufficient strength to support the 
King's Authority & Government, for these People have been 
so long in Rebellion & are so greatly alienated from His 
Majesty's Governm* that they will not for some time return 
cordially tt) their former ol)edience it strange as this may 
seem to be, it is too much the case. I observe what your 
Lordship is pleased to mention with respect to the £5000 & 
shall follow the mode })rescribed. 

I am glad to hear that a regular Monthly Packet is estab- 
lish'd between Falmouth & Charles Town & that the Com- 
munication will be restor'd between Charles Town & St. 
Augustine through Savanah, for at present I have no oppor- 
tunity of corresponding with Your Lordship but by chance 
conveyances <fc that which Your Lordship is i)leased to men- 
tion from Charles ToAvn when Lord Lincoln or the packet 
went I had not the least notice or intinnition of, till after they 
were gone for the Military give little attention to any thing 
but what is in their own department. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most obliged & obed' Serv' 

Ja. Wkight. 

The Eight Hon'^^'' Lord Geo. Germain 

His Maj'y'* Principal Secretary of State &c. <fec. <fec. 

\ Indorsed] 
R 14th Dec'- 




• 22 Sei't. ITHO. 

No. 81. Savanah in Geougia 22d Sej)!'' 1780. 

My Lokd, 

1 ;ini very lia|)[)y to have it in my power to acquaint Your 
Lordship that CoL Brown at Augusta with the Assistance of 
the Indians (wlio beliav'd extremely well) held out against 
the Rebels from Thursday Morn- till Monday Morn" <t the 
two last da^s without any AVater — And on Monday Morn*'' the 
llel)els hearing that Col. Cruger was marching to the relief of 
C^ol. Brown, they immediately made oli". Many llebels have 
been kill'd wounded & taken tt one hang'd tt I hope several 
others will, as they have now forfeited every kind of Claim 
to favor & protection. I cannot yet give your Lordship any 
more particular Account being determin'd to send off a Mes- 
senger Express to Charles Town Avith this Letter innnediately 
least I should miss the o})portunity by His Hajesty's Shi]) 
Hydra. This my Lord is a very fortunate Event, for had 
they succeeded, I am afi'raid, nay certain, they soon would 
have become formidable & I shall )iow endeavour that such 
Steps be taken against them as may put it out of their powder 
to do more mischief. 

Some of the Indian i)resents fell into their hands during 
the time they were there which were carried off, but the prin- 
ci})al part were deposited where Col. Brown took shelter. 
No Letter is yet come from Him. The Account I have was 
sent me by a Messenger Express from Mr. Grierson a Gentle- 
man of Augusta. 

1 have the Honor to be A\'itli Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most oblig'd tt obed' Serv' 

J A. AVkight. 
The llight Hon'''' Lord G. Germain 

His Maj'^ " Principal Secretary of State &c. etc. Arc. 

E 11th Dec'- 

* p. II. O. Api. & W. lua. vol. 3b7. 



27 0(!T()iiEi: 1780. 

No. 32. Havanah in Geohgia the 27tli of Oct'' 17.S(). 

My Loud, 

I luive now the Honor to Inclose Your Lordship a Copy of 
my Last Giving an Acconnt of the lletieat of the Rebels 
from Augasta and from the best Information I have been 
able to Collect I don't find that the Ilebel Force Exceeded 
fi-om 4 to 450 Men, I believe Clarke who commanded Carried 
Back into Carolina 200 to 250 of them, the rest, its said 100 
killed, wounded & taken, and from 70 to 100 Surrendered 
themselves afterwards to Colonel Cruger on the Ceded Lands. 
13 Inchans were killed but for the Particulars of Colonel 
BroAvns loss I nuist beg leave to refer your Lordship to the 
Military Ileturn. The above I thbik is Pretty Just. 

Thirteen of the Prisoners who broke their Paroles & came 
against Augusta have been liang'd which I hope will have a 
very Good Effect. 

We are Doing every thing Possible to Hoot out ilebelb"on 
in this Province & for our Defence here. Several Plantations 
or Settlements on the Ceded Lands belonging to those who 
were at Augasta have been Burnt Sc Laid Waste. I think 
about 100 and Mr. Graham is now at Augusta with Dii'ections 
to see the Disqiiahfying Law Carried into Execution in its 
Utmost Extent, so that I hope when the Generality of them 
are Disarmed & have been Compelled to give Security for 
their Good Behaviour they must be convinced that Examples 
will be made both as to Life & Property and I Trust they 
will not Venture to behave in the Villainous manner they 
have hitherto done. However seeing how much the Military 
Force here is weakened & that we are Strip't of every thing 
almost I Judged it Necessary to call the Assembly to fi'ame 
a Law to Vest Further Powers in me with Iles})ect to the 
Militia cfe to Enable me to order out Negroes to Construct 

* p. E. 0. Am. & W. lud. vol. 298. 


322 l.ETTEliS FKOM Slli .lAMKS ^V1{K1HT. 

8iicli FoitiHciitioii.s k Works as may be tliouf^lit Necessary 
for the Security of the Town or hi any other Parts of the 
Province, also in Case of Necessity to Arm <fe Empk)y 
Negroes for our Defence. I Acquainted your Lordship in my 
Letter No. 27 with the Amount of the MiHtary Force here, 
and as 1 Expected we have Nothing at Sunbury, Nothing at 
Dartmouth — too weak at Augusta A- too weak at Savanah. 
These I well know and am much afraid that the Posts at 
Ninety Six & C-amden are also too weak, and we have no 
Shi]) or Vessell whatever, not even so much as a Galley, 
how far these things are Eight or Proper your Lordship will 
l)e the l)(;st Judge and I can only lle|)vesent. 
I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most obliged ct most obed' Ser* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Plight Hon''''' Lord George Germain 

His Maj'-^ *" Principal Secretary of State ttc. &c. A:c. 

I li((l()r.s('il\ 

\\ 9 January 1781. 



1 Dec. 1780. 

No. 88. Savanah in Geougia 1st Dec. 1780. 

My Lord, 

Inclos'd Your Lordshi}) has the Triplicate of my Letter 
No. 82 <V' in conseijuence of the i)ower vested in me, by the 
Bill which I assented to on the 8()tli of October last, I order'd 
out u])Avards of 400 Negroes, who have l)een at work fortify- 
ing the Town of Savanah ever since that Day. 

* p. B, 0, Am. & W, lud. vol, 21)8, 


Wo <ire inakiu}^" tivc^ Il('(l()ul)ts S: I'iitterys iV there is lo he 
H Prirji[)et made of Fascines <t Earili fioin the River at P^ach 
End & on the Back of the Town. This Parapet is 10 foot 
wi(U> & 7 foot high witli a Ditch on the Outside 15 foot wide 
at Top 10 foot Deep & sk)})ing to the Bottom 3 foot. I tliink 
the Redoubts will be finished & Each Parapet alxnit half 
done, or say the whole 4 foot liigh l)y Christmas & I t!X})ect 
the works will be entirely finish'd in all January. This my 
Lord is a most inconvenient thing tfe a heavy Tax on the 
People, being one fourth part of all their Male Slaves for near 
or quite 3 Months, ct when the work is complete I shall send 
Y"' Lordship a Plan of the whole. 

The present state of our strength will appear to Y^' Lord- 
ship from my former Letters & from the Inclosed Address of 
the Members of His Majesty's Council. 

The late Law also enables me to call out So arm Negroes 
in defence of the Province & to exercise further jiower over 
the Militia, l)ut this only in time of AJanns acfaolb/ Jiml & 
there are several things provided for which we thought neces- 
sary in these yet very perilous times. 

I have the honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most obliged & obed* Serv* 

Ja. Weight. 
The Rt Ho'^'^' Lord Geo. Germain 

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State &c. &c. <fcc. 

\ Indorsed] 

R 17th February 1781, 



.|Iii Sir Jiis. Wright's (No. 83) of 1st Dec-. 1780.1 

To His Excellency Sir James Wright, Burt. Captain General 
and Goveniour in Chief in and over His Majesty's 
Province of Georgia etc. Arc. <V:c. 

The Address of His Majesty's Council 

May it please Youii Excellency, 

We His Majesty's most dutiful and loyal Subjects the 
Council of Georgia having taken into our most serious con- 
sideration the present defenceless State of this Province and 
the many cruel Murders A: Depredations which are dayly 
committed on His Majesty's peaceable and loyal Subjects by- 
Parties of Rebell Plunderers, do think ourselves bound in 
duty to His Majesty and this Country to lay before Your 
Excellency an impartial State of its })resent situation and to 
point out Avhat appears to us absolutely necessary to prevent 
the ruin with Avhich it is threatened. 

Sir Henry Clinton having found it necessary to order from 
this Province, upon the Exj^edition against Charlestown, not 
only the gi'eatest part of the Infantr}- l)ut also all the Cavalry 
that had been raised for the Defence of this Country the 
forces left in the Province were reduced to a number barely 
sufficient to garrison Savannah and even part of these were 
soon order'd away to take possession of Augusta and the 
Post at Ninety Six in South Carolina, in consecpience of 
Avliich every other part of this Provmce was left open to the 
inroads of the Rebels, as the small Garrisons at Savamiah & 
Augusta (the only Mihtary Posts in the Province) could 
afford no kind of protection to the rest of this Country. 

We are well aware that Your Excellency did frequently 
order out the Militia, but the Rebels being well mounted and 
their Incursions sudden and repeated, it was found impracti- 
cable for foot to come up with them and prevent their depre- 

* p. R. 0. Am. & W. Ind, vol. 298. 


The Sea Coast hath, if possil)le, been left still more 
exposed to the Ravages of the Enemy, as every Vessell of 
force, even to a Galley and Gnn Boat liatli been removed into 
South Carolina, by r(^ason whereof many Enemys Vessells 
and also open Eebel Galleys and boats liave, down to the 
present time repeatedly infested the Coasts of this Province 
and captnred several Vessels even in the Creeks & Rivers 
thereof, landing from time to time and carrying off both 
Whites and Negi'oes, notwithstanding your Excellency has 
on every occasion exerted yourself in endeavouring to obtain 
effectual Assistance by applying to the Commanders in Chief 
of His Majesty's Forces by Sea and Land for the purpose of 
procuring aid, but unhappily without Effect. 

Having thus Stated to your Excellency the very exposed 
and defenceless condition of the Province we beg leave to 
observe that it appears to us absolutely necessary, in order to 
render the Mihtia of any real and permanent utility that they 
be allowed Pay and Subsistance, whilst on actual Service, as 
they and their family's cannot live without it, when they are 
taken from their dayly laliour. 

We are clearly of opinion that there is an immediate 
necessity for raising one or more Troops of Horse for the 
defence of this Country, and there can be no doubt l)ut that 
the late Attack on Augusta and the many Murders and De- 
vastations frequently committed by the Rebels will induce 
Lord Cornw allis to comply with Your Excellencys late Requi- 
sition for that purpose and if that fails the necessity of 
raising Horse appears to us so very indispensable that we 
think our selves bound in duty to His Majesty and this 
Country to recommend to Your Excellency the taking the 
measure of raising them upon yourself, trusting that His 
Majesty in his goodness will approve of the same and that 
the Expence thereof, as well as the Pay and Subsistence of 
the Mihtia whilst on duty will be defi-ayed by the Mother 
Country as fi'om the distressed and almost ruined state of 
this Pro\Tnce, it is impossible to raise a fund for those pur- 
poses by taxes on men who are already impoverished. 

In order to defend the Coast fi'om the Mischiefs already 
stated, it appears to us necessary that a proper armed Vessell 


under Your Excellency's diiection would be the most effectual 
remedy to prevent such daring outrages in future ; Arid as 
His Majesty did for many Years geiierously support an armed 
Vessel here, even in time of profound Peace, we humbl}- hope 
that sliould Your Excellency think proper to equip an armed 
Vessell in lieu of that we had before the present unnatural 
Rebellion broke out, the Measure will be approved of b}- His 
Majesty and the Expence thereof defrayed as usual. 

Tpon the whole it appears to us that if the Measures now 
recommended are not si3eedily i)ursued, the loyal Inhabitants 
here will in all probability be ruined and the Province lost 
after so much Blood and Treasure has been spent on it. 
By order of the C^ouncil 

John Grahame 

Council Chamber ) 
Savannah 21st Nov-' 1780. [ 



30 Deo. 1780. 

No. 34. Savannah in Georgia the 20th Dec"" 1780. 

My Lord, 

On the 14th Instant I had the Honor to receive the Dupli- 
cate of Your Lordship's letter of the 3rd of August No. 8 
and on the 16tli I received the Original, Wherein your Lord- 
ship is pleas'd to acknowledge the receij^t of my Letters to 
No. 22 Inclusive. 

It gives me great satisfacticm to find that the Letter I 
wrote to S'" Henry Clinton on the Subject of His first Procla- 

P. R. O. Am. \ W. Iiul. tias. 


Illation, is approv'd of by y'' Lordsliij). I know it gave ^-eat 
nnibrage <t was canvas'd Pretty freely in the Britisli ( 'anip tfe 
some things said by a man near S*" Henry Clinton, who T 
once thought knew more Law & better, than to liave asscn-ted 
Avliat I was well inform'd he did on that occasion S: another 
which happen'd afterwards the proceedings on which I sonu»- 
time ago transmitted to Y'' Lortlship — I coidd not know my 
Lord that this Province was not included in the last Com- 
mission & 8^" H. Clinton either did not ol)serve that, or 
omitted to acknowledge it. I observe Y'' Lordship's remark 
with respect to the pardoning Crimes committed in this 
Province which do not fall within the Power vested in me by 
His Majesty's Commission and which will be duely attended 

The Parties of Militia which were employed under the 
authority given by S'' Henry C'linton as mention'd in one of 
my former letters Avere very soon at an End I being given to 
understand that they could not be paid and subsisted any 
longer & I have no Power to oblige the Militia to do Military 
duty without Pay S: Subsistence. For my Lord how is it to 
be Expected or indeed Possiljle for a Poor Man, who has a 
family w^lio in a great measure depend on his daily labour, to 
leave that family to starve while He go's out on duty & How 
is he to subsist even Himself? These are matters I have 
wrote to Lord Cornwallis al)out, but to no purpose hitherto 
& so with respect to a Troop of Horse, not a Man has been 
sent here and all my applications hitherto taken very little 
Notice of tt this Province too much weakened ct left almost 
destitute & also Our Sea Coast we have been stript of every 
thing & Eebel Galleys have frequently, come into the Inlets & 
carried off many Negroes & some of the Inhabitants & this 
notwithstanding the repeated Applications to Admiral Ar- 
buthnot downwards — I am told Capt. Barclay, who at present 
commands at Charles Town, is sending a Galley here, but I 
presume if she comes she will be Soon order'd away again— 
& what is a single Galley, My Lord, to protect four or five 
different Inlets'? With respect to the Troops stationed at 
Augusta & Savannah I have already wrote Y*' Lordship fully 
on that head — I have acquainted the Chief Justice of the 

1^28 l,KTTEr.S FllOM STII TAMES \YlITr,TrT. 

reception tlieir Address met with, wliicli lias made Him very 
liappy. The Other, wliieh Your Lordshi]) niciitions, as if 
omitted to be done, was not A' I doubt not has since come to 
hand. The Legishature did not m(H^t, till the 9th of May & 
on the 8tli of June they made their Joint Address which 
I enclosed to Your Lordship on the 10th & sent two Copiers 
•to Charles Town to be forwarded as soon as any opportunity 


Both Houses are now adjourn'd to the 15th of next Month 
l)ut whether they may pass such Acts as are expected of 
Them, it is not possible for me to say; We have had a great 
Many New Members since the first Election & when I came 
to do l)usiness with them I found several of them savour'd of 
the Old Leaven. I am extremely sorry we have been mis- 
taken with respect to the duties & should now send a memo- 
rial to the Lords of the Treasury, praying that the £500 may 
be deposited in the hands of the Agent & also draw upon 
Him in favor of Mr. Rowe to replace the £450 agi-eeable to 
Y'" Lordships directions, but I have notice only one day to 
write all my Letters & therefore cannot possibly do it by this 

With respect to the Deserted Estates, I don't see that 
there is any tiling at all to be had or expected. The whole 
of the movables were totally destroyed & gone chiefly before 
the siege & wdiat remain'd were made away Avith by McGirt 
& his Gang of Villains who were always a Pest to this 
Province & swallowed up & carried off the whole deserted 
Property & many of the Owners have come back since & 
taken possession of theii' Land & Houses — & we have now 
too many Secret Pvebels & Enemies amongst us— The Expence 
already incurr'd my Lord is very considerable & I am really 
at a loss to know what the Assembly can do to put in my 
power to make any Compensation to the Loyal Refugees for 
their losses. 

The matter of the Property of Notorious Rebels has been 
under consideration already & it is alledg'd that the Delin- 
quents are as much & more indebted than tlieir property will 
sell for & I have again recommendinl it to several of the 
Members to consider of, agahist tlusy meet on the 15th of 


next Month Imt must confess I am not vory san^uinc^ in my 

I have the Honor to l)e with Perfect Esteem, 
My Lord, Yonr Lordships 

most obhged & obod' Serv* 

Ja. Wright, 
The W Hon'"''^ Lord Geo. Germain 

His Maj'^'' Principal Secretary of State &c. 

\ Li(Jorse(J] 

Pt 17th February 1781. 


21 Dec. 1780. 

No. 35. Savanah in Georgia the 21st of Deer 1780. 

My Lord. 

I am Hiimbly to Request that His Majesty will be 
graciously Pleased to Grant me His Royal leave of Absence 
from this Government and that I may be at Liberty to 
Return to Great Britain as Circumstances may happen or 
appear in the Course of next Summer tt to Remain there for 
Such time as His Majesty in His Great Wisdom may think 
Pi'oper. Possihly my Lord, I might be usefull for a while. 
I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem, 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most Obliged & Obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Honorable Lord George Germain 
His Majesty's Principal Secretar}^ of State 
For America «fcc. &c. &c. 


R 25 April 1781. 

(Orig' & Dup. not reced.) 

* p. R. O. Am. \- W. Iiul. vol. 298. 

:^).'^0 T.TlTTEns FROM STR .TAMFlS WntOWr. 


23 Januaky 17S1. 

Savanah in Georgia tlie 2?>vd of Jniiuarv 17S1. 
.jMy Lord, 

I liad tlie Honor to Receive Your Lovdsliij^s Letter of tlie 
9tli of N()ven)l)er Inclosing Printed Copys of His Majestys 
most Gracious S})eecli at the Meeting of the New Parliament 
and the Addresses of both Houses to Maj*^ thereupon, and 
my Lord it makes me Perfectly happy to find that those 
Addresses Contain 8uch Noble Sentiments & Expressions of 
Loyalty & affection to the King, & Such Feelings of the Base 
( -()nd)inations to Distress Great Britain S: their S]Hrited Reso- 
lutions to Exert in the Support of her Just Rights S: Dignity 
nmst liavi^ the best Effect. — 

and my Lord if Harmony & unanimity Prevail in the Par- 
liament tt C'ouncils of Great Britain, I have not the least 
Doubt but She will Still Rise Superior to all her Enemies. 
I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem, 
my Lord, Your Lordships 

most (obliged tt ol)ed^ Serv^ 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Honorable Lord George Germain 
His Majest3''s Principal Secretary of State 
For America &c. Ac. &c. 

R 31st March. 

* p. B. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 298. 



• 23 .Tanuaky 1781. 

Savanah in Georgia tlie 23r(l of January 1781. 
My Lord, 

Your Lordships Letter of the 4th of Octoher witli the 
Additional Instniction for the Masters of Ships Bearing 
Letters of Marque &, Reprisals Declaring what were to he 
Deemed Contrahand Goods & what not, on Board Danish 
Sliips I have received c^' which shall be Duely Attended to. 

But give me Leave my Lord to Observe that no Powers 
have yet been Received from the Lords of the Admiralty to 
Issue Letters of Marque &c against the King of Spain ct his 
Subjects, which is much Complained of, as Several applica- 
tions have been made and I cannot Authorise the Issuing 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most Obliged & Olied* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Honoralde Lord George Germain 
His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State 
For America &c. &c. &c. 

{InOorsed \ 
R 31st March. 

p. R. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. 29ft. 



2r, .Tanitary 1781. * 

No. Bfi. Savanah in Georgia '2(5tli Jjiii'-^' 1781. 

My Lord, 

I had the honor to receive Your Lordship's Letter of the 
9th Nov'' No. 10 & both Houses of Assembly being now sit- 
ting have acquainted Them with the gTacious reception their 
dutifull & Loyall Address met with tt the assurance His 
Majesty has been pleas'd to give of the Continuance of his 
Royal favour & protection to all his faithfuU Subjects in 

The Successes Your Lordship is pleas'd to mention, gain'd 
over the Rebels m S" Carolina by Lord Cornwallis <fc Col. 
Tarleton were certamly great & complete — but I am sorry 
to say the Consequences have fallen far short of the just ex- 
pectations of your Lordship & many others here, as I have 
already acquainted Your Lordship in former Letters. Nor 
do I see that the punishment so deservedly inflicted on those 
who had taken Arms again, against His Majesty in breach of 
their Paroles, or any other Measures yet pursued, have 
quell'd the Spirit of Rebellion S: they have retaliated freely. 
I cannot think this Province & S" Carolina in a State of Se- 
curity & if Lord Cornwallis Penetrates far into N" Carolina 
I shall expect a Rebel Ai-my will come in belnnd him & 
throw us into the utmost confusion & danger — For this Prov- 
ince is still left in a Defenceless State. For a more particu- 
lar account of which I beg leave to refer Yo"" Lordship to my 
Letter of the 20th Dec^ No. 34. 

But I must observe that some Hessian Recruits came here 
last week I am told one hundred ct five and we have now one 
Gaily & for the present His Majesty's arm'd Ship the Loyal- 
ist is come to Tybee a Capt. Ardesoif who Commands her 
tells me ho is ordor'd I think by Capt. Gayton to cruize on 
this Coast and rendezvous at Tybee till J'ui-I lie r Orders. But 

* p. R. O. Am. it W. lud. vol. 298. 


my Lord tlic iiiisfortniic is, tluit tlu; next Si'iiior Cai)t;iiii in 
the Niivy, who hap})eiis to go to Charles Town may cVr most 
jirohdhhi ivW order this Ship & Galley elsewhere. I say nij 
Lord probably luill because it has happiuied so more than 
once already & without a positive order from tliju Admu'alty 
I am certain this Province will not be attended to <fe Captain 
Barclay who sent the Galley here writes me expressly that it 
is without Orders for the Province of Georgia has not been 
mention' d to him or taken the least notice of in his Instrxx:- 

Your Lordship's Letter relative to the Jurisdiction of the 
Commissioners is perfectly clear and satisfactory & will be 
made the rule of our Conduct here. The disqualifying Law 
we have found to answer many good purposes, but does not 
go far enough & I am so well convinc'd that we still have 
many thorough Rebels and Villainous Incendiaries amongst 
us even in the Town of Savanah that I have propos'd more 
effectual measures — And there is now a Bill before the Legis- 
lature for that purpose. I have also some expectation that 
the Bill Y'' Lordship alludes to will be brought in. And I 
have the great satisfaction to acquaint Y'" Lordship that Yes- 
terday a Motion was made in the Assembly for leave to bring 
in a Bill "For Granting to His Majesty certain Duties upon 
all Goods, Wares & Merchandizes whatsoever, which may be 
Exported from this Province, of the Growth or Production 
thereof as the Ratio for the Contribution of Georgia to the 
General Charge of the Empire" & which Avas agreed to Nem: 
Con: & a Committee appointed to prepare <fe bring in the 
same & which I hope we shall be able to get carried through. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most obUged & Obed* Serv*^ 

Ja. WlMGHT. 

The Right HonW- Lord G. Germain 

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State etc. etc. &c. 

R 31st March. 



35 Fek. 17HI. 

Savanah in Georgia tlio l^otli of Fcb-^ 1781. 
Mv Lord, 

Yesterday I had the Honor to receive Your Lordship's hot- 
ter Rehitive to Lady Huiitiiigdoirs Property at the Orphan 
House <t I have Inquired aliout it & find Mr. BailUe had 
Charge of it, I beheve fi-oni Col. Cani]ibell, and that Mr. 
Pierey before he left Carolina gave some Power to Mr. Tatt- 
nall it Mr. Hall, who have now the Management of it. I shall 
Aecpiaint INIr. Baillie with her Ladyships Desire as also the 
other Gentlemen ])ut would Recommend it to her, to send a 
full Power of Attcn-ney to Messrs. Tattnall ik Hall (])oth very 
Good Men) to call Mr. Bailhe to an account ior his Transac- 
tions etc. in Case he Should Refuse to do so. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged & obed'' Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Honorable Lord George Germain 
His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State 
Ecu- America etc. etc. <tc. 

1 I}i(l(n:s('(l\ 

R lOth May. 

* p. 11, 0. Ani, & W. lud, vol, 298, 

LE'rrj<:iiS fkom siu james wiught. 335 

GOV. Sill JAW. WllIGHT TO fSEC. LOUD (>. C^Ell- 

5 March 1781. 

No. 37. Savannah in Geohgia the 5tli of Maicli, 17S1. 

My Loud, Duplicute. 

On the 'i-lth of last Month I received letters from Col. 
CJreirson who Commands the Militia at & abont Augusta & 
from Col. Waters who Comnuinds the Militia on the Ceded 
Lands Acquainting me that some small Partjs of Rebels had 
come over from 8" Carolina & had gone about this Province, 
on the Ceded Lands, ct between Augusta tt Little River & 
had assassinated Eleven People, some of them in their 
Beds, & that the People Murdered Avere such as had 
very early shewn their Loyalty and attachment to Governin' 
it; who had been most active & useful in Reducing the 
Rebellion tt who were Principally to be depended upon for 
Magistrates & Militia officers & for keeping the back Parts 
of the Province in Hubjection cfe Order — also accpiainting me 
that Seven armed Rebels went to the House of Mr. Moore, 
Major of the Augusta Regiment of Militia & who lives within 
Five Miles of Col. Brown's Post at Augusta and tirst de- 
manded his arms & his Horses & then shot him with a Pistol 
Avhich had a brace of Bullets in it, but fortunately on seeing 
the Pistol presented at him, he instantly Turned or Twisted 
his Body so that the Bullets only grazed on his Breast & 
broke his Arm between his Wrist & his Elbow. Two Partys 
of Militia Immediately went out, as soon as the first Murders 
were known to have been Committed, but my Lord the Vil- 
lains being on Horse back <fc the Militia on Foot there is very 
little Chance of their Coming up with them or taking any of 

This Base Conduct of the Rebels, I consider my Lord, as 
the strongest Proof of the Rebellious Spirit which still con- 
tinues amongst many of the People and that as they are not 
Strong enough to retake the Province they will endeavour to 

* p. R. 0. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 298, 


Murder tfe Harass & Distress His Majesty's good and loyal 
Subjects — and these letters my Lord were followed by Peti- 
tions from several of tlie Inhabitants in the back Country, 
Setting Forth their Distressed Situation & Praying for Pro- 
tection and on the '27tli of last Month I received the Joint 
Addresses of both Houses of Assembly, llepresenting the 
alarming Situation of the Province and the inability of the 
Country tfe People to Provide for the Charge of Supporting a 
Troop of Horse and llecjuesting that I would liaise one and 
Draw on Government for the Expence a Copy of Avhich I 
have now the Honor to Inclose. In my letters No. 25 tt 27 
I inclosed Your Lordship Copys of some letters which })assed 
between Earl Cornwallis & myself Relative to the then State 
of the Province & and the Establishment of Some other 
Posts here, and also a Troop of Horse on which I have only 
to ol)serve that no other Post whatever has been Established 
in this Province, but at Savannah &, Augusta, and I now take 
the Liberty to Transmit to your Lordshi}) an Extract of my 
last Letter to Lord Cornwallis on the subject of a Troop of 
Horse dated the 20tli of Nov^' last, and to which I received 
no answer from his Lordship. But Colonel Balfour the Com- 
mandant of Charles Town on the 23rd of Jan'^'^ wrote to me 
by direction of Lord Cornwallis on that head, an Extract 
whereof is underneath my Letter and thus Your Lordship 
sees Clearly that the Commander in Chief has wholly dcchned 
to give us any assistance m that way — and I must beg leave 
to observe that altlio' Col. Balfour mentions a Strong Post at 
9G & it was intended to be so, when he wrote, yet that is not 
the Case for the 7th Ilegiment which was to have Reinforced 
it, was unfortunately tb'sabled & Prevented from gomg there, 
being almost the whole of them either killed or taken by the 
Rebels, and I have this day received accounts fi*om Augusta 
that Sumpter, Pickens, Clarke & others are Collecting a For- 
midal)le Force in order to Break uj) the Back Settlements in 
S" Carolina it this Provmce & which I am very apprehensive 
they may d(j, if not more as I well know all the Informations 
& Complauits tfe Distress &c. to be real Facts & as it is clearly 
my oAVii Opinion as well as that of the other Branches of the 
Legislature, that Nothing can possibly Protect His Majesty's 


Loyal Sul)jccts & prevent the back Parts of this Pnjvince 
from being broke up, but a Troop of Horse, which may do 
so if any thing can, and as I also well know, that if thci Loyal 
Inhabitants are droA^e from the Back Country, it will Ho<jn be 
filled with llebels from the Carolinas kc. and that they will 
become Formidable & Endanger the Safety of the whole 
Province, Therefore in every point of vieAV it a})pears to me 
to be absolutely necessary & for His Majesty's Service & the 
Safety of the Province, that some thing should be immedi- 
ately done for the Protection of the People. But as the Ex- 
pence of a Troop of Horse Avill be very great, & as it will 
take a considerable time before one can be Raised k Ave 
have no Saddles or Accoutrements to Furnish them Avitli 
(those Avhich your Lordship Sent out in the CroAvn Galley 
being ordered to Charles Toavii & I have applied for some 
Avithout effect.) Therefore I have Avith the Unanimous ad- 
vice of the Council, determined upon as the only Ste]) Avhicli 
can be taken AA^thout much delay to choose out of the Militia, 
some of the most active and best Men, and to Mount them 
on their oavu Horses & Avith their oAvn Arms. Three 
Partys of TAventy in each Avith a Captain, a Lieutenant & a 
Serjeant, one of them to Range or Scout on the Ceded 
Lands, one in St. Paul's Parish & the other in St. 
George's Parish, and to join, occasionally, and we expect to 
get them to do this duty on the folloAving Terms, — the Captain 
7-6 p day, the Lieut. 4-6 the Serjeant 2 and the Private Men 
1-6, they finding their oAvn Horses, Arms & Provisions & for 
the Expence of Avhich I shall be under the necessity of 
DraAving. This my Lord is Meant & intended only as a 
Succedaneum to keep the Peo]>le together & the Back 
Country from being broke up, untill His Majesty's Pleasure 
be known on this matter & whether a Troop of Horse is to 
be EstabHshed or the Partys of the Militia to be continued 
or not, and in the mean time If things prove more Favorable 
than at Present we have Reason to Expect, the Militia Avill 
be Discharged and I Trust for the Reasons given and others 
that may occur to Your Lordship, His Majesty Avill be 
graciously pleased to approve of Avliat I have done Sz to Es- 
tablish a Troop of Horse in this Province, but if unfortunately 

338 LETTEiJS rivOM sm ja.mes wi;igiit. 

it should li;i|)p(>n otluawise, tliorc can bo no very grout Ex- 
])onco incuirod by tlio Pay of tho Militia boforc His Majosty's 
Onlors can bo Sent & received by nio. 

1 have tlio Honor to bo with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged and obedient Serv* 

Ja. Wkight. 
The Right Hon'*'*^^ Lord George Germain 

His Maj*^ "^ Principal Secretary of State etc. &c. &g. 
R lyth May. 
(Dup — Grig' not rec'^) 


[Li Sir Jas. Wright's (No. 37) of 5th March 17S1.] 

To His Excellency Sir James Wright Bart Captain General 

& Governor in Chief in & over His Majosty's Province of 

Georgia, Chancellor Vice Admiral & Ordmary of the Same. 
The Humble Address of the Upper and Commons Houses of 

May it Please your Excellency 

We His Majesty's most Dutifull & Loyal Subjects, the 
Members of both Houses of Legislature in General Assembly 
Met, tliiidv it our Duty to Lay before Your Excellency the 
Present alarming Situation of this Province, in which Small 
Partys of Rebels Secrete themselves & from time to time, 
Murder Such of His Majesty's Subjects as have been most 
Loyal & active in Supporting his Government & authority. 

It is with the Utmost Concern we acquaint your Excel- 

* p. K. 0. Am. A: W. lud. vul. 29a. 


loiicy tliiit within a low days last Past, Eleven M«ni oi Cliar- 
acter and Loyalty Lave boon Separately assassinated, when 
they apprehended themselves to be in Perfect Security, and 
we are thoroughly Convinced that None of His Majesty's 
Subjects in this Province will be safe for a Moment unless a 
Troop of Horse is raised to Scour the Country <fe break up 
those Partys of Ilel)els who skulk aljout in the Woods & 
Swamps ct avail themselves of the opportunity of attackin*^ 
Men Separately & at their own Homes. 

We beg leave to Kepresent to Your Excellency that this 
Province is so much Impoverished by the Devastations Com- 
mitted by the French & Rebels during the late Siege & also 
by the Constant Incursions of Plundering Partys that the 
Legislature hath not even to this Hour been able to Fall on 
the Means of Providing for the Common Current Expences 
of this Country much less is it in the Power of the Province 
to defray the Charges of a Body of Horse to Prevent the 
Eebels from entirely Breaking up the Country & Murdering 
every LoyaHst one after another. And therefore we do most 
earnestly Request Your Excellency forthwith to Raise a Troop 
of Horse Consisting of at least Sixty Privates and to draw on 
the Mother Country for the Support of it more Especially as 
Earl Cornwallis hath Declined to Give any assistance of that 
Sort Notwithstanding the Frequent a[)})lications you have 
made to his Lordship for that Purpose. 

By order of the Upper House 

JOHN GRAHAM, President. 
Feby 27th, 1781. 
By order of the Commons 
House of Assembly 

Samuel Forley Speaker. 



9 Maucii 1781. 

No. 38. Savannah in Geobgia the Dtli of March 1781. 

My Lord, DupHcate. 

On the ()th Inst. I did myself the Honor of writing to your 
Lordship in which I gave your Lordship Some Account of 
the Situation of affairs in this Province ct that I found myself 
under an absolute Necessity of Mounting Some Party's of 
the Militia, Officers & all to the Number of Sixty Nine & I 
much Avish I may be able to stop here, for the great Distance 
Lord Cornwalhs is from this Province & the weakness of our 
Posts here, Say at Savannah & Augusta & also the weakness 
of the Posts in S" Carolina, give great Encouragement to all 
Rebels & disaffected Persons to Collect & attempt to Dis- 
turb & Break up the Settlements & if there should be a 
necessity to turn out the Militia, they will certainly Expect 
Pay & Subsistence whilst on actual duty & we have it not to 
give them. 

On the 6th Inst, my Lord I assented to five Bills and have 
the Satisfaction to Acquaint your Lordship that one of them 
is Intitled "An Act for Granting to His Majesty Certain 
Duty's upon all Goods, Wares & Merchandise of the Growth 
or Production of this Province which may be Exported fi'om 
hence, as the Contribution of Georgia to the General Charge 
of the British Empire," these Duties my Lord His Majesty's 
Loyal Subjects in this Province have Freely & Cheerfully 
Given & Granted & Humbly beg that His Majesty will be 
Graciously Pleased to Condescend to accept of the same as a 
small Token of their Gratitude to His Majesty & Affection to 
the Mother Country — a duty of 5 per Cent was proposed but 
the greatly distressed reduced & exhausted State of the 
Province it was thought would not admit of laying on so 
large a Duty at Present, and therefore it is only two and a 

* p. U. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. 298. 

Li;T'r:eRS I'lioM SIR James Wright. ■ 341 

half p. Cent. Another is entitled "An Act for securing; His 
Majesty's Government and the Peace of this Province & for 
the more Effectual Protection of the King's Loyal 8nl)j(H-ts 
here against the wicked Attempts & designs of the Kel)els & 
other Disaffected Persons & for other Purposes hereinafter 
mentioned." From the great number of Sculking Rebels <fe 
Disaffected Persons remaining in this Province I saw my 
Lord that it was impossible for His Majesty's Loyal Subjects 
to remain in any tolerable degree of Peace or Security and 
therefore proposed this Law to Enable the Inhabitants to 
take up and secure all Rebels & Persons guilty of Harbour- 
ing, Conceahng, aiding or assisting Rebels & Plunderers or 
giving them Intelhgence & to compell them to remove out of 
the Province — I judged it also Necessary to prevent the Jews 
who formerly resided here from Returning or others from 
Coming to Settle here. For these People my Lord were 
found to a Man to have been violent Rebels & Persecutors 
of the King's Loyal Subjects & however this Law may appear 
at first Sight, be assured my Lord that the times require these 
Exertions & without which the Loyal Subjects can have no 
Peace or Security in this Province. 

"An Act for supplying the Loss of such of the Bonds & 
Mortgages that were executed by the Debtors of the Public 
to the Commissioners of the General loan office of the 
Pro\dnce of Georgia, as are now unsatisfied & for making the 
Ledger or Account Book of the said Commissioners, begin- 
ning the 17tli day of February 1769 & Ending the 17th day 
of September 1775 Evidence in all Courts of Law & Equity 
in this Province for the purpose of Recovering the Moneys 
due to the Public & for other Purposes hereinafter mentioned." 
By an Act of Assembly passed in 1760 and Confirmed by 
His Majesty £7410 St" was allow^ed to be issued & to be Sent 
out on Bonds & Mortgages on an Interest of Six per Cent to 
such Persons as applied to the Commissioners to Borrow the 
same, but not more than £80 St" to one Person and w'''^ Bonds 
& Security's Fell into the Hands of the Rebels and being 
Lost or carried away & destroyed the Party's Refused Pay- 
ment unless their Bonds & Security's were delivered up to 
them & the Ledger or Book mentioned, having been Preserved 


by a Gentleman wlui is a Friend to Government, lie has 
delivered up the same & we thought it very Necessary S: Just 
\- Ecpiitable that a Law should be passed for the Pur]iose 

"An Act for the Eelief of the People called Quakers." The 
Quakers in this Province in general my Lord hav(^ behavcnl 
ver}' welltfe shewn their Loyalty <^ attachnunit toGovernnunit, 
f(n- which reason some of them Suffered alongLnprisonment 
in Charles Town & many have been Plundercnl & almost 
Ruined by the Rebels of this Province <t as several of them 
have ability's & are sufficiently qualified for Public Employ- 
nuuits we thought it an Act of common Justice to them & ior 
His Maji^sty's S(^rvice to Pass the above Law in their favour. 

"An Act to Explain Amend & reduce into one Act of 
Assembly the several Laws <t Parts of Laws now in being, 
relating to the Erecting & Keeping in Repair Fortifications 
& other works of Defence in this Province & for other 
])urposes herein after mentioned." 

The Several Laws relative to these Matters were not 
altogether Clear & some Clauses were intermixed in the 
Militia Laws & when the New Works round the Town were 
finished it became Necessary that proper Powers should be 
given & an officer appointed to see that no Damage is done 
to them by ill disposed Persons and for these Reasons my 
Lord this Law was Framed. I shall order Copys to be 
prepared and transmitted to your Lordship as soon as may 
be & hope when they come to be examined and duly con- 
sider'd they will appear to l)e such as will meet with His 
Majesty's Royal a})probation. 

I have tlu! Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged and obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wnir.H'j'. 
The Right Hon'''*" Lord George Germain 

His Maj*^'** Principal Secretary of State <tc. &c. &c. 
\ Indorsed} 
R 19th May. 
(Dup. Orig' not reced.) 



2 ApRir, 1781. 

No. 39. Savanah in Georgia the 2d of Ai)ril 1781. 

My Lord, Triplicate. 

I have the very Great Pleasure to Conpjratnlate your Lord- 
ship on the Signal Victory obtained by Earl Cornwallis over 
the Rebel Army under the Command of General Green near 
Guildford in North CaroHna, on the 15th of last month, your 
Lordship sees by the Victories lately obtained what True 
Zeal &c. will do. 

Nothing very Material has happened m this Province Since 
my last only that a Plundering Rebel Party fi'om S" CaroHna 
of about Forty five Mem well Mounted came over Savannah 
River & Burnt the Houses of Major Dell (a very active Militia 
Officer & Friend to Government) & three or four Other 
Houses in the Same Neighbourhood, about Fifty Miles from 
Savanah, having first Plundered them of every thing they 
Could Carry oft' — these things my Lord are very Distressing 
& Discouraging to the Kings Loyal Subjects, who seem to be 
Singled out and I hope your Lordship will be coimnced of 
the Necessity of having a Troop of Horse. 

A Spanish Fleet of thirty Eight Sail was Discovered the 
beginning of last Month, supposed to be that with Don 
Galvez going against Pensacola, which Occasions Col. Clarke 
who Commands the Military here to go to St. Augustine & 
Carry a Part of our Troops with him, & I think he is to leave 
us in two or three days, this Gentleman my Lord has Con- 
ducted Matters so well, that we have been very happy 
together & what makes his Departure the more to be regetted 
is, that the Command of the Military now Devolves on a 
Gentleman who is a Foreigner. Surely My Lord this is 
wrong, and when it is with Great Difficulty that things can be 
kept in a Tolerable Way, where the Principal officers on Both 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Iiid. vol. 208. 


sides tlic lilies of autliority, & are on tli(i best Terms & 
Desirous S: Take Pains to Avoid Altcaratioii, wliat is it to he 
Exi)eeted Now '? and Iliavebeen Inforincd that the F()rei<j;ners 
in General have an Idea that tliey are totally Exempt from 
all Civil Power or Authority whatev(u-, and I much fear Disa- 
greeable thiiif^s may happcm which may aficct th(; l*eace of 
tlu; Province, tt His Majesty's Service. I Inclos(^ youi' TiOid- 
ship a Co])y of Avhat I have wrote Lord On-nwallis on the 
()ccasi<m, tt submit the same to your Lordship's 8ui)erior 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged & obed* Serv* 

Ja. WlilOHT. 

The liight Honorable Lord George Germain 

His Majesty's Princi])al Secretary of State &c. &c. &c. 

R 7tli June. 


'.) April 1781. 

No. 40. Savanah in Georgia, the 9tli of April 1781. 

My Lord, Duplicate. 

I have now the Honor to Transmit to Your Ijordslii]i a 
Cop3^ of the Act "For Granting to His Majesty- Certain dutic^s 
upon all Goods, Wares & Merchandizes of the Growth or 
Production of this Province which may be Exported from 
hence as the C<Mitributi()ii of Georgia to the General Charg(! 
of th(! British Empire." These Duties my Lord His Majesty's 

* p. R. O. Am. k \V. lud. vol. 298. 


Loyal Subjects in tliis Province liave most Freely A: Cliecvfully 
Given & Granted & Humbly hope his Majesty will be 
Graciously Pleased to Condescend to Accept of the Same, as 
a Small Token of their Gratitude to His Majesty Sl Aftection 
for the Mother Country, a Duty of five p Cent was Proposed 
but the greatly Distressed Eeduced & Exhausted State of 
the Province, it was thought w^ould not admit of Laying on 
so large a Duty at Present and therefore it is oidy tw(j & an 
half p Cent. But my Lord the Example, the Precedeid I 
look't upon as the Principal object and which w\as opposed 
by some for a while but at length the Measure was uimni- 
mously agreed to, and as the Foundation is now laid I Pre- 
sume it will be no difficult matter to Raise the Duty when 
the Province is at Full Peace &. begins to People again & 
Recover its Produce & Trade. 

On my Coming out to this Province, your Lordship was 
Pleased to Authorize me to declare to the Legislature That the 
Net Produce of Duties Imposed by Parliament for the Regula- 
tion of Commerce would be apphed to the use of the Province. 

and that His Majesty in Order to Ease his Loyal Subjects 
here, graciously intended to Remit all arrears of Quit rents & 
Proposed that all Such as may become due hereafter, shall 
also be appropriated to the use of the Province. 

And that all Fines and Forfeitures which shall happen, 
arise or become due to His Majesty, shall likewise be Applied 
in the Same Manner. 

all wdiicli I Represented to them as Matters of Special 
Grace & Favour of the Crown, and which deserved their 
Warmest Acknowledgments. 

Wherefore I must beg leave to Remind Your Lordship of 
these things and that I have not yet Received any authority 
from His Majesty for carrying His most Gracious intentions 
into Execution. 

I take the Liberty to Inclose Youi" Lordship an abstract of 
a Memorial of Lewis Johnson Esq. Public Treasurer by 
which 3'our Lordship will see his Claim to have all the Monies 
arising fi-oni the above Funds Paid into his office. But the 
Receiver of the King's Casual Revenue Claims to Receive 
them in the first Instance. I am therefore to Request Your 


Lordsliip's Directions whether the Money arising by the 
Duties, Fines «tc. are first to be Paid to the Kind's Receiver 
of His Casual Revenue, and then by liim to be Paid over to 
the Treasurer, as I Presume this will Occasion a Deduction 
of Double Commissions, Viz: Five y> Cent will be stopt l)y 
the Casual Receiver & and then five p Cent more by the 
Treasurer, and so of the Quit Rents. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most Obliged & Olied*^ Serv* 

J A. Wright. 

The Right Hon''''' Lord George Germain 

His Maj'J'' Principal Secretary oi State &c. &c. &c. 

R 5th June. 


24 April 1781. 

No. 41. Savanah in Georgia the 24tli April 1781. 

My Lord, 

Since my Last of the ninth Instant I have received some 
very Alarming Accounts from Augusta, & other Parts of the 
Province, and have Reason to lieliove that there are a Great 
Many Rebels in arms in difterent Parts of S" Carolina, & in 
this Province. The very great Distance Lord Cornwallis and 
his Army are at Gives every opportunity to the Disaffected to 
Collect & Murder, Plunder &c. in a most cruel & shocking 
manner, and those Chiefly the Loyal Inhabitants, and I am 
afraid OTir Several Posts are too weak to afifbrd a Detachment 
to go against them, and upon the whole my Lord, this 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. 208. 


Province is Eeduced to a Most Distressed & I may say Pre- 
carious Situation, and all this for want of a Little assistance, 
had the Method I Proposed at first after the Siege lieen 
attended here, that is a Corps of one Hundred & Fifty 
Horse been Established — Georgia would by this time have 
been entirely at Peace & in Security & Great Numbers of 
Good & Loyal Subjects would have Flock't in to Settle here, 
& the Troops might now have beem Employed Elsewhere, 

But for want of that, your Lordship Sees what Distresses 
the Loyal Inhabitants have Suffered & now daily do & we 
can get no assistance or support, and which Compels me to 
Endeavour to Raise some Horse or the Province will be 
totally broke up & Lost. 

I cannot better Describe our Present Situation than by 
Transmitting to your Lordship the Inclosed Copy of a letter 
I wrote yesterday to Earl Cornwallis and to Which I l)eg 
leave to Refer your lordship. 

I am afi-aid of Missing the opportunity therefore obliged to 
conclude, and 

have the Honor to be, with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged & obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Hon''''' Lord George Germain 
His Maj*-^'' Principal Secretary of State 
for America «fec. &c. &c. 

R 5th June. 



1 May 1781. 

No. 42. Savannah in Georgia tlie 1st of May 1781. 

My Lord, 

I had the Honor to rocoive your Lordship's letter of the 
3d of Jiiiinary N". 11 and am extremely sorry to acquaint 
YourLordsljip that Things are by no means in that Peaceable 
& Secure State that your Lordship Supposes and Expects, 
indeed I may say quite the Reverse &, I momently expect to 
hear that Augusta is attacked again & have too much reason 
to beUeve the Post at Ninety six cannot now assist them. We 
have done all we could both by Laws & such Exertions as the 
Militia could make, but they are now Fatigued & worn out 
by continual Alarms &c. & so many good men have been 
lately &. are daOy Assassinated that People begin to be afraid 
to stand Forth. 

For our Numbers, I dare Venture to say that the King has 
a large Proportion of Loyal Subjects here, and who have 
Exerted beyond what could have been Expected & this 
without Pay or Subsistence & they are still willing to do. it 
from Principles of Loyalty as well as their own Interest <fe 
begin to think they have not had that Assistance Necessary 
and deserved, and believe me my Lord this Province is in 
great Danger. I have fi'equently given your Lordship & 
Lord Cornwallis the best & Clearest Information I possil)ly 
could of the Situation of affairs here & it gives me great 
concern to find my Representations have had so little weight 
& most heartily wish the Consequences of it may not be of 
the most serious Nature. 

• I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most obliged & obed*^ Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Hon''''' Lord Geo. Germain 

His Maj'^'*" Principal Secretary of State &c. &c. &c. 

R 4th August. 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 298. 



5 May 1781. 

No. -13. Savannah in Georgia the 5tli of May 1781. 

My Lord, 

Your Lordship's Letter of the 7th of February No. 12 I 
have had the Honor to receive — Certainly the Progress of 
the King's Army in N". CaroHna has been Rapid & the 
Advantages over the Rebels very great & Lord Cornwallis & 
his Army have acquired Laurels <fe much Honor but my Lord 
the Consequences have not been such as were wished & 
expected. With respect to the particular Cu'cumstances of 
Affairs there, they do not lye with me to touch upon, where- 
fore I shall confine myself to my own Department & such 
Matters as more immediately affect it. 

Your Lordship may rest assured that the Relellion is not 
intirely QueUed in S° Carolma far, very far from it, on the 
Contrary I am informed & believe that the Country People 
in General are in Arms again & Ripe for a Revolt & the 
Communication between this & Cha* Town is intirely cut off 
by Land & also the Inland Passage by Water & Nothmg can 
pass but round by Sea. 

The King my Lord has many good & Faithful Subjects 
here who have & wiU do every thing in their Power to Support 
His Majesty's Govern*^. Your Lordship seems to sui)pose this 
Province well Settled & full of Inhabitants, — it was so here- 
to/ore, but is not so at present. they are gi-eatly reduced & 
the Country is now very thinly settled and in the Back Parts 
there are many Rebels still. 

Strong Partys of Rebels are Continually coming over from 
Carolina, Murdering by Assassination whom they Please or 
can come at & disarming & laying others under Parole & 

* p. B. O. Am. & W. led. vol. 298. 

350 LETTEllS rilUM sill JAME.S \YiaGllT. 

it's impossible to provont them without Horse men, and tlius 
this Province is Aveiikened & in danf^er of \xmv^ lost, my 
Information is, and I believe it that live hundred lleljels have 
been sometime Encampt about seven miles on this side of 
Augusta waiting for a Reinforcement & that Two Hundred 
well mounted Sc appointed are in St. George's Parish about 
80 miles from hence in the way towards Augusta, Murdering 
Plundering, Laying Waste & doing all the Mischief they 
Possibly can particularly to the Wheat Fields tt Provisions 
tfe as I have frequently wrote & lamented we have no assist- 
ance or protection but a small Force here and at Augusta & 
the latter I expect is now invested and we cannot fi'om either 
of the Posts spare any men to go out against them. 

The Assembly my Lord have come into all the Measures 
Proposed for His Majesty's Service and which it Avas judg'd 
might be conducive to the security & tranquillity of the 
Province but alass my Lord that will not do without Troops 
without an armed Force. 

It gives me great Pain my Lord to write unpleasant Things, 
but my Duty to the King & to the Truly Loyal & Suffering 
People here oblige me to represent the Situation of Affairs 
07ice more Fairly & without Disguise I am no Soldier my Lord 
but I always thought & still do that it would have been more 
for His Majesty's Service to have secured EJfeduaJly what 
was Beduced & to have made these Provinces usefuU & 
serviceable to the Mother Country by Trade & Agiiculture 
and if S" Carolina and this Province had been 2veU Protected 
the Distressed Loyal Subjects would have Flocked into them 
from all Parts of America and they would soon have been 
capable of Protecting them and Contributed towards the 
General Expence of the British Empire and the Example I 
humbly conceive would have had the best Effect on the 
Rebelhous Colonies. If I have Presumed too far in giving 
my Sentiments my Plea is, and which I doubt not but His 
Majesty (if he condescends to read this Letter) will be 
graciously pleased to admit of, that it proceeds from an Honest 
Zeal for His Majesty's Service and a Conscicncious Discharge 
of my Duty, and it appears to me that Nothing can save this 


Province but tlie greatest Exertions in our Pow(!r to make & 
for the Expence of wliicli I must Draw on Gi^verinnent. 
I have the Honor to be Avith Piirfect Esteem, 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most obhged & obed* Serv* 

Ja. Weight. 
The Eight Hon'^"^^ Lord Geo. Germain 

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State etc. &c. &c. 

R 4:th August. 


25 May 1781. 
No. 44. Savanah in Georgia the 25th of May 1781. 

My Loud, 

Inclosed your Lordship will receive a Copy of a Minute of 
Council of the 8th instant with my letter to Colonel Porbeck 
& his Answer to me from which your Lordship will See that 
every Effort was used to Raise or Collect a Eorce to Drive the 
Rebels out of the Province, and Relieve Augusta, but that it 
was not Possible to do it, the Garrison having been so much 
Reduced & Weakened. 

and Militia if we had had a Sufficient Number & Arms &c. 
to Give them (which we have not) are not to be Trusted or 
Depended upon without Regulars to Countenance & Support 

I Immediately Sent off an Express to CoP Balfour in Charles 
Town and also to Col Clarke at St. Augustine, acquainting 
them of these Particulars, and all I can yet say is, that I am 
hopefuU they wiU See the Neccs.slfy of Sending Succours. 

*P. R. 0, &m. & W, lua. vol, 298. 


Last week two lie1)el Galleys came on the Coast & went in 
over Ossabaw Bar, where they Captured a Fine large Ship 
Loading with Lumber for the West Indies. The Arbuthnot 
Galley which had been there for some time, Avas about a 
Fortnight before ordered away to Port lloyal. But the other 
Sloop which arrived three or four days after, is gone out in 
search of them, it is very Uncertain whether the Ship was 
carried off or not, there being different Reports, if not She 
may be Probably Retaken. 

The Assassinating Partys still continue going about the 
Country — my Lord it Gives me Great Pain, that I have it not 
in my Power to write any thing Pleasant, and I know it must 
hurt your Lordship to Receive Continual Disagreeable 
Accounts, and I Assure you it hurts me nnich more to Write 
them, but it is my Didji to State FacU & Give a True Account 
of all Occurrences, I must not, I Avill not, I never did Deviate 
from the Truth, and I am Certain your Lordship's Candour 
will approve of it. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most obliged & obed*^ Serv*^ 

Ja. Weight. 
The Right Honorable Lord George Germain 
His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State 
For America etc. &c. &c. 

R 30th Nov"-. 



30 May 1781. 

No. 45. Savanah in Georgia the 21tli of May 17!Sl. 

My Lord, 

Inclosed your Lordship will receive a Copy of Colonel 
Balfour's letter to me of the 21st oi May in Answer to Mine 
requesting he would Send assistance to Galphins Fort to Col. 
Brown at Augusta, & it is with great Concern I now acquaint 
your Lordship that the Officer Commanding at Galphins Fort, 
where the Provisions Stores Indian Goods &c. <fec. were 
deposited Surrendered to the Rebels on Capitvdation on 
Monday the 21st of May, and a Man from Browns Fort at 
Augusta found means to get thro' the Rebel Camp of friday 
Night the 25th of May & came to Savanah the 29th by Avliom 
we learn that BroAvn was in the greatest distress & the Troops 
were then at an allowance of a Pint of Corn a day & had 
only 21 days left at that Rate & it is not Possible for us' to 
give him any Relief I have Sent two Expresses by Land to 
Col. Clarke at St. Augustine & Prevailed on Capt. Creigk of 
the Otter Sloop to go there & hope he will Return by her with 
the Troops he Carried from hence, altlio I much fear it will 
be too late to Relieve Brown Especially as the Rebels are 
increasing every day Some Say 1000 to 1200 & others say 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem, 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most Obliged & Obed* Serv' 

Ja. Wright. 

The Right Hon''^'' Lord George Germam 

His Maj*^'^ Principal Secretary of State &c. &c &c. 

R 30tli Nov'-. 

* p. R. 0. Am. & W. lua. vul. 29ti. 



MAIN. =< 

12 Junk 17S1. 

No. 40. Savanaii in Georgia the 12tli June 1781. 

My Loud, 

(joloiiel Clurku arrived here on the 7th inst. and his Men 
Landed the 8th and Col. Balfour Sent a Detachment of Fen- 
nmgs Corps here amounting to al)()ut IGO Rank & File and 
Col. Clarke was making Preparations to march to the Relief 
of Col. Brown but on the lOtli inst. we received the very 
Disagreeable Account that he had been Reduced to the 
Necessity of Capitulating, and that after they had Capitulated 
and Laid doAvn their Ai'nis, Some of the Rebels shot Col. 
Grierson who dyed Instantly — we do not yet know the 
Particulars of the Terms, nor have I received any Authentic 
Account of this unfortunate affair, but it conies by ditferent 
Hands so that no one doubts of the Truth of the Report. I 
niej, the Council yesterday & have the Honor to inclose your 
Lordship a Copy of the Resolutions on the State of Affairs 
here and of my letters to Col. Balfour which I have this day 
sent to Charles Town by an Express Boat. The very oppor- 
tune arrival of the Cork Fleet with the Troops I hope wiU 
once more rescue these Provinces from the Hands of the 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordslii})s 

most obliged & obed* Serv* 

Ja. AVright. 
The Pvight Hon''i° Lord George Germain 

His Maj^y'** Principal Secretary of State &c. &c. <fcc. 

R 30th Nov', 

* p. 11. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. 2'Ja. 



I 111 Hir Jas. Wright's (No. IG) of I'itli June 1781. | 

Savanah the lltli of Juiiu 1781. Tiipliciite. 


It gives me the greatest Concern to Aci^naint yon of tlje 
loss of Augusta by Colonel Brown being reduced to the 
Necessity of Cajjitulating, and as you well know the Conse- 
quences that must l)e att(>ndaiit on this, I Need say little, but 
must observe that if this Province is not Recovered from the 
Rebels Avithout the least Delay, I conceive it may be too late 
to Prevent the whole from being laid waste & totally destroyed 
& the Peo})le Ruined, we are now in a Most wretched situa- 
tion. I shall not reflect on the Causes, but the Grand Point 
is to recover back what we lost if it be Possible & to Prevent 
further Misfortunes & injury to His Majesty's Service — and 
on receiving the very Disagreeable intelligence from Augusta, 
I took the Earlrest Opportunity to Convene His Maj**^ '^ Council 
& have their Opinions on the Present very Critical State of 
affairs here — a Copy of which I have the Honor to Inclose 
you — and will not Suffer my Self to Entertain the least doubt 
but that every Exertion will be made & every Necessary 
assistance given to Enable me to Hold this Province Subject 
to His Majesty's Authority I can only Represent Facts which 
it is my Indispensable Duty to do and which I have hitherto 
from time to time done. 

our Distresses are many & how to Furnish the Militia on 
actual Duty with Rations I can't tell, for there is not a single 
Barrel of Beef or Pork to be Purchased here, even if I had 
the Monty to buy it. I trust therefore Sir that Circumstanced 
as we are, you Avill think it for His Majesty's Service tfc really 
Necessary to order Some of the Kings Provisions here, for 
the Support of the Militia on actual Service. The Number 
of which I think will be at least what is mentioned in the 
Minute of Council, besides those in & about the Town, which 
I Suppose amount to 300. 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 298. 


Poor Gricrsoii was Basely Murdered after tlie Cai)itulation 
& laying l^owii his arms it is to be hoped this worthy Man's 
Death will not Pass without due Notice & I shall not think 
Brown Safe till I See him, 

I have the Honor to be &c. 


Lieut. Colonel Balfour &c. &c. &c. 

Ja. WRiGirr. 


14 June 1781. 

No. 4:7. Sayan AH in Georgia the lltli of June 1781. 

My Lord, 

Having herewith Inclosed my Memorial to the Lords of 
Treasury & the Estimate of the Expence of the two 
Troops of Horse, I am Humbly to request that your 
Lordship will be Pleased to approve of the Same and Recom- 
mend it to their Lordships. This Step was delayed to the 
very last, indeed much too Long, in hopes of getting assistance 
some other way, but all applications were in vain. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most obliged A Obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 

The Right Hon'''*' Lord George Germain 
His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State 
For America &c. &c. &c. 

R 30th Nov'- 

♦ p. K. 0. Am. i W. lud, vol. WH. 



[Ill Sir Jas. Wright's (No. 47.) of 14 Jimo 1781.] 

To the Right Honorable the Lords 

Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury. 
The Memorial of Sir James Wright 
Baronet, Governor in Chief of His 
Majesty's Province of Georgia 

Humbly Sheweth, 

That for some time Past gi-eat Part of the Inhabitants in 
the Province of S" Carolina have been in arms and Ripe for a 
General Revolt from their Allegiance & Oliedience to His 
Majesty's Government, and which Revolt hath Since taken 
Place. That Great Numbers of them came over Savanah 
River into the Province of Georgia, where they Committed 
the most Savage like & Inhuman Murders on Many of His 
Maj*^'"' Loyal Subjects, in the whole within two months Past, 
to the amount of very near one Hundred. That they Stir 
up all such as are not well affected to Government to take 
arms & Join them, and Force Several Good & Loyal Subjects 
for fear of bemg Murdered also to Join them. That they 
have for some time Past & are now Laying close Siege to the 
Fort at Augusta. That they have already Laid Waste & 
Destroyed the greatest Part of this Province, and if not 
Speedily Check't will Ruin the whole. 

That His Majesty's Troops left here have Proved wlioUy 
inadequate to the Protection of this Province, against the 
Depredations of the Rebels. That your Memorialist Received 
addresses from the Upper & Lower Houses of Assembly of 
this Province Requesting him to Embody some Troops of 
Horse for the Protection of the Inhabitants Copys of which 
are herewith Transmitted to your Lordship, That Your 
MemoriaHst avoided and Delayed putting Government to 
this Expence as long as Possible, But Seeing that Nothing 
can Save this Province fi-om being agam wrested out of His 
Majesty's Hands but Raising a Corps of Horse, he hath with 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. 298. 


tlie ITnaiiimons Advice of His Maji^sty's Council determined 
so to do, as the only Chance tluu-e is of Holdinj]j this Pl■o^^nce 
A- KiH'pin^it in Subjection to His jNIajesty's Authority — And 
it bein<j; absolutely Necessary for His Majesty's Service to 
Carry this Measure into Immediate Execution and as there 
is nottimetoReprt^scnit the Matter to His Majesty's Secretary 
of Stiite Previous thereto. 

Your Memorialist therefore takes this Method of Laying 
the Same before your Lordships and herewith Transmits an 
Estimate of the Expence of Two Troops of Horse for Twelve 
Months and for which he is Laid under the Necessity of 
Drawing- upon your Lordships. 

Your Memorialist has the Honor to be with the Utmost 

Your Lordships 

most ol)ed^ Hble Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 

Savanah in Georgia 

the 15th of May 1781. 



14 June 1781.' 

No. 48. Triplicate. 

Savanah in Georgia the 14th of June 1781. 
My Lord, 

The Necessity of Purchasing Provisions for the Refugees 
& Militia on Duty was so Pressing that it could not be 
avoided, the Rebels were possessed of the whole Country 
between Ebenezer & Augusta, and the Generality of the 
Inhabitants either taken to the Swamps to hide themselves 

* 1'. R. O. Aiu. & W. Iiiil. \ol. 'iim. 


for a time, in hopes of being soon relieved, or come here for 
Protection, and those who came here, were armed as wtQl as 
we couhl & put on duty with some RefruLars to Gfirrison the 
Redoubts at Ebenezer & keep the Rebels from Dtistroying <fe 
Laying Waste, quite to the Town. Pretty Large; Partys ou 
Horse Back (for they are now mostly Mounted) have been 
Seen within 5 or G miles of Ebenezer. 

I Say thus Circumstanced my Lord there was an al>solute 
Necessity to Purchase Provisions to Feed these People, for 
they had not a Shilling in their Pockets & Could not be 
allowed to Perish and the Kings Provisions in the Stores here 
grew Short, the Militia on Duty had Rations for a Short time, 
when it was Notified to me, that they Could have no more, 
and I was obliged to buy Rice, Flour & what Beef &: Pork 
could be got, and all these Articles being very Scare it Dear, 
they cost a Great Deal of Money already to the Amount of 
X2652-0-0 Sterls & for which I am Drawing on the £5000 in 
Mr. West's hands, not knowing what else to do, but hope 
your Lordship will Order these Provision Bills to be Paid or 
the Money Replaced out of Some other Fund — altlio' my 
Lord a Tax Bill is ready for the assent, we cannot go on, the 
People are Burned & can pay no Taxes. 

In Short my Lord our Prospect is wretched, & if we are 
not Relieved in a few daj's, so that the People may Return 
Home & see what may be left, or they can save or Pick up, a 
Famine will Ensue. The Causes of all this Distress & 
Misery are most Evident, but I shall Say no more but Pray 
God Grant us Peace, 

I have the honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most obliged & obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Rt Ho"!'^ Lord Geo. Germain 

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State &c. &e. &c. 

R 10th August 
(Trip*^ Orig' & Dup. not rec'^) 



18 Dec. 1781. 

N(x 50. Savanah in Georgia the 18tli Dec'' 1781. 

My Lord, 

We are at this Moment in the Utinost Danp;er & Distress 
(t Expect every day to have a Fornii<hi])l(^ Force against us, 
for a few days ago we received Accounts from General Leslie 
who now Commands in Charles Town that General Green is 
on his way to tlui Southward tfe had crossed Edisto River, & 
that Generals St. Clair & Wayne were at Santee River with 
2500 Continentals Mounted & were to Join General Green, 
who was said to have al)out the Same Number, and Ave have 
also Intelligence that the Marquess De la Fayette is on his 
way here (Imt this is Rebel Intelligence) and we have received 
Accounts many different ways of a very Serious tt Formidable 
Attack being Preparing & intending against us, and l)y a 
Gentleman of undoubted Credit who is come to Savanah a 
few days ago, from the Creek Nation we are Informed that 
Letters Passed through that Country, Some time ago from 
General Green to the Spanish Officer Commanding at Pensa- 
cola, Acquainting him that they should be ready to act 
against this Province by the middle of this Month, and we 
have many Rebel Accounts that they Expect a French & 
Spanish Fleet here every day. this Gentleman (Mr. Taitt) 
was a Prisoner in West Florida for some time & Says they 
avowed an Intention to take East Florida & Georgia, — and 
the Garrison in Charles Town being Dwindled away one half, 
we cannot Depend on much Assistance if any fi-om hence. 

and thus your Lordship Sees the Consequences of not 
Protecting & Holding these two Provinces, I always Dreaded 
it, from the Moment Lord Cornwallis went into Virginia, and 
the Cruel 10*'' Article in his Lordships Capitulation I hv.iv 
has RuincMl tlu^ King's Cause in Amcn-ica, & I Need not 
Comnnnit u])on it, God know^s Avhat will become of us, but 
without Immediate assistance, I think we shall not be able to 

* p. U. O. Am. k W. Ind. vol. 2'.)8. 


Stand it, and if we fall, I nnicli fear that St. Augiistine & 
Charles Town will Soon Follow. 

I send this by way of New York where I have Dispatched 
a Schooner Express to Acquaint Sir Henry Clinton & the 
Admiral with our Situation. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged & obed*^ Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Honorable Lord George Germain 
His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State 
For America &c. &c. &c. 

\ Lidorsicd] 
R 28th Feb-^y. 


18 Dec. 1781. 
No. 57. 

Savanah in Georgia the 18th of Dec'" 1781. 
My Lord, 

I have the Honor to Inclose your Lordship a Copy of my 
Account of the Expenditure of the X5000 fi-om the 24th of 
January 1781 to the 5tli of November, which I Tnist will be 
approved of. 

I also Inclose your Lordship a Copy of the Accounts for 
Supporting the Troops of Horse, Refugees, Militia &c. which 
I also Trust will be approved of, 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem, 
my Lord, Your Lordships 

most obhged & obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Honorable Lord George Germain 

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State 

For America &c. &c. &c. 

R 28th Feb'-y- 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 298. 



18 .TanhakY 1782. 

No. 58. Savanah in Georgia t\w IStli Jaimary 1782. 

My Lord, 

Yesterday I Rc^ceived Advice fi-oiii diaries Town that 
Wayne & St. Clair have Joined Grc^en S: that the last Party 
with their Artillery &c. are not far off tt that they are 
advancing towards ns, l)ut with what Force, we cannot Cer- 
tainly Learn, tho' it is Said abont 8000 Continentals Horse 
& Foot together, tt I Presume the Sonth Carolina Militia 
will Join them in great Numbers, ct many here, some fi-om 
Principle & Some from Necessity, seeing they can get no 
Protection from Government. Surely, Surely, my Lord the 
Commanders of the King's Forces in America, ought to have 
Supported these Southern Provinces, and Happy would it 
have been for the Kings Cause & Friends and a most Valu- 
able Footing Secured in America, if they had, or may yet be, 
For if they Fall I fear New York will bo of Little Consequence. 

I have fi'equently Wrote Humbly requesting His Majesty 
would be Graciously Pleased to Grant me leave of Absence 
to Return to Groat Britain for such time as His Majesty in 
His Royal Goodoess may see fit — where Possibly I might 
have been more usefull, than by being kept here. I have 
been very unfortunate in so many of your Lordships letters 
Miscarrying (as I Presume they must have done) not having 
Received a Letter since that of the 4tli of June last. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most Obliged & Obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 

The Right Hon''*'' Lord George Germain 
His Maj*-^'*" Principal Secretary of State 
For America &c. &c. &c. 

* p. R. O. Am. .t W. lud. vol. 298. 


P, S. 23(1 JaiP' n, Party of Coiitinontal Horse have Shewed 
themselves at Different times & Places for 2 or 3 days past 
witliin 8 or 10 miles of Savaiifih & now^ all our out Posts are 
Broke up & Called in &, we Expect every Day to hear of the 
Main Body of the Eebel Army &c. having Crossed the 
Savanah Biver, the Horse come are Said to be about 200 
wdiich we Presume are an Advanced Party. I begin now to 
Expect the Return of the Schooner I Sent Express to New 
York — with Letters to Sir Heni-y CUntou & the Admiral. 

B 6th June. 



23 January 1783. 

No. 59. Savanah in Georgia the 22d of Jan^^- 1782. 

My Lord 

Three Days ago Mr. Philip Yonge His Majesty's Surveyor 
General Dyed, he has left a Widow & four Small Children in 
Narrow Circumstances, he was a very Good young Man- — and 
as he was in a Declining State for some time tt had appointed 
his Wifes Brother Mr. George McKenzie to Act for him, I 
think therefore for the benefit of the Eamily to Appoint him 
for the Present. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord, Your Lordships 

most obliged & obed* Ser* 

Ja. Wright. 

B 6th June. 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. 298. 

304 lettehs from stii .tames Wright. 


23 Januauy 1783. 

Savanaii in Georoia tlio 23(1 of January 1782. 
My Lords, 

I liavc now tlio Honor to Transmit Yonr Lordships by tlie 
Ship Georgia Packet Copys of 33 Laws assented to by nie 
at different times from July 1780 to August 1781 and Several 
otliers have been Passed Since Imt the distresses of the times 
have Prevented the due Course of Proceedings fi'om being 
observed, which I hope will Plead an Excuse for the Officers. 

I also Transmit Copys of the Journals of the Lower House 
of Assembly fi'om the 5th of May 1780 to the 19th of 
December 1781. 

I wish it were in my Power to give your Lordships an)^ 
Agreeable Accounts of our Situation here, but that fi'om a 
variety of unfortunate Events I cannot do. We are now 
Confined almost to our Lines round the Town, & are Expecting 
a Powerfull attack every day & Probably a Siege and thus is 
this most Valuable Province Ruined & I fear lost, for Want 
of that Protection & attention, which I Conceive the Loyalty 
of the Inhabitants Intitled them to. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 

My Lords Your Lordshijis 

most obliged and obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 

The Right Honorable 

Lords Com'"" for Trade & Plantations etc. &c. «tc. 

I [ii(h)rse(J] 
R June 
I. 20. 

* p. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 'Si. 




13 Febkuaky 1783. 

No. 61. Savannah in Georgia 12tli Feb'-y. 1782. 

My Lord, Triplicate. 

After an Interval from the 4:tli of Juno I had the honor to 
receive Your Lordships Letters of the 2d of Aug*^ c% 1st Sep- 
tember — which I acknowledged the receipt of, an Opportunity 
just then offering for Charles .town. 

I immediately acquainted the Council & the S]:>eaker that 
His Majesty had been pleased to declare His Royal appro- 
bation of the Duty Law & to signify the great Satisfaction 
their Zeal & affection for His Person & firm Attachment to 
the British Constitution, manifested by passing that Act, had 
given His Majesty & that I was directed to assure them that 
His Loyal & faithfull Subjects of Georgia may always rely 
on His Majesty's Protection & Constant attention to their 
prosperity <fe happiness & this I shall do in a Public way the 
first opportunity that offers. 

I well know the Multiplicity of Business which the Treasury 
Board always have before them & thank your Lordship for 
saying you will Continue your Instances till the matter I 
Wrote about is Compleated. 

I shall without delay (if we can see the time for doing 
Business endeavour to get a proper Law fi'amed for Collecting 
the Quit Bents &c. but we have been so neglected here, that 
things are in a very Critical Situation just now, aU our 
Victories & Defeats of the Rebels end in nothing material, or 
at all Decisive in favor of Government — and Your Lordship 
will have seen by my Several Letters from time to time that 
in this Province we have .been Suffered to be Continually 
Harassed, Murdered, Plundered & Rumed. 

I did not receive a Single Gun from Lord Rawdon, all that 
I have had was from Col. Brown's Indian Department. The 
200 Sets of Horse Accoutrements &c. are Safe arrived in 

* p. R. 0. Am. & W. lud. vol. 298. 


( 'liuilcs Town, but not come round here yet. Your Lordships 

directions with respect to a proper portion of the Indian 

Goods for East Florida will l)e fully obsei'ved, and We are 

very much oblij^ed to your Lordship for this further mark of 

your attention. 

1 have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 

My Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged cfc obed' 8erv' 

Ja. Wright. 
The llight Hon'^i-^ Lord George Germain 

His Maj'-^'*' Principal Secretary of Htate Ac. &c. &c. 

[ Indorsed] 
E 2')tli May 
(Trip® Orig^ & Duj). not reced) 



12 Febkuaky 1782. 

Savanah the 12th of Eeb'-y 1782. 

D'' Sir, 

I am so Continually hurried that I have not time to write 
to Lord George Germain. The Vessell I Sent to New York 
arrived there the 5tli of January & is not yet returned, nor 
any Letter from Sir H. C. altlio Vessells have arrived at Ch. 
Town which N. Y. since. General Leslie after Promising a 
Reinforcement altered his Mind, k Countermanded it — and 
this Province will be totally Lost, unless very Soon Relieved. 
I Know what I wrote long ago, tlio not Regarded, and as I 
find its in Vain to write, I believe I shall Trouble None of 
your Generals any more, — a Strange kind of Conduct or 
Infatuation Seems to have lost every thing. We have a 

* p. U. 0. Am. h W. lua. vol. 2Ua. 


Great Many Truly Loyal Inhabitants liere, Subsisted &c. at 
a Vast Exponce, but if we are to be Shut u}) within the Lines, 
and they Cannot get any where to Plant, they must 8ee 
Famine before their Eyes & shall not be Surprized if they go 
off & make the best Terms they can. Ilemeniber this, and 
the Armtj will Say they are & always were llebels. 

Its said Green Recommends it Strongly to the People here, 
to Pass an Act of Oblivion & to receive all with open arms, 
who will Join them & they are doing all they can to Cajole 
the Negros & get them over. John Martin a Northward Man 
Avho used to go-by the Name of Black Jack, is now Chosen 
Governor. But I will Stop, for as I can tell you Notliing 
Pleasant, I shall Say no more. I beg to be liemembered to 
Mrs. K. k all yo''« & am D"^ Su- 

with Great Truth 

Atfect'y Yours 

Ja. Wright. 
Wm. Knox Esq'"''- 

P.S. at Night I have this moment reced a Letter from 
General Sir H. C. a Trifling Ans"- that a Man Might be 
ashamed to write & thus do the King's Generals Conduct 
every thing. I will write Lord G. Germain if Possible to 
Morrow, no assistance coming from N. York. 

\^I lido r seel] 
R 6th June. 


15 Febkuaky 17H2. 

No. 62. Savannah in Georgia the 15th of Feb^ 1782. 

My Lord, 

Your Lordshijis remarks in your Letter of the 7tli of 
Sepf on the Cruelty, Perfidy <fcc. of the Rebel Partys & the 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. Ind. vol. 29S. 


great abuse of the Lenity shewn them on all Occasions are 
certainly very just. Had 150 Horse been established here at 
first as I })ressed both Sir* H^ Clinton & Lord Cornwalhs (but 
to no purpose) the assassinations, Murders Plundering &c. 
etc. in this Province would in a great measure have been 
prevented, for at first & for some time, all the beginnings of 
these Villanous Practices were by Small partys, whic;h 
mcreased according to their Success & as they found they 
met with Httle or no Opposition. 

I truly thank for Your Lordship for signifying the King's 
Commands, with respect to the Two Troops of Horse I raised 
on the Joint Address of both Houses of Assembly in June 
last but have not to this Day receiv'd a Line from the 
Commander in Chief on that Subject, & having been under 
the Necessity of drawing on the Lords of the Treasury on 
that Occasion — Your Lordships lajdng my Memorial before 
them tt recommending it to the Board to Accept my Bills is 
a Singular Mark of your Attention, for which we are all 
much Indebted to your Lordship, as well as for what you are 
pleased to mention with respect to Mr. Wests apjilying to 
the Lords of the Treasury for payment of the Bills drawn 
for the Purchase of Provisions for the Loyal Refugees. 

The Su])port of these People My Lord is Certaiidy a great 
Expence to Government, but what could we possibly do ? 
when Men, Women & Children who had Comfortable Houses 
of their Own &. lived in plenty, came Crowding in upon us, 
Stript of every thing and almost Naked, merely on account 
of their Loyalty, there was an absolute necessity to receive 
them & they could not go naked & perish for hunger in our 
Streets & Connnon — and had they not been received &c. the 
whole Famihes nnist have gone back to the Rebels & made 
their Peace on any terms, whereas could they yet be sup- 
ported, I am Convinced beyond a doubt that the generality 
of them would behave as good & Loyal Subjects, but as we 
are not assisted from any Quarter, its impossible to say what 
they may not be drove or forced to do. 

I cannot ans'' for your Lordships intelligence from other 
Gentlemen, but /have not either seen or heard any thing like 
Peace or I'lmKjuiUt// here or in S° CaroUna since last Febru- 


ary — We might have had liolh if the Tr()()])S had lujt gone 
into Virginia, but that Movement put an end to all Peace <fe 
Quietude this way, as I Plainly Saw & wrote your Lordship 
full 12 M"" ago — & S" Carolina has been from that time k 
still is quite the reverse of being our Friend <fe Protector, as 
Your Lordship wishes k Expected. We have really k Truly 
need of every kind of assistance we can possibly get & that 
without any delay. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lord Your Lordships 

most obliged k obed* Serv* 

Ja. Wright. 
The Right Hon'^''' Lord Geo. Germam 

His Maj*'*'*' Principal Secretary of State <fec. &c, &c. 

R 29th May. 
Trip*" Orig' k Dup. not reced. 



16 Febeuaky 1783. 

No. 63. Savanah in Georgia the 16th of Feb'"^ 1782. 

My Lord, 

In my Letter No. 56, by way of New York, I wrote your 
Lordship the Situation we were then in k the ad^dce we had 
Just received from Lieutenant General Leslie of Charles 
Town the Substance of which I at that time wrote to Sir 
Henry Clinton k Pressed him earnestly to send us a Rein- 
forcement for our Immediate Relief k assistance &c. and have 
now the Honor to Inclose you liis Answer to my Letter, a 
Transcript of the first Part I have Sent to Charles Town to 
General Leslie k Pressed him for the Reinforcement he had 
once ordered to come here, but afterwards Countermanded, 

* p. R. O. Am. & \V. lud. vol. 298. 



Tho Liittov Tart of Sir H. C's letter is really so Extraordinary 
that it re(|uires no (Jc^mment & thus your Lonlship Sees how 
all Applications for His Majesty's Service arc regarded, and 
when Othcers here assert that Sir H. C. has 20,000 Troops 
■with him. I also Inclose Your Lordship an Extract of a 
hotter from Sir H. C. to General Leslie, by which your Lord- 
ship will see the Idea those Generals have with Kespect to 
this Province. 

our Present Situation at Savanah Continues as it has been 
for some time, the Rebels dare not yet attack us here and 
Col. Clarke the Commander of the King's Troops, does not 
think it Prudent or Advisable to go out against them, so that 
they have the Comnumd of the whole Country & some times 
come within a mile or two of the Town & Small Partys much 

Its Impossible to Say when or how this matter will be 
brought to a Point. I am Persuaded they Certainly Expect 
a Elect on the Coast and Give out that they also Expect the 
Pensylvania Line or a Body of French Troops fi'om the 
Northward and if these things are so, I Conclude they wait 
their arrival. 

Yesterday my Lord I Received Intelligence that two Partys 
of about 140 in the whole were gone over Ogechee Eerry 
towards the Alatamaha River, & had been in St. Andrews 
Parish (a Scotch Settlement) & there Murdered 12 or 13 
Loyal Subjects, these things are Cruel beyond Measure & we 
can get no Relief or assistance, how happy would it make me 
to have it in my Power to write your Lordship a Pleasing 
letter, but that time is yet to Come & out of Sight. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
My Lords Y^our Lordships 

most obliged & obed* Serv*^ 

Ja, Wright, 
The Right Hon^'^*" Lord George Germain 

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State 
Eor America <fec. &c. <fec. 

R 29th May. 
(Trip" Orig> & Dup" not reccd.) 




IG Fehkuaky 1783. 

Savanah tlie IGth of Feb. 1782. 
D"^ Sir, 

You will See the Present State of affairs here by my Letter 
to Lord George Germain No. 63 The Generals &c. &c. have 
always Set their faces against this Province, as I have 
frequently Wrote you, and I Can't tell why, unless it is 
because the King has thought Proper to Re-establish his 
Civil Government here — which the Mihtary Cannot bear — 
and I have long Seen they will do Nothmg for us, without a 
Positive order from Home & which may now be too late. I 
write thmgs to you, that may not be Proper to Write to Lord 
George Germain & for the King to See. but yet you may 
think he ought to know them, as in some measure Necessary 
for him to Judge of & Regulate himself by — had not the 
Civil Government been Re-established here, I have not a 
Doubt but this Province would have been Evacuated long 

and I am Persuaded there was a time, when I was very 
Instrumental in Saving it, and their Present Ideas, you will 
See by the Extract of Sir H. C's letter to General Leslie, and 
which Appears to be in Answer to a Letter he must have 
Received from him and this I think Accounts for his Count- 
ermanding & Stopj)ing the Remforcement he had Ordered 
for this Place, but be it as it may, you See I can get Nothing 
from them. 

God knows what our Fate will be, Neglected as we are. 
But this I know, that the Military at N. Y. and I believe 
every where give the viattcr up & I have Reason to believe 
are so Imprudent as to have Said so ever Since the Unfor- 
tunate affair of Lord C. 

Whose Fault that w^as, does not Lye wdth me to give any 
opinion upon, but it is what I always Dreaded & indeed 
Expected from the first. I am vastly impatient to know the 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. lutl. vol. 298. 


Plan which may have been adoj)teiT Since the above Event, 
but Something NeAV & very different Seen)S Necessary and I 
am Convinced Nothing avlU be attempted any where but just 
to Hokl the Towns or Garrisons, every Insult & every Depre- 
dation the Rebels Choose to offer or Commit will be Suffered 
with Impnniiij till orders are Eec'd from Home after Lord 
C's arrival. What do you think of 20,000 Men at New York 
Sc its Depcuidancies & yet to Send None here & his letter is a 
curious Jund)le. also near 6,000 at Charles ToA\-n where he 
Says 3,000 are Suff* but None Can be Spared to come here. 
I could Sa}' much, very much but I am not sure you may 
receive this letter. I intend to Answer Sir H. C's absurd 
letter & shew him the weakness folly & danger of that 
unnecessary Delay, w'cli I think is only a Shuffling Pretence, 
I am D^' Sir 

very truly & affect'^ Yoiirs 

Ja, Whight. 
William Knox, Esq. 

P. S. the Vessell with the Accoutrements is just come round 
& I am told General Leslie has taken out 100, by what 
Eight I know not but Force of Arms & Prejudice ag*"*^- 
this Province. 

Pv 6th June. 



33 February 1783. 

Savanah 23 Feb. 1782. 
D« Sir, 

I have this Moment Reced a letter from General Leslie, by 
which I find we are not to Expect any Reinforcement from 

* p. II. 0. .\iu. & W. lud, vol. 29a. 


liim, (I think) — unless a Foreign Force comes, and all that 
we have had, is the Ilemains of the 7th Regiment Sa^' about 
130 Rank & file, tt also Some Hessian Recruits, Sent from 
New York to Charles Town and from thence hero, amounting 
to 95 & from 40 to 50 British Say in the whole about 270 
Rank & file, the Recniits must have come at any Rate to 
Join their Corps. 

about 170 Chactaw Indians are come here, 122 Men and 
the Rest Women & Children & Mr. Graham has Applied to 
me for Part of the Indian Presents to Give them & also to 
Send to the Chactaw Nation. These People came across the 
Country to the Alatamaha River, and hearing that Some 
Partys of Rebels were gone to mtercept them. Messengers 
were Sent to Stop 'em, and Boats Dispatched to bring them 
by water & they got safe here, all but about 15, who Rambled 
away by Land, 3 of which we hear the Rebels killed & the 
other 12 we don't yet Certainly know^ what is become of, be 
Pleased to Acquaint Lord George Germain with these 
Matters, altho' I Presume Mr. Graham will write his Lord- 
ship fuUy about the Indian aftairs. 

Appearances are very gloomy — Sir P. Houstown & his 
Brother William, Lately come from England & Mr. David 
Douglass formerly a Rebel but one who had taken the Oaths, 
had a Commission from me tt who we all had a Great opinion 
of. Joined the Rebels in our Neighbourhood a day or 2 ago 
and I am Informed beyond a doubt, that my life is Threatened 
& that ofi'ers have been made to General Wayne, to assassi- 
nate me, or Carry me off, which he Chooses. & in this Situ- 
ation I am at Present. & ought to have been in England long 
ago, &. Sure I am it would have been for the King's Service. 
The Hessians Desert fast, 26 have gone off within less than 
a Month, & I wish they may be sound at the bottom, if we 
Should be Pushed. 

I have answered Sir H. Clintons absurd letter and sIictmi 
him the Danger of that Unnecessary delay. The Vessel with 
the Accoutrements &c. &c. is just come round and I find 
General Leslie has taken out 100 by what Right I know not, 
but Force of arms &:. Possiblj- Prejudice ag*"' this Province. 

a Grand Error to Re-establish Civil Governra* it not Sup- 


port & Protect tliat ProviBce against all Attempts whatever, 
this ought Certainly to have been done, as I Presume the 
intention was to be an Example to the other Colonies & to 
Shew the Difference between the Blessings of the Kings 
Peace & Civil Government &c. and Rebel Tyranny etc. but 
God knows we have had Little Peace here. 
I am D"- Sir 

Very Truly & Affect'^ Yours 

Ja. WiaGiiT. 

P. S. 4th March The Hessians Contmue to Desert & it 
becomes a most Serious & Dangerous matter, and I See but 
one thing to be taken, but I Suppose the Person who may do 
it, will not & I fear we have Nothing to Expect. I am 
Momently Looking for Letters from England, Subsequent to 
the Account of Lord C's Defeat etc. and I think I See Clearly 
that it is not intended to do any thing till then, in Short Sir 
we are all wrong ct doing wrong, or Nothing. I refer you to 
my Several late Letters ct Shall only add that we are a 
Neglected People Struggling Hard, a Party of Rebels came 
here last Tuesday Night & Burn't me another Barn, almost 
within Musket Shot of the Town, this is the Tenth Barn 
they have Burn't of Mine. Fine ample Protection to Civil 
Government, even within Musket Shot of oiir Lines ! the 
Party Consisted of about 50 Horse our Expences & my Bills 
on the Lords of the Treasury Run high, but Loyal Refugees 
must not Perish with Hunger in our Streets. 

5tli March. The Rebel Governor Martin now at Ebenezer 
has Issued 3 Proclamations, one to the Kings Troops, one to 
the Hessians and another to the Militia, Liviting them all to 
Revolt <t Join the Virtuous Americans against the Tyranny 
of the British Government and for which each man is to 
have 200 Acres of Land & a Cow etc. and Excepting all those 
who are included in the former Rebel Bill of Attainder tt a 
Number of others Named in the Proclamation — and 3000 
French Troops are on their way from Virginia tt yet we can 
get no assistance, tt all my letters are disregarded. Pray 
Mind that I mean this so far as a Puhliv letter, that it be 
shewn to Lord George Germain, tt altho' I don't write to him 


now, yet I think it for His Majesty's Service that he shonKl 
know what I write or at least the substanee of it. I have 
Sent Copys of the Rebel Procl"'' to Gont^ral Leslie & Inclose 
yon a Copy of my Letter to him with th(i Address of the 
Assembly & the Proclamations. 

R 6th June. 


27 March 1783. 

No. 04. Savanah in Georgia the 27th of March 1782. 

My Lord, 

I have the Honor to Inclose your Lordship a Copy of my 
Account of the Expenditure of the ,£5000 from the 5th of 
November 1781 to the 21st of January 1782, which I Trust 
will be approved of. the Vouchers which were Produced in 
Council, I Dare not Venture to Send, but by a Ship of War. 
I also Inclose your Lordship a Copy of the Accounts for 
Supporting the Troops of Horse, The Refugees, Militia &c. 
which I Likewise Trust will be Approved of. 

I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem my Lord, 
Your Lordships 

most obliged and obed^ Ser* 

Ja. Weight. 
The Right Hon^^® Lord George Germain 

His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State 
for America &c. &c. &c. 

R 29th May. 

* p. R. O. Am. & W. lud. vol. 2'J8. 



[Read Jiui. 1777. | 

To the Right Hon''''' Lord George Germain His Maj(^sty's 
Principal Secretary of State for America. 

The hunilJe Memorial of John Grahame, Esq. 
Lieutenant Governor of the Province of Georgia, 


That your Memorialist has had the honor of lieing one of 
His Majesty's Council in Georgia since the year 1763, and 
has with Zeal for the King's Service, ever faithfully dis- 
charged his Duty in that Station, and humbly hopes his 
Services were acceptable to his Majesty, having been lately 
honored wdth his Commission of Lieutenant Governor of the 
said Province. 

That Your Memoriahst having from his steady and uniform 
Opposition to the Measures pursued for involving the Prov- 
ince of Georgia in the present unnatural Rebellion, rendered 
liimself particularly obnoxious to the Leaders of that Party, 
he was pointed out by them as an Object for the resentment 
of the People — and on the 19th of Janu^' last was made a 
Prisoner by the Rebels with Sir James Wright his Majesty's 
Governor in Chief, and tho' he was with him released, yet in 
a few days afterwards, he received private information that it 
was again detcu-mined to confine him, upon which lie was 
obliged to conceal himself night and day in Swamps for a 
considerable time, exposed to all the inclemencies of the 
weather, untill he f(n'tunately made his escape on board the 
Kings Ships, where he remained till they were ready to sail 

*P. R. O. Georgia. B. T. vol. 33. 


for Boston — during which time Capt. Barkley of His Majesty's 
Ship Scarbrough and Major Grant Commanding a Detach- 
ment of the King's Troops, having in the Course of their 
Operations taken three Prisoners who were deemed ])j the 
Rebels of Consequence to their Party, a Negotiation was set 
on foot for their Release, which on certain conditions was 
agreed to, and amongst other things, it was an express stipu- 
lation made that Your Memorialist should on giving seven 
days Notice to their Committees be allowed to bring away 
his Family, and was at a great expence obliged to fi-eight a 
Vessel for that purpose, And on- the 13tli of May last, he 
was in consequence of the Stipulation before mentioned, per- 
mitted to leave the Province with his Family, being Twelve 
in number (exclusive of Servants) but was absolutely pre- 
vented from bringmg any part of his property. 

That before your Memorialist left the Province the Rebels 
had wantonly burnt four Hundred Barrels of Rice, part of 
his last Year's Crop, had also in a gi-eat measure destroyed 
a valuable Dwelling House in the To^vn of Savannah, and 
otherwise greatly injured his Property. 

Your Lordship's Memorialist having from Principle and 
Attachment to His Majesty's Person and Government, ever 
approved himself a loyal Subject and faithful Servant of the 
Crown, claims no Merit from his having done, what he thinks 
was no more than his indispensible Duty, but nevertheless, 
humbly hoj)es such his Conduct, may be the more favorably 
received, when it is considered that it was at a Period, when 
he well knew, he was thereby risquing his all, and has in 
consequence thereof been actually obliged to leave at the 
Mercy of the Rebels a Fortune of Fifty thousand pounds 
Sterling value, which consisting chiefly in Negroe Slaves, will 
in all probability be disposed off by the Rebels, so as to be 
for ever lost to him & his Family. 

Your Memoriahst being thus cut off, fi-om all prospect of 
Supplies from his own Estates and being necessarily sub- 
jected to a great expence, for the support of his Family here 
(hitherto accustomed to Kve in the gi*eatest affluence) is laid 
under the very disagi'eeable necessity of making this Appli- 


cation, and lininbly hopes 30ur Lordship, fi'om a considera- 
tion of the h(>avy Losses -which lie lias ah'cady sustained, his 
present embarrassed Situation, and the peculiar circum- 
stances attending his case, be released to recommend that a 
Sallary be allowed him as Lieutenant Governor of Goor<^ia 
from the time of his appointment, as some Relief and Assist- 

And Your Memorialist as in duty bound Shall ever Pray 
<fcc. &c. 

John Grahame 
Lieut. Governor of Georgia. 


J. 13. 

Read January 17th 1777. 






C J I A R 1. ES C . JONES, J R .. 



FEBRUARY 13TH, 1871, 

A n I) Pv, Kss. 

"There is a l)an(l of far-sliiuing men for Avlioni the wliole 
world is the tomb." As if anticipating his own innnortality, 
so spake that splendid Athenian wlio, living, gave to his 
country an age which has never been eclipsed, and dying, 
bequeathed monuments of art, virtuous memories and mag- 
nificent trophies which remain to this day the wonder and 
the admiration of the civilized world. But it is not to the 
Olympian memories of Pericles that we consecrate this hour. 
Come we nearer home, and fi'om out that band of far-shining 
men whose fame is intimately associated with our own shores, 
whose great deeds have imparted dignity to our peculiar an- 
nals, select we one — a stranger by birth, a brother by adop- 
tion — a goodly knight, hardy in battle, ever ready to put 
sternest spear in the rest when the oppressed needed a 
champion and the cause of Freedom a defender. Him will 
we foUow through the nobler scenes of his valiant life to that 
supreme moment when, within the confines of this beautiful 
city of Oglethorpe, he encountered his mortal hurt in the 
brave and generous effort to liberate our beloved home from 
British rule. Meet it is, on this our anniversary, that we 
revive such recollections in a spirit full of gratitude and loyal 
appreciation. As we gather around the grave of Pulaski, 
catching the inspirations which are born of his example and 
hallowed by his death, we will cherish more nearly our obli- 
gations to the past, fortify ourselves agamst the demoralizing 
tendencies of the present, and gird up our loins to meet with 
renewed confidence the issues of the future. 

The dismemberment of Poland will he always regarded as 
a surprising illustration of the "flagitious wickedness of Rus- 
sia, the unprincipled accesion of Austria, the foul treachery 


of Prussia, aii.l the short-sighted as well as the mean spirited 
acciuiesccnce of all the other nations of Europe." To liussia 
belongs an odious preeminence in that career of oppression 
which, characterized by a disregard of the laws of nations 
and a ])alpable violation of all that was just and hoii()ra])lt^, 
compassed the overthrow of a })e()i)le once the })redoniinating 
power of the North, constituting a part of the vanguard of 
civilization, contributing in no small (h'gi'ee to the progress 
of science, and maintaining an imp(n'tant influence in the 
European system. The only representative of the Sarmatian 
race in the assembly of civilized nations, there was nnicli in 
the past history and heroic traditions of Poland, m the pecu- 
liarity of her language and institutions, in the freedom of 
]>olitical sentiment and the toleration of religious liberty en- 
joyed within her borders, which rendered her people fond and 
proud of their country and fostered that spirit of national 
attachment which, in peace, is the surest guaranty of the 
general Avelfare — the truest pledge of success m the stormy 
hour of battle. 

An essential member of the federative S3'stem of France, 
by her vicinity to Turkey and influence on the commerce of 
the Baltic afl'ecting the general interests of Europe, and by 
her physical position, — independent of all pohtical consider- 
ations, — in a gieat measure preventing a collision betAveen 
the three leading military Powers of the contment, it appeared 
highly necessary that the integrity of Poland should have 
been jealously preserved and vigorously defended by her 
sister States. Under existmg circumstances, a dismember- 
ment seemed an event not much more probable than that the 
physical outlines of this country should have been suddenly 
obliterated by a convulsion of nature. Nevertheless, the 
territory of this ancient and patriotic people, without color 
of right or pretext of defense, in absolute defiance of the 
principles of common humanit}', in derogation of all political 
rights, and in direct violation of plighted faith and sealed 
compact, was sundered, divided and parceled out among 
neighboring nations, whose only excuse for the perpetration 
of this outrage was an alleged preservation of the balance of 
power. Balance of power ! A horrid phantom which time 


and aj^ain has reared its hideous front, frighteninjj; jieace and 
haj)piness from their h'.j^itiniate abodes! — a modern Mohjch, 
upon whose altars ambitious, designing kings and i)otentates 
have sacrificed more innocent blood than the repentant tears 
of Europe can for centuries blot out. 

This anidhilation of the political existence of Poland was 
not the work of a moment, or the quiet consumnuition of in- 
trigues conducted in the privy councils of royalty. It was 
accomplished oidy when the strong hand of ()})pression, — 
rendered triply powerful by an unholy alliance, — had again 
and again beaten into the dust brave arms uplifted in that 
most righteous cause, the defense of a nation's honor and 
liberty; only when thousands had yielded up their lives in 
that holy behalf, leaving to their sons and to men of all ages 
examples of the glorious martyrdom of those who prefer 
poverty, expatriation, aye, death itself; to a life and citizenship 
subjected to the outrages of an unfeeling and inhuman des- 

The sole right invoked in justification of the partition, was 
one which only tyrants and freebooters dare to claim — "the 
right of superior physical force." 

To the shame of men and government be it s})oken, this 
brutal right has found, and is still finding fearful assertion 
even in these latter days of boasted civilization, and against 
men conservative in their views, observant of compacts, 
honest in their efforts to maintain the rights of personal 
liberty and private property, pure in honor, inferior to none 
in valor, and unsurpassed in their devotion to the changeless 
principles of truth and justice. I mean the peoples recently 
composing the Southern Confederacy. 

By Russia the war was conducted with a treachery, rapa- 
city, falsehood and cruelty not unworthy the suggestions of a 
Caligula, while on the part of the Poles it constituted one of 
the noblest struggles for independence the world has ever 
witnessed, — an eftbrt prompted not by blind despair, but 
born of a firm resoluticjn, sustamed by a well-founded hope, 
and characterized by high-toned sentiment — the love of 
country and freedom, humanity and justice.* 

*§ee Pulaski's address to Iv-^ little ^rmy atatioued at Barr. 


Any .ittciiipt to ovcrtlirow the intlcpcndencc of a people once 
invested with the privileges of liberty, can never be success- 
ful unless there be a total annihilation of those intellectual 
and moral qualities forming the commonwealth and dis- 
tinguishing it from other communities. The devastating 
sword may lay bare the fairest homes, and the iron heel of 
war trample fertile fields into desert wastes. The schemes of 
the oppressor and the armies of the tyrant may for a time 
paralyze the impulses and check an expression of the nobler 
feelings, but the national spirit will live. It will live in the 
silent caves of the mountains, in the shadows of the forests, 
in valleys ba})tized by the blood of heroes, in holy memories 
of a heroic past, in the glorious recollections transmitted by 
patriots and martyrs who gave their lives for its support, — 
above all, in the sacred recesses of uuconquered hearts, and, 
upon the first occasion, like the returning fire of a slumber- 
ing volcano, it will kindle into renewed animation and vigor. 
As of old, in mythical times, those who held sway over the 
elements were giants born of night and chaos, so amid polit- 
ical changes which convulse nations, and in perilous epochs 
pregnant with unusual issues, from out the very vortex of 
general apprehension, irresolution, uncertainty and dismay, 
arise master spirts, who, lifting themselves above the com- 
mon level and gaining the ascendency over their weaker fel- 
lows, seem constituted for the emergency and ordained for the 

We are accustomed to regard with emotions near akin to 
veneration, the men and great deeds of the past. When the 
actor in person no longer participates in the scenes of his 
triumphs, when time has cast its forgetful shadows over that 
historic group in which the outlines of the (central figure ai'e 
alone clearly discernable, it not uufrequently happens that 
the rough-hewn image of former days rises before the imagi- 
native eyes of succeeding generations into all the dignity, 
beauty and ])roportion of a finished masterpiece. The elo- 
quence of the orator falls upon the ear in more conmianding 
tones as it comes repeated l)y the echoes of centuries, and 
the gleam of the warrior's sword seems brightest when its 
Hashes leap from out the darkness of the long ago. The 


strong fortress of to-day, with its heavy bastions and bur- 
nished l^atteries, is in many respects far less attractive than 
the old castle bending beneath the weight of years, its towers 
overshadowed by the clustering ivy, its deserted halls tapes- 
tried with the moss of unrecorded summers. Age does in- 
deed impart a dignity to and impress a seal of consecration 
upon men and matter. While we admire the virtues and the 
achievements of former times, it does not become us, how- 
ever, to regard lightly the capabilities of the present, or, 
through false comparisons, to disparage the future. Human 
nature, human intellect and human impulses, — although in 
their essentials nearly alike in every age, — are still progres- 
sive and expanding, and we are encouraged in the belief 
that right and justice must eventually prevail. 

But two years since Polish exiles — assembled from various 
countries in Europe — inaugurated upon Swiss soil a monu- 
ment conmiemorative of their nation's long and unsuccessful 
struggle for independence. It consists of a column of black 
marble surmounted by the white eagle of Poland. Upon the 
four sides of its pedestal, in Pohsh, French, German and 
Latin, is engraved this moving appeal : "The immortal geniiis 
of Poland, unsulxhed after a struggle of o, hnndred years, on 
free Helvetian soil appeals to the justice of God and man.''' 

Scarce a month ago, this city rendered the profoundest 
tribute ever paid within her limits to the memory of man. 
From hoary age to lisping infancy, with one heart did we 
unite in extending the highest posthumous honors to our 
great and beloved captain, Robert Edward Lee. That day 
witnessed the power of Confederate memories, the j^athos of 
Confederate emotions and the devotion of Confederate 
hearts. Most tenderly sympathizing in the kindred sorrows 
which befel the Sarmatians in their struggle for indepen- 
dence, and sharing with them those hopes for the future, 
which, despite the disappointments, the injuries and the in- 
justice of the present, we cherish so sacredly in our own 
behalf, we can but trust that the time will come in the good 
providence of Him who can bring light out of darkness and 
break all bands in sunder, when even dismembered Poland, 
gathering her expatriated sons from the east and Avest, the 


iiortli and south, and arising from her vassalage, shall stand 
again in the sisterhood of nations in all the freshness and 
vigor of a regenerated political (existence. 

Among the names which in the eighteenth century lent a 
lustre to romance and a dignity to history, few have descend- 
ed to us invested with greater attractions than that of 
Kasimir Pulaski. Born with rank and fortune — his father 
an able jurist* — his family ancient and influential — his early 
years were spent in careful study, in the acquisition of a 
tlu^rough military education, and in the cultivation of those 
elevated principles which so signally distinguished him in 
after life.t Inwrought in the very constitution of his soul 
were an affection for free institutions and a genuine devotion 
to the best interests of his country. Surveying with anxious 
eye the political and social condition of Poland, it was Avith 
the livehest regi^et he observed the seeds of discord thickly 
sown where should have flourished only unity of purpose 
and generous afliliation. He beheld the nobility of the laud, 
powerful in wealth, rank, and in the number of adherents, 
destitute of high resolves and enfeebled by dissensions. The 
humiliating condition into which his country had been pre- 
cipitated by the imbecihty of Stanislaus Augustus and the 
interference of Russian intrigue, awakened his profound sor- 
row and undisguised indignation. Turning to the constitu- 
tion of Poland, venerable for its anti(iuity, he became per- 
suaded that it was "ill contrived, without central vigor and 
wholly unsuited to the present crisis." And yet he could 
not resist the impression that the great heart of the nation — 
once aroused to an intelHgent appreciation of the threatened 
dangers — would beat in unison with his (nvn. He saw the 
genius of Lil)erty enthroned upon the hills which reared their 
everlasting heads about him, recognized her influence in the 
free air which floated over forest and valley, and heard her 
voice alike in the manly traditions of his race and in the im- 
petuous torrents leaping so fearlessly through their rock-worn 

*He belougeil to the class of the nobility, was the SOnos'e, or Chief Magistrate of Ware<-h, 
and stood high in public esteem as a man of abilitity and integrity. His associations were 
with the first families, particularly with the princely house of (^zartorinsky. 

tSee "Histoire de rAuarchie de Pologne et du Demenjbrement de cette Republiipie, par 
cl KuUiiere." Tome troisienie pp 39-40. Paris, 1807. 


cliannels. Ho knew that the iiiliabitaiits of such a land — the 
people of such descent — must love freedom and hate oppres- 
sion, that only a rallying-point was wanted to evoke the 
national spirit of the Poles and unite them in an earnest vin- 
dication of their claims to personal and political liberty. 

Scarcely had his youthful form attained the strength and 
proportions of manhood, when we find him, with his father 
and brothers, drafting and signing a secret compact where- 
by they solemnly pledged their time, fortunes, energies and 
lives to the glorious mission of accomplishing the redemption 
of Poland. This became the noted confederation of Barr — 
the model of all others which, during the four subsequent 
years, sprang up at various points.* Nor does this step ap- 
pear to have been taken without due deliberation. There 
was nothing in it of careless endeavor or passing amusement. 
It involved present abnegation and coming peril. ^Elius 
PcBtus with his own teeth tore in pieces a woodpecker be- 
cause the augur, when consulted, replied if the bird lived the 
house of ^Elius would flourish, but if it died the prosperity 
of the State would prevail. So Pulaski, repudiating the 
honors and emoluments which would certainly have been his 
had he courted Russian influence, or sympathized with the 
schemes of the dominant party, sacrificing all interests of a 
personal and selfish character, laying aside every claim to 
promotion by virtue of acknowledged rank and family posi- 
tion, and devoting his patrimony to the furtherance of the 
cause of the Revolutionists, entered the lists of the friends 
of freedom without pretensions, but with a strong arm and a 
determination to consecrate his every ability to the liberation 
of a land endeared to him by holiest ties. Such was the 
vigor of his intellect, such the wisdom of his plans, so fear- 
less his counsels, and so intrepid his action, that in a few 
months he became one of the acknowledged and favorite 
leaders of the Patriots. In the bosoms of the brothers Pu- 
laski, the votive spirit of their honored father awakened 
a kindred response. In fervid langiiage did they portray the 
glory of accomplishing the regeneration of their country, as 

*See Sparks's Life of Pulaski. Library of American Biograpliy, vol. xiv, p. 337. Bcston. 


from point to point they journeyed, awakening the public 
mind to a realizing sense of the true p(iliti(!al condition of 
Poland and to an ai)preciati()n of the humiliating results 
Avliich would inevitably How from a quiet acquiesence in the 
l)olii'y prescribed by llussia and her minions. Such was the 
enthusiasm engendered by their presence and manly exhorta- 
tions, that young and old caught the inspiration. Like the 
mothers and daughters of our own revolution, the women of 
Poland enthusiastically pledged their aid, their jewels and 
their prayers in furtherance of the grand enterprise. Monks 
and devotees acknowledged the patriotic contagion, and, 
quitting tlunr altars, marched about the country with crosses 
and flying banners, investing tlie crusade against tyranny 
with the sanction of their countenance and their benedic- 

Confederations were multiplied, and thus it came to pass 
that the ground-work of resistance was fully laid. These 
movements, secretly inaugurated, soon became too conspicu- 
ous not to attract the attention of the Royalists. Orders 
issued by the King to quell these growing disturl)ances but 
added fuel to the flame. Force was repelled by force, and 
soon throughout the length and breadth of the land, the sub- 
dued nnirmur of resistance was succeeded by the shout and 
tumult of contending armies. "The name which soon eclipsed 
all others and which became one of the surest hopes of the 
nation, when the multiplied faults of the Turks no longer permit- 
ted them to lend succor to the Poles, was that of young Oasimir 
Pulaski, always full of resources in misfortune and of activity 
in success."" His vigilance left no opportunity for surprise, 
and, so terrible was he in battle, that his soldiers regarded 
him at times as almost too fond of danger. 

Never was there a warrior, says Rulhiere,t who possessed 
greater dexterity in every kind of service. Endowed by a 
peculiar gift of nature, strengthened by exercise, he was al- 
ways the first to charge, in person, with an intrepidity which 
inspired his followers to imitate his example. By a natural 


tHistoiri' dc rAiiarcliic (1(f lV>I(if,'n(' ft (In Driiiciubriiiiciit do Cftte Ucimbliinii-. Toiiii' 
(luatricnic iip. IIH). 1II7. I'aris, ls()7. 



liscendaucy, Pulaski was tlie chief among equals. At one 
time lie had scarcely an officer whom he had not rescued 
either from the hands of the enemy or from some danger, 
and who might not say that he owed his life and lil)erty to 
his commander. Intrepid in cond)at, he was gentk;, obliging, 
sociable, never distrustful where he had once placed his con- 
fidence, and never meddling in the intrigues which end )roiled 
the confederations. "With him, 

"The love of liberty with life was given, 
And life itself the inferior gift of Heaven." 

Such being the distinguishing traits and aims of this noble 
man, it excites no wonder when we are told that his name 
became a watchword of heroic action, his arm a tower of con- 
fidence and pride. His was the banner to which old and 
young clung with especial favor ; for they were persuaded, 
one and all, that he who bore it was 

"A friend to truth, of soul sincere, 
In action faithful and in honor clear." 

At the outset, the Poles hoped by petition and argument to 
compass a peaceable assertion of their right to retain the 
quiet enjoyment of their homes, their ancient freedom and 
their nationaUty; but, as day after day they saw their soil 
desecrated by the tread of usurpation, their high stations 
filled by strangers, and found many of their own nobles, to 
whom they had looked for support and protection, deserting 
the cause of liberty, yielding to the influences of Russian 
bribes, and busying themselves with petty jealousies and 
unmanly rivalries to the utter disregard of the public weal, 
the minds of the common people became fully roused to a 
sense of impending dangers, and their answering shouts of 
defiant indignation rose as the whirlwinds in their wrath. 
We may not now enumerate those examples of stern resist- 
ance, those acts of daring, of self-denial, of manly virtue 
which will render this one of the most remarkable struggles 
in the annals of the world. The hill-side streams ran red 
with the blood of the Confederates. More than one pass 
was converted into a Thermopylffi. Time and again were 
prodigies of valor performed which carry us back to the brave 
days of Leonidas and Horatius, and remind us of the devo- 
tion of the Decii. 


For four long years did Pidaski and his gallant companions 
in arms stem the horrid tide of invasion and domestic dis- 
sensicnis, often causing its waves, as they dashed against the 
ramparts which honor and patriotism had r(>ared, to recoil in 
dismay and wild confusion. 

Even now the Russian trembles as he hears or reads of the 
death-struggle at Okope. Mention the name of Pulaski within 
the gray old walls of the fortress of Czenstokow, and each 
ni OSS-covered stone, every silent gun-chamber, becomes vocal 
with heroic praise. Ask the ragged mountains — crowned 
with ancient forests — and they will tell you how, like an eagle 
from an impregnable eyrie, he there brooded over the ruth- 
less war, thence again and again with unerring swoop hurhng 
his death-dealing squadrons into the thickest of the enemy's 
ranks; and, when the combat was over, seeking friendly 
shelter in these inaccessible retreats where he could gather 
fresh strength for the ceaseless strife. 

Speaking for himself and of himself he says : "I regarded 
every moment as lost which was not employed in repelling 
the enemies of my country. I have endeavored to mark my 
course by an invincil)le fortitude. Neither the blood of one 
of my brothers, which was shed by the enemy before my 
eyes, nor the cruel servitude of another, nor the sad fate 
of so many of my relations and compatriots has shaken my 
patriotism. I declare before God, before the Republic of 
Poland, and before all the powers of Europe, that my heart 
is an utter stranger to crime. My thoughts and actions have 
had no other end than the good of my country."* 

In the struggle of the few with the many, — how gallant and 
prolonged soever it may be,— the end must come. The best 
hopes of the Confederates were doomed to disappointment. 

"The conspiracy of the three sovereigns which had been 
seething in tlie caldron of secret treachery," was at length 
triumphant, stamping upon its authors the seal of eternal in- 
famy. Neither the counsels of wisdom, nor the warrior's 
sword could longer avert the impending sorrows of this once 
happy people. Her sons overpowered, scattered, slain, Po- 
land lay prostrate at the feet of her relentless pursuers. 

* See Pulaski's Manifest, published in January, 1772. 


"In vain, alas ! in vain ye ijallant few I 
P'roni rank to rank your vollcy'd thunder flew ; 
Oh ! bloodiest jiicture in the book of Time 
Satnartia fell unwept, without a erinie ; 
Found not a i^enerous friend, a pitying foe. 
Strength in her arms, nor mercy in her woe ! 
Droj>p'd from her nerveless grasp the shatter'd s]iear, 
Clos'd her l)right eye and curb'd her high career. 

Oh ! righteous Heav'n ere Freedom found a grave. 
Why slept the sword onmipotent to save? 
Where was thine arm O ! Vengeance, where thj' rod 
That smote the foes of Zion and of God ?" 

Pulaski, the noble, the valiant, — who had sacrificed his all, 
braved every danger and suffered every privation, — whose 
name had become in his own nation, and wherever honor, 
justice and freedom found a votary, a synonym for all that 
was pure in principle, heroic in action, knightly in bearing 
and undying in devotion, — was, without evidence and without 
a trial, declared an outlaw by judicial decision. 

Imagine, if you can, the emotions of that gi-eat man as he 
profoundly realized the gathering miseries of the beautiful 
land for which he had battled so bravely, but in vain, — as he 
looked for the last time upon forest, mountain and river, — 
the theatres of his patriotic endeavor, — upon plains incarna- 
dine with the life-blood of his fallen companions in arms, — 
upon blackened homes once the abodes of peace and plenty, 
and then appreciate the anguish which must have possessed 
his soul, the dark desolation which overshadowed his heart, 
as turning from the mournful retrospect, he, worse than an 
exile, and yet in all that constitutes glorious manhood far 
above the power which decreed his outlawry, — went to meet 
what seemed to be a hopeless, rayless future in the land of 

No wonder that warrior's heart grew faint, — no marvel that 
the stalwart right arm which had so often wielded brightest 
blade where combat waxed warmest, fell nerveless at his side 
as he contemplated the terrors of this remorseless banish- 

Rank, wealth, residence, citizenship, all were lost, but the 


liero lived. He lived in his own untarnished honor, in tlie 
grateful remembrance of his brave but unfortunate counti-y- 
men, in the sincere esteem of every lover of fieedoni, in the 
respect which his chivalrous, patriotic acts wrested as a re- 
luctant tribute even fi'om a faithless foe. He will thus live 
while records endure. Time will but hallow the memories 
which his owai great deeds have consecrated. 

His was no voluntary expatriation, no abandonment of cause 
and country. His departure savored neither of fear nor of a 
retraction of those exalted promises he had made in fi-eedom's 
behalf. On the contrary, it was the logical sequence of a 
dreaded consummation which he had employed every efibrt 
to postpone and utterly prevent. Further resistence was 
madness. Most gladly, think we, would he have sealed the 
independence of Poland with his blood, or mingled his bones 
with those of his slain compatriots, could such a martyrdom 
have proved of any avail. The hope still cheered his heart 
that amid the changes of empires a favorable opportunity 
would present itself for again lifting the standard of liberty 
upon the hill-tops of Poland. This hope, unrealized, he car- 
ried with him to his grave. DuPortaiP says the last words 
uttered by Pulaski, when expiring, were, "You owe to the 
Russians an eternal hatred. You owe to Poland the last 
drop of your blood." 

For the succeeding five years, the life of our hero was passed 
in sadness, j^overty and comparative silence. The pledges of 
assistance given by Turkey were at first tardily, and at length 
never fulfilled. During his sojourn in the laud of the Mussel- 
minn, ti^e and again did he urge the claims of his fallen 
country upon the consideration of neighboring humanity ; 
but they were iinacknowledged, and he awoke to the sad con- 
viction that the hot-beds of despotism would not cause a 
single bud to blossom on that tree of liberty which he had 
planted with his own hands and watered daily with his patriot 

Failing to enlist the sympathies of Turkey, he abandoned 
that country for France. Just then the ear of Paris was 
caught by the clarion notes of our Declaration of Independ- 

*-'Lovt> ami Patriotism, fzc. p. 11!». I>hiladi'li>liia, 17!I7. 


ence, and the heart of the Frencli nation was wanning to- 
wards us in generous appreciation of the impulses whieii led 
to the separation of the United Colonies fi'om the mother 

Pulaski, perceiving a new field for vindicating Avith his 
sword the same principles, the same rights, the same immu- 
table laws in whose behalf he had wielded it Avitli such sin- 
gleness of juirpose in his own country, resolved immediately 
to tender his military services to the infant repubhc. 

There is something peculiarly attractive and impressive in 
the impulse which, in that trying hour, brought to our assist- 
ance heroes unallied to us by association or blood — soldiers 
who came not to secure individual preferment or promote 
private interests — daring men upon whose services we could 
of right urge no claims save such as are recognized by the 
brave and generous of every land when the cause of fi-eedom 
demands assistance, and the principles of justice protection. 

"Thej'^ whom their trust should grow to were not here. 
They were, as all their other comforts, far hence 
In their own .country." 

"The abstract love of Liberty," a desire to setup a standard 
of revolt where hearts, panting beneath burthens which op- 
pression imposed, yearned for deliverance, that inborn sym- 
pathy which prompts the disinterested and the courageous 
to lend a hel])ing hand wheresoever the feeble and the inno- 
cent are seeking to assert their inalienable rights, these 
brought them then to our shores. So long as memory holds 
her seat, until manly breasts prove insensible to grateful 
emotions, will we cherish the names, acknowledge the servi- 
ces, and emulate the virtues of such gallant foreigners as 
Pulaski, LaFayette, Steuben, DeKalb and Kosciuszko. 
Heaven rest their souls ! they did valiant service in the Spar- 
tan days of our forefathers. 

Pulaski saw from afar the "fair temple of American inde- 
pendence rising like an exhalation from the soil, 

"Not in the sunshine and the smile of Heaven, 
But wrapt in whirlwinds and begirt with woes," 

and as he looked a holy enthusiasm was kindled in his breast 

which made him yearn for a place in the war-council of the 


licvolutioii. LtiJiiiiin^ his dosiro, Dr, Franklin, then in Paris, 
favored him with the followint^ introductory letter to General 
AN'ashin^ton : "Count Pulaski, of Poland, an officer famous 
throughout Europe for his bravery and conduct in defense of 
the liberties of his coiTutry against the three gi-eat invading 
powers of llussia, Austria and Prussia, will have the honor 
of delivering this into your hands. The court here have 
encouraged and promoted his voyage from an opinion that 
he may be highly useful in our service." 

Fortified with such commendation from the accredited rep- 
resentative of the united colonies, then scarcely admitted into 
the sisterhood of nations, carrying with him a gootUy rei)uta- 
tion acknowledged and admired alike by friend and foe* — his 
brilliant record at once a passport and a pledge of future 
action — he could not fail of a joyful welcome from the com- 
mander-in-chief of the army, from the American Congi-ess, 
and fi'om the people at large. 

Ai-riving in Philadelphia during the summer of 1777, he 
joined the army as a volunteer, and we find him with Wash- 
ington, Greene, Wayne, Sullivan and LaFayette, at the battle 
of Brandywine, striking his first blow in behalf of American 
independence. In reconnoitering, he rode within pistol shot 
of the enemy, and such was the confidence which his gallant 
bearing, intrepidity and military skill won even from the 
cautious and ever watchful "Father of his Country," that 
towards the close of the engagement he was entrusted with 
the command of Washington's body-guard. Four days after- 
Avards he was commissioned by Congress as a Brigadier Gen- 
eral and assigned to the command of the cavalry. In recom- 
mending Count Pulaski for this position, General Washing- 
ton, in his letter to Congress, says ; " This gentleman has 
been, like us, engaged in defending the liberty and indepen- 
dence of his country, and has sacrificed his fortune to his zeal 
for these objects. He derives from hence a title to our res- 
pect that ought to operate in his favor as far as the good of 
the service will permit." 

Thus, to the young and gallant Pole was early and lionor- 

*In another letter Dr. Franklin says, "Covint Pulaski is esteeoied ope of ^be greatest 
officers in Europe." 


able coinpiuiionsliip accorded among the great captains of 
the army of liberation. 

It is worthy of remark that prior to the arrival of Pulaski, 
cavalry, as an arm of service, had received comparatively 
little attention in our army. Until his appointnu^nt there was 
no officer in this branch of higher rank than that of Colonel. 

Light Horse Harry Lee, Sumter, Marion and Wilham 
Washington, had not then fully demonstrated the value of 
mounted men and the power of the keen-edged sabre. 

With Pulaski, cavalry was the favorite arm. A true Sar- 
matian, he was bred to the saddle.* He loved the broad 
blade, the bugle-call, the pawing steed — his neck clothed with 
thunder — and the charging squadrons. With these w^as all 
his past military reputation most closely alUed. An experi- 
enced officer, he knew and appreciated the excellencies of 
this branch of the service, and entered upon the duties of his 
position resolved, as far as in him lay, to remedy all defects 
and supply every existing deficiency. Unfortunately our 
resources were limited, our revenues small, and our soldiers 
few. As a natural consequence, despite his earnest efforts, 
seconded as they were by his brother officers and by the 
general government, Pulaski failed in securing as large a 
body of horse as he desired or the exigencies of the service 
seemed to demand. Concentratmg his squadrons, as far as 
practicable, and placing himself at their head, he inaugurated 
a system of exercise and discipline, which m a short time, 
developed such precision in drill and dexterity of movement 
that his troops of horse became the admiration of the army. 
We may not now pause to mark him well as at Warren Tavern, 
at Germantown, at Haddonfield, Little Egg-harbor and else- 
where, he displayed his accustomed zeal and intrepidity, 
transferring to the battle fields of America the same devo- 
tion, alacrity and heroism which had rendered his name so 
illustrious upon Sarmatian soil. 

*It is related that among other feats, this daring horseman would sometimes, while his 
steed was under full gallop, discharge his pistol, throw it in the air, catch it by the barrel, 
and then hurl it in front as if at an enemy. Without checking the speed of his horse, he 
would take one foot from the stirrup and, bending over toward the ground, recover his pistol 
and wheel into line with as much precision as if he had been engaged in nothing but the 
management of the animal, Lossing's Pictorial Field Book of the Peyolution, p. 310. Note, 
New York, 1859. 


Porceiving that his expectations of usisfuliKiss Jit tlic head of 
the cavah'Y, from the very nature of things, could not l)e fully 
realized — that the character of the service was such that his 
troopers were frequently required in detachments as scouting 
]iarties or as escorts, thus — because of the paucity of their 
numl)ers — often preventing united action upon a general 
system — having an intimation that some of the officers of the 
regiments, which had heretofore been acting as indepenih^it 
organizations, could not easily become reconciled to tlu; 
orders of a superior, and he a foreigner, with ideas of drill 
and disci])Iine much more exact than those to which they and 
their men had been accustomed — and behevmg that a remedy 
could not readily be applied without a resort to measures 
which, although at command, he was at this juncture un- 
AvilKng to invoke, of his own accord Pulaski resigned his 
command, and about the middle of March, 1778, returned to 
the main army at Valley Forge. 

This act proves the disinterested disposition of this good 
man. Entrusted with high position, he returned his commis- 
sion s5 soon as his conduct and services in that capacity, in 
his judgment, did not i:>romote perfect harmony and entire 
good will among the advocates of the cause of his adoption — 
so soon as he believed there were other circumstances 
under which his knowledge, experience and influence might 
be more efficiently and acceptably employed. 

At his own suggestion, adopted by Washington and sanc- 
tioned by Congress, Pulaski applied himself with great 
activity to enlisting, equij)ping and disciplining an organization 
of three companies of Horse and three of Infantry, placed to 
a great extent upon an independent footing. This constituted 
the celebrated "Pulaski's Legion," which rendered important 
service during the subsequent operations of the war, espe- 
cially in the Southern campaigns. It Avas recruited mainly 
in Baltimore, and its organization was perfected in that city. 

While at Bethlehem, in the spring of 1778, the presence 
and conduct of Count Pulaski produced such a favorable im- 
pression upon the comnninity, that the Moravian single sis- 
ters, as a testimonial of their grateful appreciation of his ser- 
vices, with their own hands worked for him a banner of 


crimson silk, of fippropriate device, iuid with })atri(jtic wishes 
and fervent blessings committed it to his heroic keeping. The 
poet, Longfellow, has embalnKMl in verse this episode in the 
life of our hero. Receiving that banner with graceful ac- 
knowledgments, Pulaski bore it proudly and in honor at the 
head of his Legion until that day, Avhen, before the lines at 
Savannah, it became 

"His martial cloalv and sliroiul." 
That banner, battle-scarred and faded, hangs in the hall of 
the Maryland Historical Society. It seems to me, Mr. Presi- 
dent, that we Georgians have, perhaps, a better right to it's 
sacred custody. 

In February, 1779, the Count was ordered to South Caro- 
lina. The very day Prevost crossed the Ashley river to com- 
plete his investment of Charleston, Pulaski crossed the 
Cooper river, with his Legion, to assist in the defense of that 
city. In order to check the rapid advance of the British 
forces, and afford the American army time to complete its 
defensive preparations, an expedition against the enemy 
was immediately resolved upon. Although his horses were 
sadly jaded by their long marches, there was no opportunity 
for rest, and Pulaski at once hurled every available trooper 
against the head of the British column. The charge was in 
keeping with the character of the Count who led it — des- 
perately brave — and, during its continuance, upon the 
authority of Dr. Ramsay," Pulaski had several personal en- 
counters with members of the enemy's cavalry, and every- 
where displayed the greatest intrepidity. Coin: Ko watch, 
second in command — a gallant and experienced officer — was 
slain. The shock was so unexpected and vehement, that the 
British column staggered, and then deployed, thus losing the 
golden opportunity of anticipated surprise, while Pulaski 
sullenly retired with his little command within the lines of 
Charleston. When the haughty Prevost, displaying his 
forces, summoned the city to an immediate and unconditional 
surrender, the inhabitants and civil authorities, fearing the 
calamities of a siege and the probable storming of the town, 

*Hi8tory of the Revolution of South Carohna," &c., vol. 11, p, 26. 

Trenton. MDCCLXXXV. 



urged u])()ii the uiilitarj the expediency of a capitnhition. 
Whik'- ihv general suspense was intense*, and tliere apjx'ared 
to be a gr()\\ iiig inclination to accede to the demand of the 
English commander, General M(mltri(^, Count Pulaski and 
Colonel John Laurens went before tlu; C'ouncil and advised 
resistance with such confidence and inspiring eloquence that 
Charleston was spared the mortification of a siirrender, and 
Prevost soon compelled preci})itately to abandon his enter- 

From the immient the attack upon Charleston was fnvs- 
trated and until the arrival of the retreating British forces in 
Savannah, Pulaski — although suffering fi'om frequent attacks 
of climate fever, induced by constant exposure in a malarial 
region — pursued the enemy, hovering near him with his 
legion, and dealing a blow Avherever and whenever even a 
forced opiiortunity presented itself. 

After Prevost had evacuated Carolina, Pulaski — to whom 
had been entrusted the command of the cavalry in the de- 
partment — retired to a ridge about fifty miles northeast of 
Augusta,* where he might secure forage and be within sup- 
porting distance of both Charleston and Augusta. Here he 
received orders to join General Mcintosh at Augusta, and to 
move with him toward Savannah in advance of the army 
under General Lincohi. He was directed to attack the Brit- 
ish outposts and open communication with the French fleet 
under Count D'Estaing, then upon the coast. Before the 
enemy was aware of his presence, Pulaski captured an out- 
post ; and, after several skirmishes, established permanent 
communication with the French at Beaulieu. Gen. Mcintosh 
moved uj) with his command and halted at Milieu's planta- 
tion, three miles from Savannah, where he awaited the arrival 
of General Lincoln. 

And now we turn to the closing chapter in the histor}- of 
this goodly knight. He who had hitherto borne a charmed 
life upon the l)attle field and in dangers oft, was now to tes- 
tify, even by self-sacrifice, his supreme devotion to the noble 
cause of his adoption. It is a proud, although melancholy 
satisfaction, that ours is the soil hallowed by his precious 

*McCairs History ot' Gom-'^'ia, vol. ii, \). '247, Savauiiah, 181G. 


blood — Savaniuili, the city for wliost; liberation he perished. 
The record of his death is brief, but it is sacred. We adopt 
the account of Colonel Paul Bentalou, who — an old man in 
1824 — described himself as one of Pulaski's surviving of- 
ficers — one whose pride it was to have served his country 
under that celebrated commander, indisputably the most 
active and the gi-eatest partisan leader of his time — ^one who 
was by his side when he received his mortal wound, and who 
attended him until that moment when his noble soul depart- 
ed from the gangrened body to re-ascend to its native 

"On the first of September, 1779, Count D'Estaing ap- 
peared on the coast of Georgia with a large fleet and about 
six thousand troops. While cruizing in the West Indies he 
had been informed of the situation of the Southern States ; 
and he now visited this part of the American coast for the 
purpose of co-operating with Lincoln in some signal and 
decisive enterprise. An attack upon Savannah was quickly 
concerted between them. 

"Savannah was neither a fortress nor a walled city. It Avas 
merely a town fortified with batteries, redoubts and abattis. 
When summoned by D'Estaing to surrender the place, Pre- 
vost requested time to deliberate, and this was inconsider- 
ately granted. The interval was employed in introducing 
into the town a considerable reinforcement and in strength- 
ening its defenses. Resistance was then resolved upon. A 
storm or a siege, therefore, became inevitable. The latter 
was preferred. After the necessary preparations, a heavy 
cannonade was opened upon the enemy's works and briskly 
kept up for several days, but without the desired eff"ect. 

"D'Estaing's marine officers remonstrated against his con- 
tinuing to expose so valuable a fleet to the fury of the 
elements at this tempestuous season, or to the possible arrival 
of a superior British naval force, and loudly urged his de- 
parture. An assault was consequently resolved upon. This 
assault was to be made on the right of the British lines. 
Two columns — one French and the other American — were to 
attack at the same time, each a particular redoubt. In the 
rear of the columns the whole cavalry — American and 


French — was to be; wtationed under the command of Count 
Pulaski. Should, as was coiifidontly expected, the redoubts 
be carried and the way opened, that intrepid leader was, with 
these united troops of horse, to enter the place, sword in 
hand, and carry confusion and dismay among the garrison. 
D'Estaing led in person the French corps of attack. Wisli- 
ing to avoid a circuitous advance round a swamp, and sup- 
posing the groimd at the bottom to be sufficiently firm, he 
marched directly through it. The enemy had been infcn-med 
of his plan by spies. They knew the intended point of attack, 
and the direction in whic^h the approach of the assailants was 
to be made. Accordingly they collected all their force where 
it would be required, and, at the first alarm opened a tre- 
mendous and deadly fire. Pulaski, impatient to know when 
he was to act, determined, after securing his cavalry under 
cover as well as the ground would admit, to go forward him- 
self, and called upon Captain Bentalou to accompany him. 
They had proceeded only a small distance when they heard 
of the havoc produced in the swamp by the hostile batteries. 
D'Estaing himself was grievously wounded. Aware of the 
fatal effects which such a disaster was likely to produce on 
the spirits of French soldiers, and hoping that his presence 
would reanimate them, Pvdaski rushed on to the scene of dis- 
order and bloodshed. In his attempt to penetrate to the 
murderous spot, he received a swivel shot m the upper part 
of his right thigh,* and the officer who had accompanied him 
was, while on his way back, wounded by a musket ball. 

"The enterprise upon Savannah was abandoned by the alhed 
armies. The Americans and the French, having witnessed 
each other's zeal and courage, and accpiitting each other of 
any intentional share in this disastrous result, separated in 
perfect harmony. Count D'Estamg reimbarked his troops 
and artillery, and Pulaski with his wounded officer, was con- 
veyed on board the United States l)rig, the Wasp, to go 
round to Charleston. They remained some days in the Sa- 
vannah river ; and, during that time, the most skillful sur- 

* "Follow my Lancors to whom I have t^iven my order of attack," were the final injunctions 
()f Pulaski as he was borne from the field. They were addressed to Col. Horry. 

Gaxdcns' Anecdotes, vol. iii, p. 23. Field's reprint. 


geons in the French fleet attended on Count Pulaski. It was 
found impossible to establish suppuration, and gangrene was 
the consequence. Just as the Wasp got out of the river, 
Pulaski breathed his last, and the corpse immediately became 
so offensive that his officer was comj^elled, though reluctantly, 
to consign to a watery grave all that was now left upon earth 
of his beloved and honored commander.* 

"The Wasp entered the harbor of Clarleston with her flag 
half hoisted. The mournful signal was repeated by all the 
shipping in the port, and all the forts and batteries responded 
to it in the manner usual on occasions of deep and universal 
sorrow. The Governor and Council of South Carolina, and 
the municipal authorities of Charleston, jointly adopted reso- 
lutions to pay to the memory of General Pulaski the most 
respectful and the most splendid funeral honors. A day was 
set apart for the celebration of the obsequies, and the Quar- 
termaster General of the United States at Charleston directed 
to make and to defray all the preparations necessary for that 
melancholy solemnity. The procession was grand, magnifi- 
cent, suited to the occasion. The pall was carried by three 
American and three French officers of the highest grade, fol- 
lowed by the beautiful horse which Pulaski rode when he re- 
ceived his mortal wound, with all the accoutrements, armor 
and dress which he then wore. So immensely large was the 
mournful procession, that it was found necessary to make a 
circuit round the whole city to the Church, where an eloquent 
and impressive discourse was dehvered by the Chaplain of 
the army."t 

This narrative of the heroic death and burial of the gal- 
lant Pole, preptired by a revolutionary officer who shared in 
the dangers of the assault, and was an eye witness of the 
memorable events which then transpired, who — a Captain in 
the Legion — was by his side when he received his mortal 
hurt, and, although himself wounded, never left him until in 
death his honored commander found relief from physical 

♦Compare "Letter from a Gentleman of the General Hospital at Savannah," &c., under date 
November 24, 1779, In vjrhich the writer says, "Pulaski is dead of his Wouuds and was thrown 
overboard on their Passage to Charles Town." 

"Siege of Savannah," p. 81. Albany, 1866. 

f"Pulaski vindicated from an unsupported charge," &c. pp. 28 — 31. Baltimore, 1824. 


suffering — who, with liis o-s\ii eye, beheld the triumph of the 
last eiieuiy ami then saM' the sail rites j)erfornie(l which con- 
signed that precious body to the deep, settles forever in the 
mind of every candid inquirer all doubts respecting the burial 
place of Pidaski.* 

He sleeps where the ebbing tide of our own Savannah 
meets and commingles with the waters of the broad Atlantic. 
Fit resting place for a man of such expansive soul ! He 
sleeps where the praises in honor of his gi'eat deeds sung by 
the waves of the Savannah as they kiss the shore consecrated 
by his memories, are caught up by the billows of ocean and 
joyfully repeated in wider circles in more heroic strains. He 
sleeps where the ambient air — fragi-ant with the perfumes of 
a land whose freedom he died to achieve — tells to Atlantic 
breezes the story of his fame, that they too, in glad acclaim, 
may answer back to the farthest coast the greatness of his 
name. By a strange coincidence, the l)eloved of Mars rests 
in the embrace of Neptune. 

"Sleep on, sleep on ! Above tliy corse 

Tlie winds their Sabbatli keep ; 

The waves are round thee and thy ))reast 

Heaves with the heavinij; deeji. 

* * ' ♦ * 

Sleep on. sleep on ; the glittering depths 
Of f)eean's eoral eaves 
Are th}"^ bright lu-n ; — thy recinieni 
The nuisie of its waves." 

If it be true that 

"We live in deeds, not years — in thoughts, not breaths, 
In feelings, not in figures on a dial;" 

"He most lives 

Who tliinks most — feels the noblest, acts the best," 

if not hoary hairs, l)ut a bright rec(n-d of ennobling acts is the 
true index of a well spent existence, and a sure pledge that sped 
moments have not passed without leaving their proper mark, 
then indeed did Pulaski — although yielding up his l)rave 
s})irit in the noontide of his age — accomplish his earthly mis- 
sion nobly and in honor. His superior endowments, his zeal, 

*The assertion that he was interred at Greenwich is historically incorrect. The "hal- 
lowed ground" marked by the "majestic palmetto and gliissy-lcaved holly," and traditi<inally 
known as "Pulaski's tirave," never constituted the teniijoniry resting place of our hero. Hia 
bones do not lie beneath tlie beautitul nionunieiit in Monterey square. 


liis military skill and intrepidity, liis generosity, his manly 
virtues and his siiblime devotion to the cause of lil)(irty, hoth 
in his own country and in the land of his adoption, constitute 
him a beau-ideal of the patriot, the philanthropist and the 
soldier."' His access to the temple of fame was obtained 
through the temple of virtue — consequently his reputation is 

AMien the Polish King heard of his death, he exclaimed, "Pu- 
laski has died as he lived — a hero, l)ut an enemy of Kings," 

While that king and his associates are sleeping in tombs 
whose every memory is suggestive of unholy acts of violence 
and oppression, the muse of history tearfully, yet with proud 
satisfaction, inscribes upon a bright i^age in that book where- 
in are treasured in living characters the achievements of the 
good and great, the name of him — the countryman of Kos- 
ciuszko, the companion of LaFayette and the friend of 
Washington — who will l^e honored for all time as a brave Imt 
unfortunate defender of Sarmatian hberty, as a martyr in the 
cause of American independence. "The triumphs of might are 
transient, they pass away and are forgotten ; the sufferings 
of right are graven deepest on the chronicles of nations." 

It matters little where the virtuous dead may lie entombed, 
their names belong to history, their bright examples are the 
emulation of men of every age, and their good deeds the 
heritage of succeeding generations. And yet, it is most 
seemly that impressive monuments should be erected, in 
suitable places, in commemoration of their virtues by those 
who are the special recipients of the legacies bequeathed by 
their priceless exertions. Not that we would have the recol- 
lection of dead heroes simply 

"To exist in stone and be but pyramidally extant," 
but it is eminently proper that communities should embody 
their respect and admiration for departed greatness in visible 
shape, thereby imparting to the nobiHty of other days 
"A local habitation and a name." 

■ *"Tb()se who knew him intimately spoke highly of the sublimity of his virtue, and the 
constancy of his friendship." Lee's Memoirs, vol. i, p. 109, note. Philadelphia, 1812. 

Cien'l Lincoln in his letter to Congress under date of October 22, 1779. alludes to him as 
the late intrepid (!ouut Pulaski." 

"The Count's valor and active zeal on all occasions have done him great honor." (Jen'l 


Monniiients arc comiecthif^ links iietween tlie present and 
the ])ast. They denote a "just and grateful appreciation of 
the virtues and services they are designed to commemorate, 
and stand as silent yet impressive teachers of the noblest 
lessons." Around them gather the memories of former 
achievements, and in them dwells a consciousness of the 
glories of the nation whose history has been dignified by 
such exhibitions of worth and excellence. They stimulate 
children to a generous emulation of the brave deeds of tlu^ir 
fathers, and incite to action. They foster martial spirit and 
engender ennobling thought. Among brethren of a common 
country they form, in times of peace, bonds of union; in war, 
the pledges of heroic conduct. 

Peoples, whose exploits have been famous, acknowledging 
the value and the influence of these national tributes, have 
invoked the aid of enduring marble in perpetuating the recol- 
lections of memorable men and events. When the Athenian 
statesman sought to arouse the slumbering energies of his 
countrymen, he portrayed the manhood of their ancestors 
and pointed to the majestic Acropolis rendered immortal by 
the trophies of their valor and art. For five hundred years 
after tlie establishment of their independence, did Swiss 
peasants assemble on the fields of Morgarten and Laupen, 
spreading garlands over the gi-aves of their fallen warriors, 
praying for the souls of those who had died for their country, 
and taking fresh courage for the future. Yes ! monuments 
are, except in arbitrary governments, the physical embodi- 
ments of the purest memories and proudest traditions of a 
people. They are at once the exponents of national grati- 
tude and the pledges of public devotion to the great principles 
illustrated by the hves of those in whose honor they are 
erected. Blessed is that people whose land is filled with 
nol)le monuments and precious graves. In them a nation 
lives, and that liolily. A country without them is a place 
without names, and a home devoid of moral grandeur. 
Think you, my countrymen, no matttn- how dark the present, 
or how unsatisfactory the tokens of the future, that Confed- 
erate memories can ever die so long as we carry in our heaits 
and teacli our children to venerate the sublime characters 


and acts of Robert E. Lee, Albert Sidney Jolmston, Stone- 
wall Jackson, Joseph E. Johnston, and the noble compatriots 
who united with them in the leadership of our armies? 

Time which 

* "lays his hand 
On pyramids of brass and ruins quite 
Wliat all the fond artificers did think 
Immortal workmanship," 
can bring neither shadow nor obUvion to these illustrious 
names. Their graves will be the consecrated places of our 
land, and around the monuments which will arise in their 
honor, shall bloom sweetest flowers planted and tenderly 
nurtured by our noble women — flowers redolent, of the sanc- 
tity of their tears and hopes and pure devotion. Thither 
will manly hearts repair most solemnly to renew their alle- 
giance, and there will unborn generations learn the truth of 
history and reverence the cause which enlisted such exalted 

By a vote of Congress it was resolved that a monument 
should be erected to the memory of Brigadier Count Pulaski. 
That monument has never been built, and the vote still stands 
a public recognition of the services and deserts of this brave 
man, and an illustration of a Republic's forgetfulness and in- 
gratitude. It was reserved for Georgia — the youngest of the 
original thirteen Confederated States, for Savannah — the 
city for whose Kberation he shed his blood — to redeem the 
pledge given by the general Government and bear honorable 
testimony to her appreciation of the services and character 
of Pulaski. 

Invoking the aid of an eminent scidptor to embody their 
gi-atitude and respect in a permanent, artistic memorial, the 
citizens of Savannah, with imposing ceremonies,* dedicated to 
the memory of this distinguished Pole, in Monterey square, a 
monument which in purity of conception, symmetry of form, 
and varied attractions, rises a gem of art. 

Often in the pale moonlight, when the hum of the city was 
hushed and the great heart of human life lay almost pulseless 

* See "Aadress delivered ou layiug the corner stone of a Monument to Pulaski in the City 
of Savannah, October 11, 1853, by Henry Williams, Esq., with an account of the ceremonies 
upon that occasion, and at the complefion of the monument, January 8th, 18r)5," etc. Savan- 
nah, 1H55. 

410 CASIMIR PllLASld. 

ill the embrace of the twin sister of death — have we Hngered 
near this stately shaft pointing upward to the beautiful stars 
as amid the limitless regions of far-otf space like so many 
vestal virgins they kept each its eternal flame brightly'burning 
this side the mansions of the Blest, and felt our souls enno- 
bled by the silent eloquence and the lessons of immortality 
which were born of the solemn hour and inculcated by the 
teachings of this sacred moiniment. In the glare of day we 
have never passed beneath its shadow without pausing to 
give expression to those brave thoughts which its presence 
inspires. The morning sun beams kindly upon its fair pro- 
portions, mfusing into every sculptured line new life and 
beauty. His evening rays Unger in soft radiance about its 
summit. The storm in its wild career ruffles not a single 
jjluine of that puissant eagle — the symbolic bird of Poland 
and America — as he sedulously guards the united emblems 
of Poland and Georgia. The lightning in its erratic course 
harms not the Goddess of Liberty, as fi"oni her lofty pedestal 
she keejjs her serene and sleepless vigils. This monument 
lifts its pure form within rifle shot of the spot where fell the 
illustrious Captain whose virtues it commemorates. 

Ever repeating the story of departed greatness, ever re- 
minding us of the glorious recollections of our revolutionary 
period, ever inspiring the men of our times with veneration 
for the past and hope for the future — by its presence en- 
kindling a generous emulation of that disinterested devotion 
to, and that glorious love of truth and right and freedom 
which glowed in the breast and distiiigiiislied the career of 
the illustrious Pulaski, it will stand, amid the mutations of 
years and the revolutions of States, a noble expression of a 
people's gratitude, more vocal in the deathless memories 
which cluster about it than the far-famed statue of Memnon. 

"So, when the good and great go down. 

Their statues shall arise, 
To crowd those temples of our own. 

Our fadeless memories. 
And when the sculptured marble falls 

And Art goes in to die, 
Our forms shall live in holier halls, 

The Pautlieon of the sky." 






JULY 24, 1871. 


Gentlemen of the Georgia Hhtoiical and Savannah Lilirary 
Societies, now consolidated as the Georgia Historical Society: 
As tlie intellect is developed by advanced civilization, and 
consequent larger culture of it, it begins to expand the sphere 
of its observation. Man, in his savage state, uses his brain 
for little besides observing and noting the ordinary phenomena 
of life which are occurring immediately around him. From 
that point at which the external senses are almost alone the 
media by which the grey cells of the brain are called upon 
to act, to that art which, through growth and development 
by letters, by study, by that incomprehensible function, 
thought, man, emerged fi'om a savage state, has become a 
civilized, educated being, more fit to claim having been made 
in the image of his Maker — what a vast interval ! Between 
two such intellectual extremes, between a Bushman and a 
Cuvier, the difference is greater as to mind than is the differ- 
ence materially between a Chimpanzee and the lowest grade 
of the genus homo. 

Among the longings of an intellectually developed people, 
is that of learning the past as well as the present. Advancing 
civilization brought into action a mode of preserving the 
memories of the past with greater capacity and more accuracy, 
viz : the art of letters; which, however rude and incomplete, 
constituted the first step towards the development of the 
human mind. The art of printing formed a proper apex to 
such a base. 

But even with all the profusion of material afforded by the 
multiplication of documents,and its wide spread dissemination, 
it is almost wonderful how this material is allowed to go to 
waste, and become as lost and unavailable as the precious 


Sil)ylliuo lojives refused by Nuiua. To avoid lliis waste, to 
preserve this material, liljraries, })ublic and private, were 
formed ages before tlie invention of ])rinting. But their 
formation and cohection were both more difficult and more 
expensive than has been the case suice tlie art of printing has 
been practised. Since that, as communities have become 
stably estal)lished, a library has always been deemed a 
desideratum amongst them. 

A public library combines economy with usefukiess. Hence 
enlightened and public minded men have generally turned 
their attention to building up and fostering such an institution 
in their respective communities. 

Georgia is the youngest of the Old Thirteen States. While 
her jurisdiction (confirmed by the treaty of peace between 
England and the United States, of which she was one after 
the Revolutionary war), extended to the Mississippi river, at 
that time her actual settlements did not pass west of the 
Altamaha and its western tributary the Ocmulgee. In short, 
Georgia was literally a fi-ontier State, with a sparse population 
between the Savannah river and the Altamaha. But Savannah 
and Augiista were established towns, and a flood of emigration 
set in on the then thinly inhabited State, mostly from Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina and South Carohna, in the vicinity of 
Augusta; but from more northern sources, about Savannah, 
attracted, no doubt, as the latter were by the commercial 
advantages of this city from its favored situation. 

Our late lamented President, Bishop Elliott, in an address 
before you but a short time prior to his death, sketched a 
picture of the literary society of Savannah in the first quarter 
of this century, and paid a merited tribute to the great intel- 
ligence and high culture of the individuals composing it. 

In an address delivered by me before the Georgia Medical 
Society three years ago, I endeavored to pay a tribute to the 
exertions of my medical predecessors in the cause of medical 
science and public hygiene. 

In my present hasty effort to bring to mind and to fix 
in your recollections, the names of those who some sixty 
years since associated themselves together to found a public 
library for the city of Savannah, I am confined to no 


class, for I tiiid iuii()iiji;st tlieiu men of all professions and 
callings — the clergyman, the lawyer, the ])hysician, the mer- 
chant, the plain citizen. 

Among the seventy -one gentlemen who ni(;t at the Exchange 
on the 6th of January, 1809, I find the names of the Rev. 
Henry KoUock, Dr. Lemuel KoUock, John M. Berrien, Dr. J. 
Bond Read, Charles Harris, Dr. John Gumming, Dr. John 
Grimes, George Woodruff, James M. Wayne, Wm. T. Williams, 
Alex. Telfair, Jas. Bilbo, Dr. J. E. Wliite, Wm. B. Bulloch, 
George Jones, A. G. Oemler, D. T. Bartow, Alfred Cuthbert, 
John Bolton, William Gaston, A. Low, J. P. WilHamson, Dr. 
Wm. Parker, Hugh McCall, Thos. Young. They and the 
remainder of the seventy-one have all passed from the world, 
but their work remains for our benefit. And may I not remark 
here that the assemblage of seventy-one prominent citizens, 
out of so small a population as Savannah then possessed, is 
a proof of an interest in literary matters at that period, which 
has )iot grown with our growth and strengthened with our 
strength '? 

On the Gth March, 1809, a Constitution and By-Laws were 
adopted, and Dr. John Cummiug was elected Chairman and 
A. G. Oemler, Librarian, and here my connection with the 
Georgia Medical Society as Secretary, some thirty-four years 
since, enables me to fill a gap m the recorded history of the 
Savannah Library Society, as I then learned the facts from 
Dr. Bartow, Mr. Oemler and others. 

At the time of the organization of the Savannah Lil)rary 
Society, the Georgia Medical Society had already been 
incorporated. The eastern portion of the Chatham Academy 
building, built on the three eastern lots on the northwest 
corner of South Broad and Drayton, was only partially 
finished. The Library Society and the Georgia Medical 
Society agreed to furnish the second story room in the centre 
of the building just under the cupola, at their joint expense, 
on condition of their occupying it as joint tenants, free of all 

I recollect the room distinctly, as it Avas in the winter of 
1819, before I left Savannah for the North, to be put to 


■ ilf^ ADDl'.KSS OF I;I('HA1;D D. AliNdl.D, M. D. 

T1h> Cniiijn'l ;iiuT Exliibition room of tlie Aciulciiiy was on 
tlu> story ii})ove the Librury. The second story, on wliicli 
the Lil)r!iry was situated, was reached by stairs on the south 
side, and exterior to the main building. 

The stairs to reach the chapel (where all the schools used 
to unite for prayer), were in the southwestern jiortion of this 
second story, as w^as also a door comnumicating with the 
room immediately west, then occupied as a school room. 
The rooms to the east and west of the chapel were also occ^^- 
pied as school rooms. Boys and girls w^ere then mixed in 
the same school. 

Where then, you will ask, was the library ? I answer, on 
the second floor mentioned before, enclosed by a partition, 
the lower part of which was solid, and the upper part com- 
posed of rounded slats, through the interstices of w^hich 
light and air were admitted from the southern door and 
windows, and a passageway was left l)etween this partition 
and the southern wall of the building, to reach, as indicated 
before, the chapel aud the western school room. 

The distinguished Henry Kollock, D. D., for so many years 
the idoHzed pastor of the Independent Presbyterian Church, 
was then President of the Society, which had been regularly 
incorporated in the year 1815. 

The Hon. John Macpherson Berrien succeeded Dr. John 
Gumming, Chairman, in 1810, by the title of President, and 
continued in that office until 1818, when lie was succeeded 
by the Kev. Dr. Kollock. 

Dr. Henry Kollock was no ordinary man. He was, I 
believe, a native of New Jersey. He was a ripe scholar, a 
learned divine, a most eloquent preacher. His manners were 
of the most refined character. His influence over his congre- 
gation, while absolute, from his rare combination of talents 
and attainments with exquisite social polish, was beneficent 
and healthy. I have it from good authority that he was the 
first to origiiuxte the library. 

His personal appearance was everything that was elegant 
and dignified. It is stcu'eotyped on my remembrance. The 
massive head, as can be seen in his engraved })ortraits extant 
amongst VIS, set on a muscular frame of medium height, 


clothed with a Wack coat of no poculiar (th^iical cut, hut with 
the white cravat; knee breeches, with a buckle at the side, 
black silk stockings clothing a symmetrical leg, and the pedal 
extremities resting in shoes, on the top of which shone a 
bright buckle. 

As he used to walk into the school room, in his capacity as 
trustee of the Chatham Academy, every little heart was 
stirred tumultuously, but was soon reassured by his kind, 
benignant and paternal manner. 

Mr. Oender was then the librarian. Many now in this city 
will recollect him personally. He was a German, a man of 
intelligence and education, (although very eccentric in many 
particulars,) one of the originators of the Library Society, and 
always its warm fiiend and supporter. After the death of 
Dr. KoUock, the Presidents were in succession, Alexander 
Telfair, John C. Nicoll, E. W. Habersham, A. Telfair, W. W. 
Gordon, Cosmo P. Eichardsone, M. H. McAllister. 

AVhen I returned from Philadelphia as a young doctor, in 
1830, I found the library transferred to the ground floor of 
the centre building, immediately under the old Library Eoom. 
This was also occupied jointly by the Georgia Medical 
Society, and from this time I speak by the card. 

The Society languished. In 1S37, nearly collapsed. In 
1838 a new impetus was given it, principally through the 
exertions of Captain Wm. Crabtree, Jr., and Homes Tupper, 

In 1838 the following officers were elected, none having 
been elected in 1837 : 

President— M. H. McAllister. 
Vice President — Wm. Crabtree, Jr. 
Secretary and Treasurer — W. Morel. 

Managers — Rev. George White, R. W. Pooler, A. G. Oemler, R. D. 
Arnold, Homes Tupper. 

The life and soul of this Board was the late Homes Tup- 
per, Esq., a Northerner by birth, but for many years a resi- 
dent here, and a successful merchant. He was ably assisted 
by Capt. Crabtree, also a Northerner, an old resident antl a 
successful merchant. Both had retired from active business, 



and tliey devoted tlieir leisure con (niiorc to tlie rclnihUitdUo)! 
of tlie Libian-. 

It was determined to remove it from the Academy to a 
more business part of tlie city, and to attach a reading room 
to it, and to keej) it open all day. It was moved to the u])per 
story of the tenement on the northwest corner of AVhitakt'r 
street and Bay lane. 

In A]:>ril, 188(S, Mr. Wm. Morel resigned as Secretary, 
Treasurer and Librarian, and the late Capt. Wm. Bee was 
elected in his place. 

In 1839, the same officers were elected, except that Mr. J. 
Wray was substituted as Manager, in })lace of Rev. George 

It was in the Spring of this year that a new movement Avas 
inaugurated to estal)lish another Societ}, for the purpose of 
rescuing fi'om oblivion the records of the past, and furnishing 
authentic data for the History of Georgia. The origin of this 
Society is given so accurately and fairly by Dr., now the lit. 
Rev. Bishop Stevens, of Philadelphia, that I shall quote it as 
given by him in the appendix to the 2d vol. of the Georgia 
Historical Collection : 

•'The neressity of some historical institution had lf)n2: been felt by 
literary men, bnt no re<;;nlar efPort had ever been made for its establish- 

"The splendid autf)<j;raiiliioal colleetion of I. K. Tefft, Esq., together 
with the many valuable documents in his possession pertaiiiinji; to the colo- 
nial and revohitionary history of Georgia, suggested the importance of such 
a Society, and it was immediately determined by Mr. TefFt and Mr. Wm. ]>. 
Stevens to proceed without delay to its formation. This measure was first 
decided on towards the close of April, 1839, and at the suggestion of Mr. 
Tefft the latter endeavored to prepare the way and awaken attention to the 
subject by two articles on this topic, which appeared in the Savannah 
Georgian of May following. These individuals were now joined by a third, 
Kicliard D. Arnold, M. 1)., and after many conferences as to the best 
method of proceedure, they resolved to address the following circular to 
those whom they thought would be interested in their design, [p. ;i26 "Jd vol J 

On the 24th May, 1839, a meeting was held at the Savan- 
nah Library Society's room, in pursuance of a call made 
through that circular, which was signed by I. K. Tefl't, R. D.' 


Arnold and W. B. Stevens, for the purpose of organizing; an 
Historical Society for the State of Georgia. 

There were present Judge Charles S. Henry, Hon. John 
McPherson Berrien, Hon. Jas. M. Wayne, M. H. McAllister, 
George Jones, Dr. Wm. Bacon Stevens, Wm. Neyle Haber- 
sham, Dr. J. F. Posey, Wm. Crabtree, Jr., Dr. Wllham A. 
Caruthers, A. A. Sniets, Solomon Cohen, A. G. Oemler, C. 
McArdell, John E. Ward, Dr. K. D. Arnold, Judge John C. 
Nicoll, Dr. Edward Coppee, Dr. P. M. Kollock, Hon. Robert 
M. Charlton, Charles Stephens, M. Meyes, H. K. Preston, I. 
Tefi't, George Jones Kollock. 

To this list were added the names of twenty-seven gentle- 
men who were not able to be present, but who had signified 
their desire to co-operate and Ijecome members of the 

A constitution was submitted to the meeting, which was 
read and referred to a committee for revisal and to- report at 
an adjourned meeting. 

The adjourned meeting took place on the 4tli of June, 1889, 
and the Society was fully organized by the adoption of a 
constitution and by-laws, and the election of the following 
ofiicers : 

President — Hon. John McPherson Berrien. 
Vice Presidents — Hon. Jas. M. Wayne, Hon. Wm. B. Bulloch. 
Corresponding Secretary — I. K. Tefft. 
Recording Secretary — Wm. Bacon Stevens. 
Treasurer — George W. Hunter. 
Librarian — Henry Kirk Preston. 

Curators — Wm. Thorne Williams, Chas. S. Henry, John C. Nicoll, Wm. 
Law, Richard D. Arnold. Robt. M. Chariton. Matthew Hall McAllister. 

Thus was the Georgia Historical Society fau'ly launched 
on the stream of time. 

The Society immediately set to work to collect fi-om every 
available source every document, MSS or printed, which could 
ilhistrate the history of Georgia. At the session of the Georgia 
Legislature of 1839, the Society was duly incorporated, and 
it was made the custodian of the copies of the MSS in the 
State paper office at London, relating to the early history of 
Georgia, which had been transcribed by the Rev. C. W. 
Howard, as agent of the State. 

422 ADDltESS or IUCHARD D. AllNOLD, M. D. 

On the 12tli of Febniarv, 1840, the first anniversary was 
celebrated witli great enthusiasm. 

The oration was cleHvered by the Hon. Wm. Law, a worthy 
scion of the hbtnty loving peoi)le of Liberty county. It was 
exhaustive of the subject, and may claim to be the first 
historical offering from the Georgia Historical Society. 

It was delivered at the Baptist Church on Chippewa square, 
at that time ministered to by the Rev. J. G. Binney. 

It would be tedious to trace minutely the progress of the 
Society in its historical publications. So far it has issued 
but tw o volumes, but through its intercourse with otlier his- 
torical societies, it has accumulated a vast fund of historical 
lore, for future reference and study. Dr. Wm. Bacon Stevens 
was made the historiogi-apher of the Society, and all the 
materials in its possession were placed at his disposal, to 
enable him to write a history of Georgia. 

It is principally in relation to the union of the two Societies 
that I have consented to address you to-night, for that union 
was the salvation of both Societies. 

The removal of the books to the present situation was 
deemed a proper time to review the history of the two 
Societies, the union of which has been productive of so much 
benefit to our connnunity, and which, I trust, is destined to 
extend still wider its sphere of usefulness. 

From my long connection with l)oth Societies, you have 
selected me to deliver, not an oration, but a compilation of 
facts, in relation to them, which may be made a matter of 
reference and of permanent record, "footprints in the sands 
of Time," for those who are to succeed us in the future. 

From the time of its organization in 1839, up to 1841, the 
Georgia Historical Society continued to hold its meetings in 
the room of the Savannah Library Society, on the northwest 
corner of Bay lane and Whitaker street. It was the reading- 
room of the Library Society. This was done free of rent up 
to the first of February, 1843, when the Georgia Historical 
Society rented the room for its exclusive use. 

In November, 1842, it was determined to petition the City 
Council for the grant of a lot on which to erect a hall for the 
Society. I may state here, that this jjetition was gi-auted, 


and a lot in LaFayette ward, on Liberty strcu^t, was set apart 
for the Society, and aftc^rwards deeded in fee simple for 
purposes hereafter to be detailed. 

In the sjDring of the year 1845, the attention of the Society 
was called by the President, the Hon. James M. Wa3-nc, to 
the eligibility of what was known as the Custom House lot, 
which was owned by the United States Government, and was 
then covered by the debris of the l)rick building which had 
been burned in the great fire of 1820. 

During his judicial sojourn at Washington, Judge Wayne 
had opened the subject of a purchase to the authorities there, 
and he was formally authorized by the Society to act in the 

The Society continued to meet at the room of the Savannah 
Library Society. In January, 1846, Dr. Arnold offered a 
resolution as to the expediency of obtaining new rooms. At 
the same time Mr. Hodgson oifered a resolution as to "the 
practicability of })urcliasing the shares of the Savannah 
Library Society for the use of the Georgia Historical Society." 

On the 11th of May, 1846, further action was taken in 
relation to the purchase of the Custom House lot, and 
Council was petitioned to make the lot granted the Society a 
fee simple one, in order that the Society might dispose of it 
and apply the proceeds to the payment for the lot j)roposed 
to be bought. The City Council did so, and the proceeds of 
the sale of that lot was the nucleus from Avhicli eventually was 
developed the hall of the Georgia Historical Society, now 
standing on Bryan street, opposite the Bank of the State of 

On the next anniversary, the 12tli of February, 1847, the 
Society met at tlieii- new rooms in Owens' building, on John- 
son's (better known as monument) square. It had been under 
the same roof with the Savannah Library Society for nearly 
eight years, and certainly had but a pecarious pecuniary 
foothold. What was wanting in funds was made up by energy 
and perseverance. 

On June 14th, 1847, it w^as determined to purchase the 
Custom House lot, and means were- ordered to be taken to 
raise the money. 


Ill the iiicMU time tlu^ union of the two Societies had not 
IxH'ii lost si^lit of. The ground was ready for the seed. The 
Library Society had Hterally sheltered the Georgia Historical 
Society for nearly eight years. Most of the shareholders in 
the former Avere also members of the Georgia Historical 
Society. It was the predominant feeling that the sphere of 
action of both societies woidd be widely extended thereby, 
and their usefulness consequently increased. 

The f(dlowing extract from the minutes of June 14, 1847, 
will ex})lain itself : 

"Tlif President (Hon. Jas. M. Wayne) stated that, acting on a sntrncstion 
formerly made, he had proposed to the Savannah Library Society to form a 
union with tliis. A conmiittee, consistingof Messrs. Wm. Crabtiee, Homes 
Tujiper and SoL Cohen, had been appointed by that Society to confer witli 
any wiiich might be ai)pointed by this." 

Dr. Arnold offered the foUowdng, which Avas adopted : 

Resolved, That the President appoint a committee of three, liimself to be 
one, to confer with the Committee of the Savannah Lil»rary Society, \\ ith 
full powers to negotiate a union of the two Societies, and that they rei)ort 
at an ensuing meeting. 

The Chair appointed Messrs. Smets and Harden. 

The two committees met and agreed upon a plan of union, 
which w as ratified by the Savannah Library Society at a 
meeting held on the 17th June, 1847, and by the Georgia 
Historical Society at a called meeting held July 12, 1847. 
Certain rights were reserved by the Library Society in case 
of the non-fulfilment by the Georgia Historical Society of 
certain conditions ; but all the conditions imposed, and all 
the obligations entered into, have been fulfilled, and as the 
union has lasted without a ripple for twenty-four years, it 
may be fairly considered indissoluble. 

The Georgia Historical Society had the bird, but it had no 
cage to put in it ; it had a library, but no room to put it in. 
The lot had been purchased for fifteen hundred dollars. 
Private subscriptions for the purpose of erecting a hall were 
set on foot, and liberally filled up. A plan submitted by Mr. 
Norris was adopted, and the building, as it now stands, was 


erected by him. The Society took possession of it in June, 

The books of the Savannali Library Society were moved 
thither, and with those of the Georgia Historical Society, 
placed in the lower room as a library room, where they 
remained for over two years, when the upper room was chosen 
for a library room, and it has remained so until this "new 
departure" which we commemorate to-night. 

In the fall of 1849 the outstanding debts amounted to 
$1,400. The late Dr. Jas. P. Screven generously advanced 
the sum at the rate of seven per cent., to be repaid at the 
convenience of the Society. 

In May 1850, six hundred dollars were paid on this note. 
The Society now began to prosper. The low^er room was 
rented out, and there was no pressure for the payment of the 
debt due Dr. Screven. 

The library was thrown open to subscribers, and it also 
continued to be increased by new purchases. The contribu- 
tion of the Savannah Library Society was no mean one, 
amounting to upwards of 2,500 volumes, including a great 
many standard works, whose value time will never destroy. 

Matters proceeded along smoothly, without anything 
particular to note, until the anniversary meeting of February 
12, 1852, at which time they were diversified by the following 
episode, when the then Recording Secretary read to the 
meeting the followmg letter, addressed to the Hon. James M. 
Wayne, President: 

Savannah, February 12, 1852. 

Bear Sir : — I propose, with the permission of the Society over which 
you preside, to cancel the mortgage laeld by me on its lot and improvements 
on Bryan street. 

This day being the anniversary of the Society, presents an appropriate 
occasion for the performance of an act which will free it from debt and 
enable it to extend the sphere of its usefulness. I have the honor to be, 
very respectfully, yours, James P. Screven. 

The sincere thanks of the Societj* were returned to Dr. 
Screven for his generous gift, (amounting to $800 00), and he 
w^as unanimously elected an honorary life member. Dr. 
Screven had originally subscribed $200 00. 


From that day, the Society has been entirely free from 
debt, with a handsome pr()i)ert3' in real estate and books. 

There is but little worthy of any particular attention until 
the close of the war and after the city had passed from under 
military rule, except the deaths of three distinguished mem- 
bers: A. A. Smets, Esq., known for his literary taste and 
splendid private library, Avhich ranked him as a bibliopholist 
of the first class; I. K. Tefft, Esq., the original point 
from which our Society started, its real "foiis et origo," and 
the Hon. Chas. S. Henry, for many years a Judge of . the 
Superior Court of Georgia, and an original member of the 
Society, for some years its President, and always active in its 

Suitable tributes to their respective memories will be found 
on the records of the Society, but it is not in the pro^dnce of 
this address to dilate on such themes. 

During the war many new^ members joined the Society, a 
majority of whom, in spite of the ravages of w^ar, still remain 
on our hst. 

On the 12tli of February, 1865, the great and good Bishop 
Elliott was elected President. 

The city remained under military rule until November, 
1865, and every business, every calling, felt, more or less, the 
tender grip of the iron hand kept on a prostrate and con- 
quered people, long after peace had been officially proclaimed. 

Civil government was then established, municipally, and 
most fortunately for the prosperity of Savannah, has continued 
up to the present time. 

The influence of Bishop Elliott soon began to be felt in the 
action of the Society. A new literary impulse was given to 
the Society. He recognized the fact that our joint Societies 
had a high duty to perform in selecting a good Kbrary. 

While it was, and is, our duty to collect material for the 
history of the late great contest between the Northern States 
and the cotton groAving States, this is not the time for pub- 
he ation. 

The torrent of ignorance, falsehood, and malignancy which 
still — after more than six years of peace, of absolute sub- 
mission to events, of unqualified submission to defeat on the 


part of the cotton States — continues to pour forth from the 
accredited organs of those who rule over this country, proves 
that the time has not yet, at this date, arrived for us to do 
anything more than accumuhite authentic materials for trust- 
worthy histories of that eventful war, and the causes which 
led to it. 

Those who come after us have a high and holy historic 
task before them. May they worthily fulfill it. 

The extensive reading, the exquisite taste, the fine judg- 
ment of Bishop Elliott, rendered him peculiarly fit to give an 
impulse to the Society after our common disasters. And he 
succeeded, and the impetus given it by him is still felt. His 
sudden death is too recent not to be recollected by most of 
you. He was a loss bewailed by a whole community, for in 
the ordinary course of nature it might well have been hoped 
that he would have been spared for many years to guide us 
by his precepts — to enlighten us by the rays of his intellect. 
Let us endeavor to emulate his example in all the walks of 
life which he so signally adorned. 

I will not detain you by reciting recent events, which are, 
or ought to be, known to all of you. 

It has been determined to change the location of the library 
to a more central portion of the city, in order to afii'ord a 
more easy access to its rich stores, and thereby invite an 
extended patronage from the public. In time, it is hoped that 
the funds of the Society will be increased so as to permit the 
erection of a large hall in the central portion of our city. 

In the mean time, this Society ofiers to the public a choice 
and well selected library for its use. Within the last five 
years it has received a large accession of books of the first 
character in arts, science, literature, history. All the leading 
periodicals of both continents are taken, and afi'ord in them- 
selves an inducement to join the Society, even if one is 
disinclined to severer studies. 

This city is too small for divided efforts in a library hue. 
All the efforts within our limits should be concentrated on 
one point. It has long been a cherished plan with many 
members to join a reading room to our library and to keep 
open at night. But the limited number of our members 


forbids this, as we cannot accomplish this and also the gi-eat 
object of accumulating a fine library with our comparatively 
slender means, and of the two I am free to say that, if I nnist 
choose, I prefer the permanent, easily preserved book to the 
perishable newspaper. Any one who has attempted to file 
newspapers will comprehend me. 

Not that I do not value them highly, and I know of nothing 
more mstructive and more amusing than a regular file of old 
newspajjers, particularly those of one's residence. But even 
when bound, they are difficult for reference, diffuse, mixed 
with advertisements whose time for utility has passed; in 
short, excellent for the historiographer, but not alluring to the 
general reader. 

Gentlemen of the Georgia Historical and Savannah Library 
Societies: Although many years have elapsed since the labors 
of your respective Societies commenced, and you have had 
many obstacles to encounter, although each at certain periods 
languished "almost to entire inaction, you have recuperated, 
you have had new blood infused into your circulation, you 
have girded up your loins for renewed action. Go on; fulfil 
your double duty, gather materials for history and pubhsh 
them at the proper time; fiU your shelves with the choicest 
and most select books on all subjects. Spread out a full 
literary feast and invite the public, young and old, to come 
and partake of it. 




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